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Goodenough Scoring
(Draw-A-Person)
Hawraa Al-Romani
Speech Therapy Department
Lebanese University
What Is Goodenough Test?
• It is a psychological personality and cognitive test used to evaluate children and
adolescents ...
History:
• Developed by Florence Goodenough (1926).
• Goodenough first became interested in figure drawing when she wanted...
Advantages
Easy to adminster
No strict formats
Relevently culture free
Can assess people with
communication
problems.
Disadvantages
Restricted amount of hypothesis can
be developed.
Relevantly nonverbal, but may have
some problems during in...
DIRECTIONS:
“I want you to make a picture of a person. Make the very best picture that you
can. Take your time and work ve...
SCORING
SCORE DESCRIPTION
0 Aimless uncontrolled scribbling
1+
Lines somewhat controlled
Approaches crude geometrical form...
• All drawings that can be recognized as attempts to represent the human figure
is scored plus or minus one. One credit fo...
A- GROSS DETAIL:
(1) Head present, (2) Legs present., (3) Arms present, (4) Trunk present, (5) Length of trunk greater tha...
E- HAND DETAIL:
(1)Fingers present (any indication), (2) Correct number of fingers shown, (3) Fingers in two dimensions – ...
H- MOTOR COORDINATION
(1) Lines firm without marked tendency to cross, gap, or overlap.
(2) All lines firm with correct jo...
SCORE MA SCORE MA SCORE MA SCORE MA
1 3-3 14 6-6 27 9-9 40 13-0
2 3-6 15 6-9 28 10-0 41 13-3
3 3-9 16 7-0 29 10-3 42 13-6
...
Example:
ANALYSIS:
Head:
 The head is the center for intellectual power, social balance, and control over
impulses.
A disproportio...
Face
Omitting: omission of facial features is an
expression of avoidance of social problems.
Eyes:
reveal inner image of t...
 Nose:
Triangle nose: immaturity
Pointed nose: possible acting out tendencies
 Chin:
if it is not included, it may be a ...
Arms and hands:
Omitted: represents a complete withdrawal from the environment.
If a male omits a female’s arms, then is u...
Thank you
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Goodenough scoring (Psychometrics)

Goodenough Scoring or (Draw a person test) presentation
definition, administration, scoring and analysis.
Speech Therapy Department (Second Year)

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Goodenough scoring (Psychometrics)

