Black Arts Era


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Lit 325 Cambridge College

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Black Arts Era

  1. 1. Black Arts Era 1960 - 1975
  2. 2. The 60s <ul><li>Social upheaval at home </li></ul><ul><li>Costly military engagement abroad </li></ul><ul><li>Anti-war sentiment </li></ul><ul><li>Civil Rights Movement </li></ul><ul><li>Black Power Movement </li></ul><ul><li>Generational distrust / factional revolt </li></ul>
  3. 3. 1960 – “Freedom Now” <ul><li>North Carolina - Black Civil Rights Sit-in galvanizes youth across nation </li></ul><ul><li>Non-violent, direct action </li></ul><ul><li>MLK professes civil disobedience and passive resistance </li></ul><ul><li>Non-violence and love keys to successful struggle </li></ul>
  4. 4. Nation of Islam – Black Muslims <ul><li>Malcolm X appealed to lower and working class black audiences to become a &quot;nation within a nation&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>Black Pride – their goal was to set an example for what could be done in black community </li></ul>
  5. 5. Significant Events <ul><li>1963- </li></ul><ul><li>March on Washington </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;I Have A Dream&quot; MLK speech </li></ul><ul><li>Alabama church bombing </li></ul><ul><li>JFK assassinated </li></ul><ul><li>1964- </li></ul><ul><li>LBJ signs Civil Rights Act </li></ul>
  6. 6. “Freedom Summer” <ul><li>The summer of 1964 is named &quot;Freedom Summer&quot; for the number of staged protest demonstrations that take place across the country in support of Civil Rights. </li></ul>
  7. 7. History in the making… <ul><li>1965 - </li></ul><ul><li>Malcolm X assassinated </li></ul><ul><li>Voting Rights Act </li></ul><ul><li>Major urban riots </li></ul><ul><li>1968- </li></ul><ul><li>MLK assassinated </li></ul>
  8. 8. Black Freedom / Black Arts <ul><li>Black Freedom Movement wanted to re-define how black Americans were perceived and treated by white America </li></ul><ul><li>Black Arts Movement wanted to re-define how black Americans perceived themselves </li></ul>
  9. 9. James Baldwin <ul><li>“No people that has ever produced great literature and art has ever been looked upon as distinctly inferior&quot; </li></ul>
  10. 10. Black Arts Movement <ul><li>The writers and artists of this time wanted to develop a body of artistic endeavors that would provide a &quot;change of vision&quot; in the perception of African American identity. They felt that artistic production would revise the stereotypes of African inferiority that lay at the heart of American racism. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Perception of Black <ul><li>&quot;Liberation is impossible if we fail to see ourselves in more positive terms. For without a change of vision, we are slaves to the oppressor's ideas and values --ideas and values that finally attack the very core of our existence. Therefore, we must see the world in terms of our own realities.&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Larry Neal, &quot;Black Art and Black Liberation,&quot; 1969 </li></ul>
  12. 12. “Black Aesthetic” <ul><li>Artists and writers were interested in improving black Americans' perception of themselves, rather than creating artwork that would only encourage white America to look upon African Americans more positively. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Who… <ul><li>Amiri Baraka </li></ul><ul><li>Audre Lorde </li></ul><ul><li>Martin Luther King Jr. </li></ul><ul><li>Malcolm X </li></ul><ul><li>Nikki Giovanni </li></ul>
  14. 14. Amiri Baraka (LeRoi Jones) (1934 -) <ul><li>Author of over 40 books of essays, poems, drama, and music history and criticism </li></ul><ul><li>Revolutionary political activist  </li></ul><ul><li>Founder of the Black Arts Movement in Harlem   </li></ul><ul><li>Still active in the struggle against racism </li></ul>
  15. 15. Dutchman <ul><li>The play Dutchman (1963) was the symbol of black nationalism” with themes of racial oppression and racial hatred at its heart. It was praised for its power and freshness and criticized for its harshness. Baraka stated: &quot;It is about the difficulty of becoming and remaining a man in America&quot; </li></ul>
  16. 16. Audre Lorde <ul><li>American writer Audre Lorde names herself as &quot;a black feminist lesbian mother poet&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>Her poetry explores pride, love, anger, fear, racial and sexual oppression, urban neglect, and personal survival </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;Hanging Fire&quot; </li></ul>
  17. 17. Nikki Giovanni (1934 - ) <ul><li>Black American poet, writer, educator, activist, mother, daughter </li></ul><ul><li>Voice of Black community </li></ul><ul><li>Focus on oneself to make a difference in others </li></ul>
  18. 18. Martin Luther King Jr. (1929 – 1968) <ul><li>&quot;Non-violent resistance is the most potent weapon available to oppressed people in their struggle for freedom” </li></ul>
  19. 19. Malcolm X (1925 – 1965) <ul><li>“You can’t separate peace from freedom, because no one can be at peace unless he has his freedom” </li></ul>