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Developmental art in the low literacy classroom handout

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  • 1. Developmental Art in the Low Literacy Classroom LESLLA 2011, Minneapolis, MN 9/30/2011 Context  Adult Sunday School Class Adult Literacy Students Draw  Liberian refugees  Senior citizens, age unknown (not tracked in Liberia)  M t1h Meet hour/week f past 5 years / k for t Jean Marrapodi  jmarrapodi@applestar.org  @jmarrapodi 401-440-61615 Preamble: Spring 2006 Preamble Two  Lesson One: Palm Sunday  Lesson Two: Easter  Draw a picture to illustrate the story  Ok, let’s copy some drawings to tell the story.  Could not do.  We can’t do that.  Through a translator: “We can’t do that. We haven’t practiced like you have to be able to do that.” that. Preamble Three No Print Awareness  Let’s try to copy some symbols then.  Could not complete Elizabeth loves Jesus unless dots were drawn to connect the lines. Switched S it h d cards: d  Circles were misshapen and barely recognizable. Jesus loves Elizabeth Said: Elizabeth loves Jesus. Jean Marrapodi, PhD, CPLP || jmarrapodi@applestar.org 1
  • 2. Developmental Art in the Low Literacy Classroom LESLLA 2011, Minneapolis, MN 9/30/2011 Reading Art: Part One Reading Art: Part Two Isabella Stewart Gardner Adam and Eve Museum, Boston C H A T T E R Ho-hum ! Setting One: October 2010  Pastor Appreciation Sunday  Given a template with prompts:  Pastor Berkley is ___________  Pastor Michele is ___________  I love my pastors!  Learned what the prompts said. Asked to come up with a word to fill in. They either copied the word or had teacher spell it.  Draw a picture of you and the pastors. Jean Marrapodi, PhD, CPLP || jmarrapodi@applestar.org 2
  • 3. Developmental Art in the Low Literacy Classroom LESLLA 2011, Minneapolis, MN 9/30/2011 Jean Marrapodi, PhD, CPLP || jmarrapodi@applestar.org 3
  • 4. Developmental Art in the Low Literacy Classroom LESLLA 2011, Minneapolis, MN 9/30/2011 Setting Two (following week) Annie K.  Given blank paper and markers  Draw a picture of you with your grandchildren  Teacher wrote names of children Elizabeth Martha Kumba Essah Jean Marrapodi, PhD, CPLP || jmarrapodi@applestar.org 4
  • 5. Developmental Art in the Low Literacy Classroom LESLLA 2011, Minneapolis, MN 9/30/2011 Annie G. Frances * Granddaughter came over to “help” * * * * Martha Setting Three (following week)  Discussion about houses in America vs Liberia Martha lives in an  Let’s draw pictures of your houses here and in apartment building. Liberia.  Given blank paper and markers  T Teacher wrote words as given prompts h t d i t Elizabeth Annie K. America on the left. Annie lives on in a triple- Liberia on the right. decker in RI. Elizabeth lives in apartment 511 in a high rise building. She takes an elevator to get to h l her apartment. Jean Marrapodi, PhD, CPLP || jmarrapodi@applestar.org 5
  • 6. Developmental Art in the Low Literacy Classroom LESLLA 2011, Minneapolis, MN 9/30/2011 Annie G. Annie lives on in a two story single Frances family home. Frances lives on the first floor of a two story house. Kumba Essah Kumba lives in Essah lives in a second townhouse type floor apartment. apartments in a complex Setting Four  Kumba’s spontaneous drawings brought from home in the subsequent weeks. Jean Marrapodi, PhD, CPLP || jmarrapodi@applestar.org 6
  • 7. Developmental Art in the Low Literacy Classroom LESLLA 2011, Minneapolis, MN 9/30/2011 Other Projects  Painting background for nativities – 12/2009  Cutting snowflakes – 1/2011 Jean Marrapodi, PhD, CPLP || jmarrapodi@applestar.org 7
