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Developmental Art in the Low
      Literacy Classroom




Jean Marrapodi  jmarrapodi@applestar.org  @jmarrapodi 401-440-6165
Context
 Adult Sunday School Class
 Liberian refugees
 Senior citizens, age unknown (not tracked in
  Liberia)
 Meet 1 hour/week for past 5 years
Preamble: Spring 2006
 Lesson One: Palm Sunday
  Draw a picture to illustrate the story
  Could not do.
  Through a translator: “We can’t do that. We haven’t
   practiced like you have to be able to do that.”
Preamble Two
 Lesson Two: Easter
   Ok, let’s copy some drawings to tell the story.
   We can’t do that.
Preamble Three
 Let’s try to copy some
 symbols then.
   Could not complete
    unless dots were drawn
    to connect the lines.
   Circles were misshapen
    and barely recognizable.
No Print Awareness

  Elizabeth loves Jesus
             Switched cards:


  Jesus    loves Elizabeth
     Said: Elizabeth loves Jesus.
Reading Art: Part One
Isabella Stewart Gardner       Adam and Eve
Museum, Boston
                           C
                           H
                           A
                           T
                           T
                           E
                           R
      Ho-hum               !
Reading Art: Part Two
What time of
 year is it?
Updated developmental art in the low literacy classroom
Setting One: October 2010
 Pastor Appreciation Sunday
 Given a template with prompts:
   Pastor Berkley is ___________
   Pastor Michele is ___________
   I love my pastors!
 Learned what the prompts said. Asked to come up
  with a word to fill in. They either copied the word
  or had teacher spell it.
 Draw a picture of you and the pastors.
Updated developmental art in the low literacy classroom
Updated developmental art in the low literacy classroom
Updated developmental art in the low literacy classroom
Updated developmental art in the low literacy classroom
Updated developmental art in the low literacy classroom
Updated developmental art in the low literacy classroom
Updated developmental art in the low literacy classroom
Updated developmental art in the low literacy classroom
Updated developmental art in the low literacy classroom
Setting Two (following week)
 Given blank paper and markers
 Draw a picture of you with your grandchildren
 Teacher wrote names of children
Annie K.
Elizabeth
Martha
Essah
Kumba
Annie G.
Frances
            * Granddaughter came over to “help”

        *


*
        *
    *
Setting Three (following week)
 Discussion about houses in America vs Liberia
 Let’s draw pictures of your houses here and in
  Liberia.
 Given blank paper and markers
 Teacher wrote words as given prompts
Martha

Martha lives in an
apartment building.
Elizabeth

America on the left.
Liberia on the right.

Elizabeth lives in
apartment 511 in a high
rise building. She takes
an elevator to get to her
apartment.
Annie K.

Annie lives on in a triple-
decker in RI.
Annie G.   Annie lives on in a two story single
           family home.
Frances
Frances lives on the first
floor of a two story
house.
Kumba
Kumba lives in
townhouse type
apartments in a complex
Essah

Essah lives in a second
floor apartment.
Setting Four
 Kumba’s spontaneous drawings brought from
 home in the subsequent weeks.
Updated developmental art in the low literacy classroom
Updated developmental art in the low literacy classroom
Updated developmental art in the low literacy classroom
Other Projects
 Painting background for nativities – 12/2009
 Cutting snowflakes – 1/2011
Updated developmental art in the low literacy classroom
Updated developmental art in the low literacy classroom
Updated developmental art in the low literacy classroom
Parallels to Children’s Work?
Does their natural development mirror emergent
literacy?
Drawings of people by nursery
school children




   http://psychology.jrank.org/pages/890/children%27s-drawings-human-figures.html
Tadpole Figure




  By a pre-             From a severely                    By a pre-
 school child              mentally                       school child
                       handicapped adult




       http://psychology.jrank.org/pages/890/children%27s-drawings-human-figures.html
Sarah – 3.2 to 3.4 years



                            people




     a cat, Tyrannosaurus rex, and a leopard

     http://psychology.jrank.org/pages/890/children%27s-drawings-human-figures.html
Helen, 4.5 – 5.5 years




    http://psychology.jrank.org/pages/890/children%27s-drawings-human-figures.html
Abby, Age 4
Rachel, Age 7
Developmental Art
Development in Children
Callaghan Phases of Development




