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Music & Emotions
 

Music & Emotions

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An overview of the empirical research methods used in music and emotion research.

An overview of the empirical research methods used in music and emotion research.

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    Music & Emotions Music & Emotions Presentation Transcript

    • MUSIC AND EMOTIONS Some methodological issues Jonna Vuoskoski (jonna.vuoskoski@jyu.fi)
    • MUSIC AND EMOTIONS
      • Emotions induced by music are subjective phenomena
        • Significant differences between individuals
        • What about the aim to generalize results?
      • How could / should these emotional experiences be studied?
      • Are emotions evoked by music like everyday (utilitarian) emotions?
      • How to conceptualize emotions evoked by music?
    • DIFFERENT APPROACHES
      • The listener, the performer, the composer…
        • Most studies concentrate on the listener
      • The listener:
        • Perceived emotions = emotions that are represented by music and perceived by the listener
        • Felt emotions = emotions that are induced by music and felt by the listener
        • Hard to distinguish between experience and perception; emotion experience cannot occur without perception
    • PERCEIVED EMOTIONS
      • Are less subjective than felt emotions
      • Are often easier to conceptualize
        • Basic emotions (sadness, happiness, fear…) or valence (pleasantness – unpleasantness) and arousal
      • Methods:
        • Self-reports
          • Rating scales
          • Forced-choice
          • Continuous ratings
          • Similarity ratings
          • Adjective checklists
          • Free descriptions
    • PERCEIVED EMOTIONS; METHODS
      • MIR combined with self-reports
        • Aim to pinpoint musical features that convey emotions
        • Models that can recognize emotions represented by a given piece of music
      • Cross-cultural comparisons
      • Developmental studies
      • EEG, fMRI
        • Processing of emotions in the brain
    • FELT EMOTIONS
      • Problems:
        • Difficult to conceptualize or to describe with everyday emotion words
          • Music-specific models have been developed (e.g., Zentner, Grandjean, & Scherer 2008)
        • Notable inter-subject variability
        • Hard to study in a laboratory conditions
          • Only approx. 30% of subjects experience any emotions during experiments
          • The same music doesn’t ‘work’ for everyone
    • FELT EMOTIONS; METHODS
      • Self-reports (same as with perceived emotions)
      • Physiological measurements (heart rate, skin conductance, respiration, eye blinks…)
        • Measure physiological reactions associated with felt emotions
      • EEG, fMRI
        • Measure the brain activation associated with felt emotions
      • Diary studies
      • Studies done in real-life situations, e.g. concerts
    • OTHER APPROACHES
      • The expression of emotion in musical performances
        • How does the performer convey emotions to the listener?
        • Different performances of the same piece can convey different emotions
          • Modelling of performance features (e.g., the GERM model, Juslin, Friberg & Bresin 2001)
          • Raises questions about the usability of MIDI excerpts in music & emotion studies
    • SOME QUESTIONS / TOPICS FOR DISCUSSION
      • What kind of music should be used in music & emotion studies? (classical, MIDI, film music, participants’ own favourite music…)
      • Are musically induced emotions similar or different from everyday emotions? Can similar concepts be used to define them?
      • Do you think there exists music that can induce emotions in almost everyone?