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Pharmaceutical e-Marketing v2.0
 

Pharmaceutical e-Marketing v2.0

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The aim of this presentation is to help Digital Marketing managers to implement an efficient e-marketing strategy in the particular and constrained environment of the pharmaceutical industry. This ...

The aim of this presentation is to help Digital Marketing managers to implement an efficient e-marketing strategy in the particular and constrained environment of the pharmaceutical industry. This presentation can also be a good opportunity for Operational Marketing professionals jammed with the traditional 4p to realise that implementing a 360° marketing strategy is not only aligning Web and Marketing (or vice versa).
I took the opportunity of the success of my previous release to enhance and complete some slides in this V2.0. You will discover how a Biopharmaceutical company (Celgene) has taken a good start after my advises in 2010 and how they have implemented an e-marketing strategy with the evolution of their Internet portals and their connections to medical portals.
It seems to me that you can significantly improve your knowledge of e-marketing tactics with free tools in order to audit and monitor your consumer’s behaviours in the digital space by reading my other presentation: Digital Marketing Management.

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    Pharmaceutical e-Marketing v2.0 Pharmaceutical e-Marketing v2.0 Presentation Transcript

    • Pharmaceutical networking medical portal operational Search engine optimization Advanced E-Marketing E-Marketing strategies Search engine marketing linking Web 2.0 Streaming Pharmaceutical Social media E-strategy blog digital Marketing Management campaign © Jean-Luc CAUT 2012 Jean-Digital Marketing strategiesIn the pharmaceutical industry
    • Introduction “Social networking is one of the hottest new marketing topics both within and beyond pharma over the next few years, the biggest external impact will be seen on pharmas interactions with patients, followed closely by the influence on the industrys online relationship with doctors. Social media also is poised to drive significant change internally in pharmaceutical organizations as they strive for productivity and efficiency gains.” Len Starnes, head of global digital sales and marketing for Schering-Plough "Healthcare has underutilized e-mail compared to most other industries, actually the number of people opting in to receive this kind of communication has doubled over the past couple of years. On the physician side, most companies are not emailing physicians and its probably one of the biggest missed opportunities we see. Most physicians are completely willing to get emails from pharma companies, but pharma hasnt recognized that yet and simply isnt doing it.” Mark Bard, president of Manhattan Research (Healthcare Market Research Firm). 2
    • Executive Summary Most corporate executives are convinced by now that the scale and pervasiveness of today’s technological change require a fundamental review of business strategy. Technologies through the Internet are creating opportunities to rethink business models, processes and relationships of unprecedented levels with customers and prescribers. e.g. On-line marketing activities of hospitals include components such as discussion groups, research, communications with doctors and patients, newsletters, referrals, intranet, disease management, health education, physician directory, recruiting, e-mail, and website. While all these are essential, 95.7% of marketers who report using on-line marketing strategies have websites as their primary basis for marketing. Interestingly, most healthcare organizations use websites primarily for promotion and recruiting purposes. Some are adding more creative functions such as interactivity between doctors and patients, and sites that link physicians to clinical data repositories. Even though there are many cost effective ways to incorporate some of these options, most are rather expensive but they also point to the very essence of e-marketing in any business. 3
    • Definitions
    • e-Definition of e-Marketing What does Internet marketing refer to? Internet marketing, also referred to as digital-marketing, web- marketing, online-marketing or e-Marketing, is the marketing of products or services over the Internet. e-marketing includes marketing done via e-mail and wireless media. e-marketing refers also to management of digital customer data and electronic customer relationship management (e-CRM) systems are also often grouped together under internet marketing. e-marketing also refers to the placement of media along many different stages of the customer engagement cycle through search engine marketing (SEM), search engine optimization (SEO) e-marketing finally includes marketing done via banner ads on specific websites, and Web 2.0 strategies. 5
    • e-Definition of Pharmaceutical e-Marketing Pharmaceutical e-Marketing It is in reality not a single concept and could be divided into three categories: End user (including doctors and hospitals): This is actually something which is mostly based on providing reports, scientific data, etc. to the specialists in order to start the promotion of a new drug. A type of the e- Marketing strategy used nowadays is new media Bulk drugs: This sector is not visible to the end users and mostly involves established drugs like antibiotics, antipyretic, etc. The competition is getting tougher but is mostly left outside the scope of the e-Marketing. Type of the e-Marketing used – anything from a catalogue on the web to the chemical portals. API (Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients): New and probably the most exciting area of pharma e-Marketing. APIs are pure B2B as they are distributed between the pharma companies only. There are very few specialists in this area but due to tremendous progress made in this field in countries like India and China the industry is about to gain serious momentum. Type of the e-Marketing used – highly individual, depends on the skills of the specialist involved. 6
    • Causes & Effects