                Callaghan, T.C. (2008) The origins and Development of Pictorial
                Symbol Functioning. In Children’s Understanding and Production
                of Pictures, Drawings, and Art: Theoretical and Empirical
                Approaches. Cambridge, MA: Hogrefe. P 22
Donley, S.K. 1985/1987
Adapted from teacher inservice training materials for early
childhood, art education, and special education workshops.
http://www.learningdesign.com/Portfolio/DrawDev/kiddrawing.html
#anchor2470313
Rhoda Kellogg: Gestalts




Kellogg, R. (1969) Analyzing children’s art. Paolo Alto, CA: National Press Books. P 109
Kellog’s Scheme
of the Evolution
of Pictorial
Work


Common
Sequences




                   Kellogg, R. (1969) Analyzing children’s art. Paolo Alto, CA: National Press Books. P 273
House-Tree-Person/Kinetic HTP
Measure aspects of person’s personality 3 years-adult
Common in art therapy
Questionable validity
1948/1969
Josiah, Age 4
Noah, Age 6
Rachel, Age 8
Micah, Age 10
Annie K.
Frances
Kumba
Martha
Elizabeth
Essah
Updated developmental art in the low literacy classroom
Value of Using Art
 "This adapted Kinetic-House-Tree-Person for adults with
 developmental disabilities holds promise for providing an arts-
 based assessment that assesses for growth and positive
 changes in the individual in addition to negative or
 downward changes. Verbal assessments are not always
 appropriate due to verbal limitations within the individual who
 has developmental disabilities, therefore, arts therapists have at
 their disposal alternatives for assessing for change in functioning.
 Because this assessment mirrored the notes of the on-site
 therapists, this assessment suggests it can measure change. It also
 suggests that arts based interventions do, in
 fact, facilitate well-being and positive changes in
 interaction and communication."
                                 p 45 Lister & Rosales In Snow and D'Amico
Value of Using Art
 "...there is evidence of a relationship
 between thought and drawing that
 becomes visible through the study of
 meaning-making processes. Drawing
 supports the movement from simple
 spontaneous concepts to more complex
 concepts and plays an important role in
 promoting higher mental functions. "

          Brooks, Drawing to Learn in Making Meaning p. 9
Is It Cultural?
Alexander Alland, 1983
               240 children’s drawings
               Six cultures
                 Bali
                 Ponape
                 Taiwan
                 Japan
                 US
                 France
               Definite cultural variants
Ponape
  Now Pohnpie, Micronesia




                                     Male, 4 years, 19 minutes




     Female, 5 years, 5 minutes
     First encounter with drawing
 Limited exposure to art
 Generally single color
 Human figures rare
 Nonconformity with Western norms      Male, 5 years, 14 minutes
Bali


                                     Male, 3.3 years, 30 minutes




     Female, 4.6 years, 25 minutes

   Overall density
   Polychromatic
   No stories
   Highly artistic culture          Male, 2.6 years, 18 minutes
Taiwan



                                         Female, 4.8 years, 10 minutes




     Female, 6.8 years

 Long heritage of art
 Filling, building, touching, details
 Picture making influenced by
  relationship between pictorial         Male, 5.2 years, 24 minutes
  representation and writing
Japan


                                     Male, 5.6years, 27 minutes




    Female, 3.10 years, 14 minutes

 Modern aesthetic in culture
 Highly visual culture
 Colorful, often single subject     Female, 4.11 years, 8 minutes
Alexander Alland, 1983
              Conclusions:
                “…the two most important elements
                       in drawing skill among young
                         children are experience and
                                    exposure to art.”
                                                  P 63
               "On the basis of my data I believe that
                  representation and symbolism are
                   things children are consciously or
                unconsciously taught to do by adults
                and other children. This leads to the
                         conclusion that the only safe
                 definition of children's drawing can
                              be 'playing with form.'"
                                                 p215
What we know about Liberia’s Art
                          Dan, Mano, Kran , Kpelle tribal art
 Known for their
  carved masks
 Music and dance very
  important
 Kissi make baskets
  and weave on vertical
  looms
 Literacy rate: 25%




