US Vietnam War split the nation Canada-Quebec controversy Argentina-Falklands crisis brought down the government
1990s the Palestinian Arabs gained control of fragments of territory, but most of the 6.5 million Palestinians still live in Israel and elsewhere. Jordan 2.1 million Lebanon 400,000 Syria 350,000 Today radical Hamas has taken over Gaza (occupied by Israel until 2005) after defeating Abbas & the Fatah movement founded by Yasir Arafat. Gaza faces (pop. 1.4 million in 140 square miles) 50% unemployment
Switzerland is a good example of national spirit-a state with French, German, Italian and Romanish languages yet had endured because of its peoples’ commitment to the state. Livy stated that what makes a society strong is the well-being of its people—basic justice, basic opportunity, a modicum of spritual reward—the people’s conviction that “the system” is set up to produce it. As Livy wrote, “An empire remains powerful so long as its subjects rejoice in it.”
Scotland felt as a part of EU would be less powerful than just a part of UK. Reasoned that if Denmark-about same size as Scotland, could be a member of EU, why couldn’t they.
Tamil Tigers –photo top & bottom
Political geography online
• Political Geography-the study of political activity in a spatial context.• Over 200 countries and territories in the world• Greatly Diverse – inequality of size, relative location, population, resources and potential – landlocked or have little coastline – surrounded by hostile nations
Rise in New States • Over last 30 empires have collapsed – has added to the number of independent states. – Many newly independent nations have problems
Political Culture• Some state systems separate church & state while others are theocracies-governments led by religious leaders.• Land ownership – communal ownership va individual ownership. (Africa-imperialism, Indians of N. America).• Challenges to political territory provides a strong motivation for warfare.
Assignment• Find and example of Human Territoriality in action.• Take a Photo• Print the photo or send it to Ms Anderson in an e-mail along with a description of WHY this is human territoriality.
StateState – a politically organized territory with a permanent population, a defined territory, and a government. To be a state, an entity must be recognized as such by other states. How many states do you see?
The State• A state provides services for its citizens.• It demands taxes• It demands adherence to the laws.• It demands military service• Periods of adversity can increase a sense of nationalism-but can backfire• A state is possible only if a national attitude or emotional attachment to the state develops.
Geographic Characteristics of States• States vary greatly in Size-some huge like Russia 6.6 m. sq. miles, others large with 3 m. sq. miles like US, China, Brazil, Canada-some are microstates-Vatican, Monaco, Andorra, Grenada.• Shape-some are compact while other are elongated or fragmented.• Demography-some have huge populations like China’s 1.3 billion or tiny like Iceland with 250,000.• Organization-monarchy, democratic, dictatorship, theocratic.• Resources-natural and skilled population• Development-subsistence to tertiary• Power-both economic and military
Nations• Nation – a culturally defined group of people with a shared past and a common future who relate to a territory and have political goals. • People construct nations to make sense of themselves. • Nations are “imagined communities”
Stateless Nations• Sovereignty-complete control over a territory’s political & military affairs. Some nations do not have their own state-this can lead to conflict.• Palestinians are the most well known example-a stateless nation in conflict with Israel over territory.• Kurds-about 20 million people live in Kurdistan-which covers 6 states-since the 1991 Iraq War-Kurdish Security Zone has been virtually independent.
Defining the Nation-State• A Nation should have • A Nation-State has: – A single language – Clearly delineated – A common history territory – A similar ethnic – Substantial population background – Well-organized – Unity from a common government political system. – Shared political and• Cultural homogeneity cultural history not as important as – Emotional ties to “national spirit” or emotional commitment institutions or political systems or an ideology. to the state.
Nation State ExamplesEthnic groups make up more than 95% of the population: • Lesotho.• Albania • Maldives• Bangladesh • Malta• Egypt • Mongolia• Estonia11] • North Korea• Hungary • Poland• Iceland • Portugal• Japan • San Marino• Lebanon • Swaziland
Ethnicity, Geography, Politics and Tension…• Case study of how Rwanda was impacted by these forces.
European Colonialism & the Diffusion of the Nation-State Model• Colonialism - a physical action in which one state takes over control of another, taking over the government and ruling the territory as its own. Two Waves of European Colonialism: 1500 - 1825 1825 - 1975
Colonialism“We must find new landsfrom which we can easilyobtain raw materials andat the same time exploitthe cheap slave labor thatis available form thenatives of the colonies. Thecolonies would alsoprovide a dumping groundfor the surplus goodsproduced in ourfactories.”– Cecil Rhodes,British colonialist, southern Africa
End of the Colonial Era• 1950’s – 1980’s – End of Industrial Revolution in the West – End of Cold War Pressures/Proxy Wars• Power Vacuum left by Colonial Governments
Devolution –Movement of power from the central government toregional governments within the state. What causes devolutionary movements? Ethnocultural forces Economic forces Spatial forces
The Forces of Devolution-Cultural Forces• Yugoslavia – Civil War in the 1990s – Thrown together after WW I • 7 major, 17 minor ethnic groups, 3 religions & 2 alphabets • North-Croats & Slovenes-Catholic • South-Serbs are Orthodox, Muslim enclaves• Rwanda – Belgian Colonialism – Historic ethnic tension between tribes • Hutu & Tutsi – capitalized on by Belgian colonialists – Post-Colonial Devolution • Power sharing in government fails
The Forces of Devolution-Cultural Forces• Quebec and Parti Quebecois in Canada• Sudan-Muslim north & Christian south• Sri Lanka-Tamils, a Hindu minority fight for independence from the Sinhalese a Buddhist majority
Genocide• Genos, greek for tribe or family, -cide from Latin to kill.• Last 100 years over 50 million people were murdered due to race, ethnicity, religion or political persuasion. – Mao Zedong-30 m. Chinese – Stalin-20 m. Soviets – Nazis-11.4 m. Jews, Slavs, etc. – Japan 10 m. Chinese, etc.