Fascism• The political system of the extreme right, which incorporates: • Principles of the leader (dictator) • A one-party state • Totalitarian regimentation of economic & social activity • Arbitrary exercise of absolute power by the regime• Rejects Socialism, Communism, Democracy
20th Century Ideology Benito Mussolini (1883-1945) Adolf Hitler (1889-1945)
Opposition toPacifism • Pacifism • Countries can and should coexist peacefully and resolve disputes by nonviolent means. • Fascism view of Pacifism • Cosigns a country to weakness • Excuses cowardice • Abandons the risk-taking that might propel country into position of greater strength • Territorial expansion • Taking power over government • Demonstrating superiority
Promotion ofNationalism• A people’s heightened sense of cultural, historical, and territorial identity, unity, and sometimes greatness• An alternative to internationalism and individualism • Anti-Internationalism: Reject international allies ability to override national sovereignty • Anti-Individualism: Individual interests subordinate to interests of nation
Glorification of theState• The state is the vehicle through which the attributes of the nation are expressed• Totalistic State (Totalitarian) • Governments that control the totality of human life and subordinate the individual to the state. • Popular empowerment • State regulation of economic, cultural, and political life. Nothing off limits for state regulation.
Fascists in Italy• 1925: Started monitoring people involved in sports, drama, bands, orchestras, libraries, and theatres.• 1926: Outlawed strikes• 1927: Proclaimed nation more important than individual• 1928: Announced culture to reflect fascist ideals. Women forbidden to wear pants.• 1929: Publishers required to submit political manuscripts to fascist representatives for approval.• 1934: Corporations empowered to establish wages and prices.• 1935: Independent labor unions prohibited.
German Fascists• To increase control over economic matters: • 1933: Illegal to divide land among different heirs. • 1934: Prohibited migration to urban areas with high levels of unemployment. • 1935: Legalized the procedure of requiring former agricultural workers to return to their jobs in agriculture.• State displaced the individual as the locus of economic decision making.
Racism • Individuals not equal by birth and should not be equal under the laws. • Divide individuals by natural abilities and social worth. • Average person • Obligated to submit to the elites • Desired to be dominated by Nordic Ideal them
Selection tests consisted primarily of racial and medical examinations. These were followed by analyses of the childs character, ability and psychological qualities. The racial tests were conducted by specialists from the Main Office for Race and Settlement of the SS or sometimes, as in Lódz, by doctors from the health department. There were special forms for the tests which contained 62 points concerning the childs physique, shape and colour of the eyes, type of hair, etc. This detailed physical description of the child was used to establish its racial type. There were 11 racial types and two additional ones: negative and positive. The racial type having been established, the child was put into one of three categories: 1. "Desirable natural increase" 2. "Tolerable natural increase" 3."Undesirable natural increase"
Nazi Inferiors• Jews• Jehovah’s Witnesses• Roma (gypsies)• Criminals• Political dissidents• Gay men• Lesbians and “Antisocials”
Neofascism• Modern revival of Fascism and National Socialism • Russia • China • Austria • United States • France • Germany