                           http://www.mariomeneghini.com/destination%20Dan,%20Ma
                           no,%20Krahn,%20Kpelle/index.htm
Relating this to Writing
Children Create Letters in Art
"Most of the letters of the English alphabet, both capitals and lower-
case forms, are made by young children as art Gestalts. In art, the
letters are placed or arranged to complete a Pattern or an
implied shape. In language, the letters are arranged in a
certain order within words and are put into a certain left-
right and top-bottom placement. As the child learns to
read, he must perceive the differences between the esthetic
and the linguistic positioning of letters, and as he learns to
write, he must put this perception to use.
Each child who has scribbled a
great deal will know many of the
letter Gestalts when he enters
school, but he needs to learn the
differences between their uses
for art and for language.
Otherwise, he will have serious
difficulties with language.”
                     Kellogg, 1970 p 262
Charlie’s Story
Not seeing letters, but shapes
Elizabeth did the same thing
Learning to Read and Write Art
 “...human artistry   is viewed first and foremost as an
 activity of the mind, an activity that involves the use of a
 transformation of various kinds of symbols and
 systems of symbols. Individuals who wish to participate
 meaningfully in artistic perception must learn to
 decode, to "read" the various symbolic vehicles in
 their culture; individuals who which to participate in
 artistic creation must learn how to manipulate, how
 to "write with" the various symbolic forms present in
 their culture, and, finally, individuals who wish to engage
 fully in the artistic realm must also gain mastery of certain
 central artistic concepts. Just as one cannot assume that
 individuals will – in the absence of support - learn to read and
 write in their natural languages, so, too, it seems reasonable
 to assume that individuals can benefit from assistance in
 learning to "read" and "write" in the various languages of the
 arts.”
                                     Howard Gardner, Art Education and Human Development, p 9
Working with Clay
Women at the tomb
   (Annie G.)

                           Jesus and
                         Mary Magdalene
                           (Elizabeth)

               A man and a woman
                    (Essah)
Women and a man
                         (Martha)




Women and the angel
    (Kumba)
Updated developmental art in the low literacy classroom
Elizabeth’s mortars and bowl
Updated developmental art in the low literacy classroom
Essah
Updated developmental art in the low literacy classroom
Updated developmental art in the low literacy classroom
On it Goes
Visual Literacy? Not yet.




Christmas 2012
Tell the story with the stickers.
Updated developmental art in the low literacy classroom
Updated developmental art in the low literacy classroom
Pictionary
Updated developmental art in the low literacy classroom
So what? And now what?
What have you seen here?
Have you seen this in your classroom?
Is drawing a precursor to writing?
How can we use clay to teach symbolism?
Where do we go from here?
Sources
   Alland, A. (1983). Playing with Form. New York: Columbia Universtiy Press
   Brooks, M. (2002). Drawing to learn. Unpublished PhD thesis. Alberta: University of Alberta, Canada
    Brooks, M. Drawing to Learn. In Narey, M. ed. (2009). Making Meaning: Constructing Multimodal
    Perspectives of Language, Literacy, and Learning through Arts-based Early Childhood Education. New York:
    Springer
   Camnitzer, L. (2009, Feb). Art and Literacy. e-flux. http://www.e-flux.com/journal/view/42
   Camnitzer, L. (2009,Oct). Alphabetization, Part One: Protocal and Profieiency. http://www.e-
    flux.com/journal/view/78
   Freeman, N. H. (1987) Children's drawings of human figures - The Oxford Companion to
    Art, available, accessible, quite, real. Online: http://psychology.jrank.org/pages/890/children's-
    drawings-human-figures.html
   Gardner, H. (1990). Art Education and Human Development. Los Angeles: J. Paul Getty Trust
   Hagood, M.H. (2000). The Use of Art in Counselling Child and Adult Survivors of Sexual Abuse. London:
    Jessica Kingsley Publishing
   Kellogg, R. (1969). Analyzing Children's Art. Palo Alto, CA: National Press Books
   Lister, S, and Rosales, A. . The Kinetic-House-Tree-Person Adapted to Adults with Developmental
    Disabilities. In Snow, S. and D'Amico, M. (2009). Assessment in the Creative Arts Therapies: Designing and
    Adapting Assessment Tools for Adults with Developmental Disabilities. Springfield, IL: Charles C. Thomas
    Publishers
   Milbrath, C. & Trautner, H.M. eds. (2008). Children's Understanding and Production of Pictures, Drawings
    & Art: Theoretical and Empirical Approaches. Cambridge, MA: Hogrefe
   Vygotsky, L.G. (1970). Mind in Society: The Development of Higher Psychological Processes. Edited by
    Cole, M., John-Steiner, V. Scribner, S. & Souberman, E. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press
Adult Literacy Students Draw