  • 8. Developmental Art in the Low Literacy Classroom LESLLA 2011, Minneapolis, MN 9/30/2011 Drawings of people by nursery school children Parallels to Children’s Work? Does their natural development mirror emergent literacy? http://psychology.jrank.org/pages/890/children%27s-drawings-human-figures.html Tadpole Figure Sarah – 3.2 to 3.4 years l people By a pre- From a severely By a pre- school child mentally school child handicapped adult a cat, Tyrannosaurus rex, and a leopard http://psychology.jrank.org/pages/890/children%27s-drawings-human-figures.html http://psychology.jrank.org/pages/890/children%27s-drawings-human-figures.html Helen, 4.5 – 5.5 years Rachel, Age 7 http://psychology.jrank.org/pages/890/children%27s-drawings-human-figures.html Jean Marrapodi, PhD, CPLP || jmarrapodi@applestar.org 8
  • 9. Developmental Art in the Low Literacy Classroom LESLLA 2011, Minneapolis, MN 9/30/2011 Callaghan Phases of Development Developmental Art Development in Children Callaghan, T.C. (2008) The origins and Development of Pictorial Symbol Functioning. In Children’s Understanding and Production of Pictures, Drawings, and Art: Theoretical and Empirical Approaches. Cambridge, MA: Hogrefe. P 22 Rhoda Kellogg: Gestalts ev/kiddrawing.html Adapted from teacher inservice training materials for early childhood, http://www.learningdesign.com/Portfolio/DrawDe f art education, and special education workshops. Donley, S.K. 1985/1987 #anchor2470313 Kellogg, R. (1969) Analyzing children’s art. Paolo Alto, CA: National Press Books. P 109 Kellog’s Scheme of the Evolution of Pictorial Work Common House-Tree-Person/Kinetic HTP Sequences Measure aspects of person’s personality 3 years-adult Common in art therapy Q Questionable validity y 1948/1969 Kellogg, R. (1969) Analyzing children’s art. Paolo Alto, CA: National Press Books. P 273 Jean Marrapodi, PhD, CPLP || jmarrapodi@applestar.org 9
  • 10. Developmental Art in the Low Literacy Classroom LESLLA 2011, Minneapolis, MN 9/30/2011 Noah, Age 6 Josiah, Age 4 Rachel, Age 8 Micah, Age 10 Annie K. Frances Jean Marrapodi, PhD, CPLP || jmarrapodi@applestar.org 10
  • 11. Developmental Art in the Low Literacy Classroom LESLLA 2011, Minneapolis, MN 9/30/2011 Kumba Martha Essah Elizabeth Value of Using Art Student Descriptions of House- "This adapted Kinetic-House-Tree-Person for adults with Tree-Person Drawings developmental disabilities holds promise for providing an arts- based assessment that assesses for growth and positive changes in the individual in addition to negative or downward changes. Verbal assessments are not always http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2bIdrTJhXPc appropriate due to verbal limitations within the individual who has developmental di biliti th f h d l t l disabilities, therefore, arts th t therapists h i t have at t their disposal alternatives for assessing for change in functioning. Because this assessment mirrored the notes of the on-site therapists, this assessment suggests it can measure change. It also suggests that arts based interventions do, in fact, facilitate well-being and positive changes in interaction and communication." p 45 Lister & Rosales In Snow and DAmico Jean Marrapodi, PhD, CPLP || jmarrapodi@applestar.org 11
  • 12. Developmental Art in the Low Literacy Classroom LESLLA 2011, Minneapolis, MN 9/30/2011 Value of Using Art "...there is evidence of a relationship between thought and drawing that Is It Cultural? becomes visible through the study of meaning-making processes. Drawing supports the movement from simple spontaneous concepts to more complex concepts and plays an important role in promoting higher mental functions. " Brooks, Drawing to Learn in Making Meaning p. 9 Ponape Alexander Alland, 1983 Now Pohnpie, Micronesia  240 children’s drawings  Six cultures  Bali  Ponape Male, 4 years, 19 minutes  