Hm pp slides_ch1 (1)


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Hm pp slides_ch1 (1)

  1. 1. W. K. Hoy © 2003, 2008, 2011 Chapter 1 The School as a Social System
  2. 2. W. K. Hoy © 2003, 2008, 2011 What is Organizational Theory? A set of interrelated concepts, assumptions, and generalizations that describes and explains patterns of behavior in organizations. Elements of Theory: Concepts Generalizations Assumptions Purposes of Theory: Provide an explanation of how things generally work. Guide research Guide practice Hypotheses: Conjectural statements that explain relationships. Use to test theories. Guide research Scientific Knowledge: Propositions supported by systematic research. Purpose of Science: To test theory and to provide reliable explanation. Chapter 1: The School as a Social System
  3. 3. W. K. Hoy © 2003, 2008, 2011 Theory Figure 1.1: Theory-Research Relation (©Hoy 2007) Concepts Concepts Hypotheses Empirical Testing Principles Assumptions And Generalizations Variables
  4. 4. W. K. Hoy © 2003, 2008, 2011 I. Rational-Systems Perspective: A Machine Model Scientific Management (The Beginning) Rational-Systems Perspective Frederick Taylor-Scientific Management •Time and Motion Studies •Standardization •Exception Principle •Division of Labor •Span of Control Henri Fayol-Functions of Administration •Planning •Organizing •Commanding •Coordinating •Controlling Luther Gulick--Functions of the Executive •POSDCoRB (A Contemporary View of Scientific Management) •Goals--Organizations exist to attain collective goals •Division of Labor for efficiency •Specialization for expertise •Standardization for routine performance •Formalization for uniformity and coordination •Hierarchy for unity of command and coordination •Span of Control for effective supervision •Exception Principle to free superiors from routine •Coordination for administrative effectiveness •Formal Organization is the official blueprint of the structure that guarantees efficiency and effectiveness. The formal organization is the key to organizational effectiveness. Historical Development of Theory and Thought in Administration
  5. 5. W. K. Hoy © 2003, 2008, 2011 II. Natural-Systems Perspective: An Organic Model Human Relations (The Beginning) Mary Parker Follett Taylor antagonist and human relations advocate Hawthorne Studies •Illumination Studies--three studies •Elton Mayo--more studies(1927-32) •Hawthorne Effect Informal Organization •Norms •Grapevine •Informal leaders •Cliques Informal Norms “No squealing” “No rate busting” “No chiseling” “Be a regular guy” Contemporary Natural System (Human Resources View) •Survival--organizations are more than instruments for goal attainment; they are social groups that adapt and survive. •Individuals are more important than the structure. •Needs motivate performance more than role demands . •Specialization can promote boredom and frustration. •Formalization produces rigidity and rule fixation. •Informal Norms not formal rules are critical to performance. •Hierarchy is ineffective because it usually neglects talent. •Span of Control is dysfunctional because it fosters close and authoritarian supervision. •Informal Communication is more efficient and open than formal communication. •Informal Organization--informal structures are more important than formal ones just as informal leaders are more influential than formal ones. The informal organization is the key to effectiveness.
  6. 6. W. K. Hoy © 2003, 2008, 2011 II. Open-systems Perspective: An Integration Social Science: Interdependence, Integration, and Contingencies Max Weber Theory of Bureaucracy Chester Barnard Functions of the Executive Herbert Simon Administrative Behavior Talcott Parsons Social Systems Theory Interdependence is a fact of organizational life. All organizations are open systems whose parts interact and depend on each other and are dependent on their environments. Integration is central to an open-systems perspective. Integration of goals and needs Behavior is a function of structure and needs. Integration of rational and natural elements All organization have both rational and natural aspects. Integration of tight and loose couplings Organizations need both tight and loose couplings. Integration of planned and unplanned activities Politics pervades organizational life. Integration of formal and informal. Organizations have two interactive faces: Formal & Informal. Contingency Theory Effectiveness is contingent upon matching There is no one best way to organize, motivate, the situation with the appropriate technique. decide, lead, or communicate-- “it depends.”