  1. 1. Goodenough Scoring (Draw-A-Person) Hawraa Al-Romani Speech Therapy Department Lebanese University
  2. 2. What Is Goodenough Test? • It is a psychological personality and cognitive test used to evaluate children and adolescents for a variety of purposes (measuring nonverbal intelligence, screening emotional and behavioral disorders). • It is a test where the subject is asked to draw a picture of a man, a woman, and themselves. No further instructions are given and the pictures are analyzed on a number of dimensions.
  3. 3. History: • Developed by Florence Goodenough (1926). • Goodenough first became interested in figure drawing when she wanted to find a way to supplement the (Stanford- Binet intelligence test) with a non- verbal measure. • She concluded that the amount of detail involved in a child’s drawing could be used as an effective tool which led to the development of the first official assessment using figure drawing, the draw- a- man test.
  4. 4. Advantages Easy to adminster No strict formats Relevently culture free Can assess people with communication problems.
  5. 5. Disadvantages Restricted amount of hypothesis can be developed. Relevantly nonverbal, but may have some problems during inquiry.
  6. 6. DIRECTIONS: “I want you to make a picture of a person. Make the very best picture that you can. Take your time and work very carefully. Try very hard and see what a good picture you can make.” (The administrator may ask the children to include the name, age, feelings or what is his/ her drawing is doing at the moment). TIME: No time limit. Usually 10 minutes will suffice with young children. Note: The drawings of bright children more than 10 years old or those who have had drawing lessons will result in an invalid evaluation of the child’s intellectual potential. Administration:
  7. 7. SCORING SCORE DESCRIPTION 0 Aimless uncontrolled scribbling 1+ Lines somewhat controlled Approaches crude geometrical forms. 0 1+
  8. 8. • All drawings that can be recognized as attempts to represent the human figure is scored plus or minus one. One credit for each point scored plus and no half credits given.
  9. 9. A- GROSS DETAIL: (1) Head present, (2) Legs present., (3) Arms present, (4) Trunk present, (5) Length of trunk greater than breadth, (6) Shoulders are indicated (abrupt broadening of trunk below neck) B- ATTACHMENTS: (1) Both arms and legs attached to trunk, (2) Arms and legs attached to trunk at correct points, (3) Neck present, (4) Outline of neck continuous with that of head, trunk, or both. C- HEAD DETAIL: (1) Eyes present (one or two), (2) Nose present, (3) Mouth present, (4) Nose and mouth in two dimensions, two lips shown, (5) Nostril shown, (6) Hair shown, (7) Hair on more than circumference of head and non-transparent – better than a scribble. D- CLOTHING: (1) Clothing present (any clear representation of clothing), (2)Two articles of clothing non transparent (ex. Hat, trousers), (3) Entire drawing free from transparencies – sleeves and trousers must be shown, (4) Four articles of clothing definitely indicated. *should include 4 – hat, shoes, coat, shirt, necktie, belt, trousers*, (5) Costume complete with incongruities *business suit, soldier’s costume and hat, sleeves trousers and shoes must be shown* Details that are considered a point:
  10. 10. E- HAND DETAIL: (1)Fingers present (any indication), (2) Correct number of fingers shown, (3) Fingers in two dimensions – length greater than breadth, angle subtended not greater than 180 degrees, (4) Opposition of thumb clearly defined, (5) Hand shown distinct from fingers and arm F- JOINTS: (1) Arm joint shown – elbow, shoulder, or both. (2) leg joint shown – knee, hip, or both G- PROPORTION: (1) Head not more than ½ or less than 1/10 of trunk , (2) Arms equal to trunk but not reaching knee, (3) Legs not less than trunk not more than twice trunk size, (4) Feet in 2 dimensions – not more than 1/3 or less than 1/10 of leg, (5) Both arms and lens in two dimensions Details that are considered a point:
  11. 11. H- MOTOR COORDINATION (1) Lines firm without marked tendency to cross, gap, or overlap. (2) All lines firm with correct joining. (3) Outline of head without obvious irregularities. Develop beyond first crude circle. Conscious control apparent. (4) Trunk outline. Score same as #3. (5) Arms and legs without irregularities. 2 dimensions and no tendency to narrow at point of junction with trunk. (6) Features symmetrical (more likely to credit in profile drawings) I- FINE HEAD DETAIL (1) Ears present (2 in full face, 1 in profile) (2) Ears present in correct position and proportion. (3) Eye details – brow or lashes shown. (4) Eye detail – pupil shown. (5)Eye detail – proportion. Length greater than width. (6) Eye detail – glance – only plus in profile. (7) Chin and forehead shown. J- PROFILE (1) Projection of chin shown – usually + in profile. (2) heel clearly shown (3) Body profile – head, trunk, and feet without error. (4) Figure shown in true profile without error or transparency.
  12. 12. SCORE MA SCORE MA SCORE MA SCORE MA 1 3-3 14 6-6 27 9-9 40 13-0 2 3-6 15 6-9 28 10-0 41 13-3 3 3-9 16 7-0 29 10-3 42 13-6 4 4-0 17 7-3 30 10-6 43 13-9 5 4-3 18 7-6 31 10-9 44 14-0 6 4-6 19 7-9 32 11-0 45 14-3 7 4-9 20 8-0 33 11-3 46 14-6 8 5- 21 8-3 34 11-6 47 14-9 9 5-3 22 8-6 35 11-9 48 15-0 10 5-6 23 8-9 36 12-0 49 15-3 11 5-9 24 9-0 37 12-3 50 15-6 12 6-0 25 9-3 38 12-6 51 15-9 13 6-3 26 9-6 39 12-9 Scores of Goodenough test and their corresponding mental ages.
  13. 13. Example:
  14. 14. ANALYSIS: Head:  The head is the center for intellectual power, social balance, and control over impulses. A disproportionate head suggests that the subject is having difficulty in one of these areas (or someone who has brain damage, severe headaches, or other sensitivity of the head). Large head: paranoid, narcissistic (anything having to do with a large ego). Small head: feelings of weakness and intellectual inferiority. Neck: represents the connection between the head and the body Under-emphasis may represent one feeling a disconnection between these two things and could suggest: schizophrenia or feelings of physical inadequacy.
  15. 15. Face Omitting: omission of facial features is an expression of avoidance of social problems. Eyes: reveal inner image of the self. Emphasis: suspicious of the outside world. Tiny eyes- strong visual curiosity Eyes closed: emotionally immature or people who want to shut out the world.
  16. 16.  Nose: Triangle nose: immaturity Pointed nose: possible acting out tendencies  Chin: if it is not included, it may be a way of compensating for weakness, indecision, or a fear of responsibility; it can be interpreted as having a strong drive to be socially forceful and dominant. Mouth: most often distorted in people with sexual difficulties Over emphasis- emphasized importance of food, profane language, and temper tantrums. Tiny mouth: denial of oral dependent needs
  17. 17. Arms and hands: Omitted: represents a complete withdrawal from the environment. If a male omits a female’s arms, then is unaccepted by females or lack of confidence in social contexts. Fingers: Too long may mean the person is overly aggressive. Too short means they are reserved. Toes: often not included in drawings because of shoes, but if they are, it is a sign of aggression. If a female shows painted toenails, they may have heightened female aggression.
  18. 18. Thank you

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