Taiwan  Japan  US Female, 5 years, 5 minutes  France First encounter with drawing  Definite cultural variants  Limited exposure to art  Generally single color  Human figures rare  Nonconformity with Western norms Male, 5 years, 14 minutes Taiwan Bali Male, 3.3 years, 30 minutes Female, 4.8 years, 10 minutes Female, 4.6 years, 25 minutes Female, 6.8 years  Overall density  Long heritage of art  Polychromatic  Filling, building, touching, details  No stories  Picture making influenced by  Highly artistic culture Male, 2.6 years, 18 minutes relationship between pictorial Male, 5.2 years, 24 minutes representation and writing Jean Marrapodi, PhD, CPLP || jmarrapodi@applestar.org 12
  • 13. Developmental Art in the Low Literacy Classroom LESLLA 2011, Minneapolis, MN 9/30/2011 Japan Alexander Alland, 1983 Conclusions: “…the two most important elements in drawing skill among young children are experience and exposure to art.” Male, 5.6years, 27 minutes P 63 "On the basis of my data I believe that representation and symbolism are things children are consciously or unconsciously taught to do by adults and other children. This leads to the Female, 3.10 years, 14 minutes conclusion that the only safe definition of childrens drawing can  Modern aesthetic in culture be playing with form." p215  Highly visual culture  Colorful, often single subject Female, 4.11 years, 8 minutes What we know about Liberia’s Art Dan, Mano, Kran , Kpelle tribal art  Known for their carved masks Relating this to Writing  Music and dance very important  Kissi make baskets and weave on vertical looms  Literacy rate: 25% http://www.mariomeneghini.com/destination%20Dan,%20Ma no,%20Krahn,%20Kpelle/index.htm Children Create Letters in Art Not seeing letters, but shapes "Most of the letters of the English alphabet, both capitals and lower- case forms, are made by young children as art Gestalts. In art, the letters are placed or arranged to complete a Pattern or an implied shape. In language, the letters are arranged in a certain order within words and are put into a certain left- right and top-bottom placement. As the child learns to read, he must perceive the differences between the esthetic and the linguistic positioning of letters, and as he learns to write letters write, he must put this perception to use. Each child who has scribbled a great deal will know many of the letter Gestalts when he enters school, but he needs to learn the differences between their uses for art and for language. Otherwise, he will have serious difficulties with language.” Kellogg, 1970 p 262 Jean Marrapodi, PhD, CPLP || jmarrapodi@applestar.org 13
  • 14. Developmental Art in the Low Literacy Classroom LESLLA 2011, Minneapolis, MN 9/30/2011 Elizabeth did the same thing Learning to Read and Write Art “...human artistry is viewed first and foremost as an activity of the mind, an activity that involves the use of a transformation of various kinds of symbols and systems of symbols. Individuals who wish to participate meaningfully in artistic perception must learn to decode, to "read" the various symbolic vehicles in their culture; individuals who which to participate in artistic creation must learn how to manipulate how manipulate, to "write with" the various symbolic forms present in their culture, and, finally, individuals who wish to engage fully in the artistic realm must also gain mastery of certain central artistic concepts. Just as one cannot assume that individuals will – in the absence of support - learn to read and write in their natural languages, so, too, it seems reasonable to assume that individuals can benefit from assistance in learning to "read" and "write" in the various languages of the arts.” Howard Gardner, Art Education and Human Development, p 9 So what? And now what? Adult Literacy Students Draw What have you seen here? Have you seen this in your classroom? Is drawing a precursor to writing? Where do we go from here? Jean Marrapodi jmarrapodi@applestar.org @jmarrapodi 401-440-61615 Jean Marrapodi, PhD, CPLP || jmarrapodi@applestar.org 14