            Jean Marrapodi
   jmarrapodi@applestar.org
              @jmarrapodi
             401-440-61615

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Updated developmental art in the low literacy classroom

  • 1. Developmental Art in the Low Literacy Classroom Jean Marrapodi  jmarrapodi@applestar.org  @jmarrapodi 401-440-6165
  • 2. Context  Adult Sunday School Class  Liberian refugees  Senior citizens, age unknown (not tracked in Liberia)  Meet 1 hour/week for past 5 years
  • 3. Preamble: Spring 2006  Lesson One: Palm Sunday  Draw a picture to illustrate the story  Could not do.  Through a translator: “We can’t do that. We haven’t practiced like you have to be able to do that.”
  • 4. Preamble Two  Lesson Two: Easter  Ok, let’s copy some drawings to tell the story.  We can’t do that.
  • 5. Preamble Three  Let’s try to copy some symbols then.  Could not complete unless dots were drawn to connect the lines.  Circles were misshapen and barely recognizable.
  • 6. No Print Awareness Elizabeth loves Jesus Switched cards: Jesus loves Elizabeth Said: Elizabeth loves Jesus.
  • 7. Reading Art: Part One Isabella Stewart Gardner Adam and Eve Museum, Boston C H A T T E R Ho-hum !
  • 9. What time of year is it?
  • 11. Setting One: October 2010  Pastor Appreciation Sunday  Given a template with prompts:  Pastor Berkley is ___________  Pastor Michele is ___________  I love my pastors!  Learned what the prompts said. Asked to come up with a word to fill in. They either copied the word or had teacher spell it.  Draw a picture of you and the pastors.
  • 21. Setting Two (following week)  Given blank paper and markers  Draw a picture of you with your grandchildren  Teacher wrote names of children
  • 25. Essah
  • 26. Kumba
  • 28. Frances * Granddaughter came over to “help” * * * *
  • 29. Setting Three (following week)  Discussion about houses in America vs Liberia  Let’s draw pictures of your houses here and in Liberia.  Given blank paper and markers  Teacher wrote words as given prompts
  • 30. Martha Martha lives in an apartment building.
  • 31. Elizabeth America on the left. Liberia on the right. Elizabeth lives in apartment 511 in a high rise building. She takes an elevator to get to her apartment.
  • 32. Annie K. Annie lives on in a triple- decker in RI.
  • 33. Annie G. Annie lives on in a two story single family home.
  • 34. Frances Frances lives on the first floor of a two story house.
  • 35. Kumba Kumba lives in townhouse type apartments in a complex
  • 36. Essah Essah lives in a second floor apartment.
  • 37. Setting Four  Kumba’s spontaneous drawings brought from home in the subsequent weeks.
  • 41. Other Projects  Painting background for nativities – 12/2009  Cutting snowflakes – 1/2011
  • 45. Parallels to Children’s Work? Does their natural development mirror emergent literacy?
  • 46. Drawings of people by nursery school children http://psychology.jrank.org/pages/890/children%27s-drawings-human-figures.html
  • 47. Tadpole Figure By a pre- From a severely By a pre- school child mentally school child handicapped adult http://psychology.jrank.org/pages/890/children%27s-drawings-human-figures.html
  • 48. Sarah – 3.2 to 3.4 years people a cat, Tyrannosaurus rex, and a leopard http://psychology.jrank.org/pages/890/children%27s-drawings-human-figures.html
  • 49. Helen, 4.5 – 5.5 years http://psychology.jrank.org/pages/890/children%27s-drawings-human-figures.html
  • 53. Callaghan Phases of Development Callaghan, T.C. (2008) The origins and Development of Pictorial Symbol Functioning. In Children’s Understanding and Production of Pictures, Drawings, and Art: Theoretical and Empirical Approaches. Cambridge, MA: Hogrefe. P 22
  • 54. Donley, S.K. 1985/1987 Adapted from teacher inservice training materials for early childhood, art education, and special education workshops. http://www.learningdesign.com/Portfolio/DrawDev/kiddrawing.html #anchor2470313
  • 55. Rhoda Kellogg: Gestalts Kellogg, R. (1969) Analyzing children’s art. Paolo Alto, CA: National Press Books. P 109
  • 56. Kellog’s Scheme of the Evolution of Pictorial Work Common Sequences Kellogg, R. (1969) Analyzing children’s art. Paolo Alto, CA: National Press Books. P 273