  7. 7. W. K. Hoy © 2003, 2008, 2011 Historical Development of Theory and Thought in Administration
  8. 8. W. K. Hoy © 2003, 2008, 2011 Key Properties of Open Systems Inputs --people, materials, and resources from the outside Transformation -- the process transforming inputs into something of value by the system. Outputs -- the byproduct of the transformation. Feedback -- how the system communicates to its parts and the environment. Boundaries -- systems are differentiated from their environments. Environment -- is anything outside the system. Homeostatis --a steady state of equilibrium Entropy -- the tendency for all systems for run down and die. Equifinality --the same end can be achieved many ways.
  9. 9. Open System with Feedback Loops W. K. Hoy © 2003, 2008, 2011 ThroughputThroughput [Transformation][Transformation] InputsInputs OutputsOutputs People Materials Finances Products Services Feedback EnvironmentEnvironment Performance
  10. 10. W. K. Hoy © 2003, 2008, 2011 Social Systems Model: Key Assumptions • Social systems are open systems. • Social systems consists of interdependent parts, which interact with each other and the environment. • Social systems are goal oriented. • Social systems are peopled. • Social systems have structure. • Social systems are political. • Social systems have cultures. • Social systems have norms. • Social systems are conceptual and relative. • All formal organizations are social systems, but not all social systems are organizations.
  11. 11. W. K. Hoy © 2003, 2008, 2011 Key Elements of the School as a Social System Schools are social systems with the following key parts: Structure: roles are expectations of positions that are arranged in a hierarchy. Individual: the individual is a key unit in any social system; regardless of position, people bring with them individual needs, beliefs, and a cognitive understandings of the job. Culture: represents the unwritten feeling part of the organizations: its shared values Politics: informal power relations that develop spontaneously. Core: the teaching-learning process is the technical core of schools. Environment: everything outside the organization; source of inputs. Outputs: the products of the organizations, e. g. educated students. Feedback: communication that monitors behavior. Effectiveness: the congruence between expected and actual outcomes.
  12. 12. Internal Elements of the System W. K. Hoy © 2003, 2008, 2011 Transformation ProcessTransformation Process Structural SystemStructural System (Bureaucratic Expectations)(Bureaucratic Expectations) Cultural SystemCultural System (Shared Orientations)(Shared Orientations) Political SystemPolitical System (Power Relations)(Power Relations) Individual SystemIndividual System (Cognition and Motivation)(Cognition and Motivation) Learning Learning Teaching Teaching OutputsOutputsInputsInputs EnvironmentEnvironment
  13. 13. Social System Model for Schools W. K. Hoy © 2003, 2008, 2011 Transformation ProcessTransformation Process Structural SystemStructural System (Bureaucratic Expectations)(Bureaucratic Expectations) CulturalCultural SystemSystem (Shared(Shared Orientations)Orientations) PoliticalPolitical SystemSystem (Power(Power Relations)Relations) Individual SystemIndividual System (Cognition and Motivation)(Cognition and Motivation) Learning Learning Teaching Teaching OutputsOutputsInputsInputs Environmental constraints Human and capital resources Mission and board policy Materials and methods Achievement Job satisfaction Absenteeism Dropout rate Overall quality Discrepancy between Actual and Expected Performance EnvironmentEnvironment
  14. 14. The Triadic Relations ofThe Triadic Relations of Theory, Practice, and ResearchTheory, Practice, and Research Theory, research, and practice are in a dynamic relationship. Each set of relationships is reciprocal: theory guides practice, but practice reinforces, refines, or disconfirms theory; theory guides research, but research creates and refines theory; and research guides practice, but practice directs research. W. K. Hoy © 2003, 2008, 2011 TT PPRR
  15. 15. Practical Imperatives 1. Seek and test good explanations in your administrative practice: Be both reflective and guided by evidence. 2. Be prepared for both rational and irrational behavior in schools: Both abound. 3. Cultivate informal relations to solve formal problems: The informal organization is a source of ingenious ideas. 4. Use multiple perspectives to frame school challenges: Framing the problem is often the key to its solution. 5. Engage informal leaders in problem solving: Cooperation between the formal and the informal is a key to success. 6. Be politically astute as you represent the school and its students: Politics is a fact of school life. 7. Encourage both stability and spontaneity as appropriate: Both are essential to good schools. 8. Be responsive to the community: The school is an open system. 9. Cultivate expertise as the basis for solving problems: Knowledge should be the basis of decision making. 10. Harness administration to the facilitation of sound teaching and learning: Teaching and learning is what schools are about. W. K. Hoy © 2003, 2008, 2011