  • 15. Developmental Art in the Low Literacy Classroom LESLLA 2011, Minneapolis, MNJean Marrapodi, PhD, CPLP || jmarrapodi@applestar.org Donley, S.K 1985/1987 K. Adapted fro teacher inser om rvice training ma aterials for early childhood, y art educatio and special education workshops. on, e http://www w.learningdesign n.com/Portfolio//DrawDev/kiddr rawing.html #anchor24 470313
  • 16. Developmental Art in the Low Literacy Classroom LESLLA 2011, Minneapolis, MN Rhoda Kellogg: Gestalts Kellogg, R. (1969) Analyzing children’s art. Paolo Alto, CA: National Press Books. P 109 Jean Marrapodi, PhD, CPLP || jmarrapodi@applestar.org
  • 17. Developmental Art in the Low Literacy Classroom LESLLA 2011, Minneapolis, MN 1. Basic Scribbles 2. Diagrams and Combines 3. Aggregates 4. Suns 5. Sun faces and figures 6. Humans with head‐top markings and with arms attached to the head 7. Humans without head‐top markings 8. Armless humans 9. Humans with varied torsos 10. Humans with arms attached to the torso 11. Relatively complete human images Kellogg, R. (1969). Analyzing Children’s Art.  Palo Alto, CA: National Press Books p  109 Jean Marrapodi, PhD, CPLP || jmarrapodi@applestar.org 17
  • 18. Developmental Art in the Low Literacy Classroom LESLLA 2011, Minneapolis, MN Kellog’s Scheme of the Evolution of Pictorial Work Common Sequences Kellogg, R. (1969) Analyzing children’s art. Paolo Alto, CA: National Press Books. P 273 Jean Marrapodi, PhD, CPLP || jmarrapodi@applestar.org
  • 19. Developmental Art in the Low Literacy Classroom LESLLA 2011, Minneapolis, MNSourcesAlland, A. (1983). Playing with Form. New York: Columbia Universtiy PressBrooks, M. (2002). Drawing to learn. Unpublished PhD thesis. Alberta: University of Alberta, Canada Brooks, M. Drawing to Learn. In Narey, M. ed. (2009). Making Meaning: Constructing Multimodal Perspectives of Language, Literacy, and Learning through Arts-based Early Childhood Education. New York: SpringerCamnitzer, L. (2009, Feb). Art and Literacy. e-flux. http://www.e-flux.com/journal/view/42Camnitzer, L. (2009,Oct). Alphabetization, Part One: Protocal and Profieiency. http://www.e- flux.com/journal/view/78Freeman, N. H. (1987) Childrens drawings of human figures - The Oxford Companion to Art, available, accessible, quite, real. Online: http://psychology.jrank.org/pages/890/childrens-drawings-human- figures.htmlGardner, H. (1990). Art Education and Human Development. Los Angeles: J. Paul Getty TrustHagood, M.H. (2000). The Use of Art in Counselling Child and Adult Survivors of Sexual Abuse. London: Jessica Kingsley PublishingKellogg, R. (1969). Analyzing Childrens Art. Palo Alto, CA: National Press BooksLister, S, and Rosales, A. . The Kinetic-House-Tree-Person Adapted to Adults with Developmental Disabilities. In Snow, S. and DAmico, M. (2009). Assessment in the Creative Arts Therapies: Designing and Adapting Assessment Tools for Adults with Developmental Disabilities. Springfield, IL: Charles C. Thomas PublishersMilbrath, C. & Trautner, H.M. eds. (2008). Childrens Understanding and Production of Pictures, Drawings & Art: Theoretical and Empirical Approaches. Cambridge, MA: HogrefeVygotsky, L.G. (1970). Mind in Society: The Development of Higher Psychological Processes. Edited by Cole, M., John-Steiner, V. Scribner, S. & Souberman, E. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press Jean Marrapodi, PhD, CPLP || jmarrapodi@applestar.org