  • 57. House-Tree-Person/Kinetic HTP Measure aspects of person’s personality 3 years-adult Common in art therapy Questionable validity 1948/1969
  • 64. Kumba
  • 67. Essah
  • 69. Value of Using Art "This adapted Kinetic-House-Tree-Person for adults with developmental disabilities holds promise for providing an arts- based assessment that assesses for growth and positive changes in the individual in addition to negative or downward changes. Verbal assessments are not always appropriate due to verbal limitations within the individual who has developmental disabilities, therefore, arts therapists have at their disposal alternatives for assessing for change in functioning. Because this assessment mirrored the notes of the on-site therapists, this assessment suggests it can measure change. It also suggests that arts based interventions do, in fact, facilitate well-being and positive changes in interaction and communication." p 45 Lister & Rosales In Snow and D'Amico
  • 70. Value of Using Art "...there is evidence of a relationship between thought and drawing that becomes visible through the study of meaning-making processes. Drawing supports the movement from simple spontaneous concepts to more complex concepts and plays an important role in promoting higher mental functions. " Brooks, Drawing to Learn in Making Meaning p. 9
  • 72. Alexander Alland, 1983  240 children’s drawings  Six cultures  Bali  Ponape  Taiwan  Japan  US  France  Definite cultural variants
  • 73. Ponape Now Pohnpie, Micronesia Male, 4 years, 19 minutes Female, 5 years, 5 minutes First encounter with drawing  Limited exposure to art  Generally single color  Human figures rare  Nonconformity with Western norms Male, 5 years, 14 minutes
  • 74. Bali Male, 3.3 years, 30 minutes Female, 4.6 years, 25 minutes  Overall density  Polychromatic  No stories  Highly artistic culture Male, 2.6 years, 18 minutes
  • 75. Taiwan Female, 4.8 years, 10 minutes Female, 6.8 years  Long heritage of art  Filling, building, touching, details  Picture making influenced by relationship between pictorial Male, 5.2 years, 24 minutes representation and writing
  • 76. Japan Male, 5.6years, 27 minutes Female, 3.10 years, 14 minutes  Modern aesthetic in culture  Highly visual culture  Colorful, often single subject Female, 4.11 years, 8 minutes
  • 77. Alexander Alland, 1983 Conclusions: “…the two most important elements in drawing skill among young children are experience and exposure to art.” P 63 "On the basis of my data I believe that representation and symbolism are things children are consciously or unconsciously taught to do by adults and other children. This leads to the conclusion that the only safe definition of children's drawing can be 'playing with form.'" p215
  • 78. What we know about Liberia’s Art Dan, Mano, Kran , Kpelle tribal art  Known for their carved masks  Music and dance very important  Kissi make baskets and weave on vertical looms  Literacy rate: 25% http://www.mariomeneghini.com/destination%20Dan,%20Ma no,%20Krahn,%20Kpelle/index.htm
  • 79. Relating this to Writing
  • 80. Children Create Letters in Art "Most of the letters of the English alphabet, both capitals and lower- case forms, are made by young children as art Gestalts. In art, the letters are placed or arranged to complete a Pattern or an implied shape. In language, the letters are arranged in a certain order within words and are put into a certain left- right and top-bottom placement. As the child learns to read, he must perceive the differences between the esthetic and the linguistic positioning of letters, and as he learns to write, he must put this perception to use. Each child who has scribbled a great deal will know many of the letter Gestalts when he enters school, but he needs to learn the differences between their uses for art and for language. Otherwise, he will have serious difficulties with language.” Kellogg, 1970 p 262
  • 82. Not seeing letters, but shapes
  • 83. Elizabeth did the same thing
  • 84. Learning to Read and Write Art “...human artistry is viewed first and foremost as an activity of the mind, an activity that involves the use of a transformation of various kinds of symbols and systems of symbols. Individuals who wish to participate meaningfully in artistic perception must learn to decode, to "read" the various symbolic vehicles in their culture; individuals who which to participate in artistic creation must learn how to manipulate, how to "write with" the various symbolic forms present in their culture, and, finally, individuals who wish to engage fully in the artistic realm must also gain mastery of certain central artistic concepts. Just as one cannot assume that individuals will – in the absence of support - learn to read and write in their natural languages, so, too, it seems reasonable to assume that individuals can benefit from assistance in learning to "read" and "write" in the various languages of the arts.” Howard Gardner, Art Education and Human Development, p 9
  • 86. Women at the tomb (Annie G.) Jesus and Mary Magdalene (Elizabeth) A man and a woman (Essah)
  • 87. Women and a man (Martha) Women and the angel (Kumba)
  • 91. Essah
  • 95. Visual Literacy? Not yet. Christmas 2012 Tell the story with the stickers.
  • 100. So what? And now what? What have you seen here? Have you seen this in your classroom? Is drawing a precursor to writing? How can we use clay to teach symbolism? Where do we go from here?
  • 101. Sources  Alland, A. (1983). Playing with Form. New York: Columbia Universtiy Press  Brooks, M. (2002). Drawing to learn. Unpublished PhD thesis. Alberta: University of Alberta, Canada Brooks, M. Drawing to Learn. In Narey, M. ed. (2009). Making Meaning: Constructing Multimodal Perspectives of Language, Literacy, and Learning through Arts-based Early Childhood Education. New York: Springer  Camnitzer, L. (2009, Feb). Art and Literacy. e-flux. http://www.e-flux.com/journal/view/42  Camnitzer, L. (2009,Oct). Alphabetization, Part One: Protocal and Profieiency. http://www.e- flux.com/journal/view/78  Freeman, N. H. (1987) Children's drawings of human figures - The Oxford Companion to Art, available, accessible, quite, real. Online: http://psychology.jrank.org/pages/890/children's- drawings-human-figures.html  Gardner, H. (1990). Art Education and Human Development. Los Angeles: J. Paul Getty Trust  Hagood, M.H. (2000). The Use of Art in Counselling Child and Adult Survivors of Sexual Abuse. London: Jessica Kingsley Publishing  Kellogg, R. (1969). Analyzing Children's Art. Palo Alto, CA: National Press Books  Lister, S, and Rosales, A. . The Kinetic-House-Tree-Person Adapted to Adults with Developmental Disabilities. In Snow, S. and D'Amico, M. (2009). Assessment in the Creative Arts Therapies: Designing and Adapting Assessment Tools for Adults with Developmental Disabilities. Springfield, IL: Charles C. Thomas Publishers  Milbrath, C. & Trautner, H.M. eds. (2008). Children's Understanding and Production of Pictures, Drawings & Art: Theoretical and Empirical Approaches. Cambridge, MA: Hogrefe  Vygotsky, L.G. (1970). Mind in Society: The Development of Higher Psychological Processes. Edited by Cole, M., John-Steiner, V. Scribner, S. & Souberman, E. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press
  • 102. Adult Literacy Students Draw Jean Marrapodi jmarrapodi@applestar.org @jmarrapodi 401-440-61615

Editor's Notes

  1. Gesell (1948) used "drawing to investigate the child mind. When he asked three year olds to copy geometric shapes - squares, circles, triangles, crosses, diamonds - they did rather poorly. Yet the normal child of this age spontaneously draws esthetic versions of these geometric forms except for the diamond. Apparently, the mental activity involved in copy work differs from that needed for spontaneous art.“ Kellogg, p 179
  2. Basic ScribblesDiagrams and CombinesAggregatesSunsSun faces and figuresHumans with head-top markings and with arms attached to the headHumans without head-top markingsArmless humansHumans with varied torsosHumans with arms attached to the torsoRelatively complete human imagesKellogg, R. (1969). Analyzing Children’s Art. Palo Alto, CA: National Press Books p 109