    • Causes of increasing use of e-Marketing e- As the Internet gains more significance in different aspects of our lives, the world of healthcare bounds to have its share of the Internet use gradually. As more healthcare facilities erect gates between physicians and pharma sales representatives, industry has turned to other promotional methods and is increasing use of e-Marketing Electronic detailing and online events let doctors check out drug information when and where they choose, rather than having to meet with a live representative during office hours e-marketing can be carefully controlled; an electronic sales pitch cant choose to go off-label Faced with an increasingly difficult operating environment, pharmaceutical companies are seeking ways to establish close and sustainable relationships with customers. 8
    • Some immediate and visible Effects Overall drug industry spending on e-marketing was up 7 percent for the first 11 months of last year to $477 million* Pfizer Inc. had spent $27 million on e-marketing efforts through the first 11 months of the year, compared with $14 million for the same period a year previously* Merck & Co. still leads the field by a wide margin, on a pace to spend about $68 million on an annual basis* Pfizer cut back on traditionally higher-costing promotions for such medications as cholesterol-fighter Lipitor ($2 million, down $200,000) and pain treatment Lyrica ($2.8 million, down $1 million). Source: Trade publication Medical Media & Marketing 9
    • Opportunities
    • Audience analysisAudience demographics analysis of Internet users: 11
    • e-Marketing Opportunities Internet is now a significant source of health information and connectivity between providers, prescribers and payers We attend at the transformation of traditional 4Ps Operational Marketing to e- Marketing The interest in e-health as a channel for the marketing of health-related products and services increases every day. New social networking tools and social networking communities have made it easier to reach and bring together individuals who are interested in a specific disease or medical treatment From social networking tools and advanced physician portals to streaming video and closed loop strategies, the opportunities to open new communication channels with patients, physicians and KOL are limited only by a marketers imagination and determination. 12
    • e-Marketing Opportunities Social networking It encompasses a range of network sites that allow users to interact and share data. This computer-mediated communication has become very popular with social sites like MySpace, Facebook and Bebo, media sites like Flickr and YouTube or Dailymotion Top 50 most mentioned words in conversations surrounding “PHARMACEUTICAL” 13
    • e-Marketing Opportunities It is all about networking e.g. Pfizer’s network (01-2012) 14
    • e-Marketing Opportunities Celgene (Biopharmaceutical company), network (11-2010) 15
    • e-Marketing Opportunities Celgene’s network (01-2012) 16
    • e-Marketing Opportunities Social networking Pharmaceutical companies have begun to use social network analysis to uncover Key Opinion Leaders or thought leaders It does not introduce respondent biasness, which is commonly found in primary research It can identify and map out the entire scientific community for a disease state It has greater compliance with state and federal regulations; because physician prescribing patterns are not used to create the social network 17
    • e-Marketing Opportunities Social networking 18
    • e-Marketing Opportunities Medical portals More and more patients demand to know and expect up-to-date information on their condition and treatment, as well as alternative treatment options. The access to information via the Internet means that information on a US website can be read by a European patient and may include information on a branded medicine. As we are in an age of global communication, the time is right to reconsider the regulatory environment for DTCC in Europe Attractive avenues for e-pharmaceutical marketing in Europe include the application of e-health in disease management, to promote compliance and in patient advocacy to increase pressure for the regulatory approval of innovative therapies. The foundation of sustainable success in the application of e-health for pharmaceutical marketing lies the combination of strategic alliances and technological innovation 19
    • e-Marketing Opportunities Advanced physician portals By bridging the gap between physicians and the home care agency, physician portals are quickly becoming an easy-to-use and cost effective solution to send document electronically. This concept benefits both parties in a number of ways. Agencies benefit because it reduces overhead and provides a way to manage documentation sent to the physician. Physicians benefit because they can streamline the process for signing orders, create a more efficient office, and capture the information needed to bill for Care Plan Oversight. There are two primary types of portals on the market today Software-dependent physician portals are specific to a home care agencys software. These portals lack flexibility at the physician level and can only work with one agency at a time. Independent physician portals are not specific to home health software. These portals provide flexibility to physicians and have the ability to work with multiple agencies at a time. As a leader in the Home Care and Hospice industries, HEALTHCAREfirst has developed and launched firstCPO, its own independent physician portal earlier this year. 20
    • e-Marketing Opportunities Streaming Video Streaming video allows computer users to begin viewing video clips stored on servers without downloading the entire file.After a short period to initialize and buffer the file, it begins to “stream,” or play, in real time. Pharmaceutical companies could consider Streaming Video opportunity within three main domains: 1. Scientific information on specific disease 2. Information on advantages and effects of specific treatments 3. Hybrid meeting Hybrid meetings are events that contain both live and virtual components combined. They are also great opportunities and are one of the hottest trends in meeting planning. Live Webcasts using streaming video of the conference would allow event sponsors and hosting organizations to widen their meeting exposure to include those who follow the conference online 21
    • e-Marketing Opportunities Advanced physician portals 22
    • e-Marketing Opportunities Medical portals A critical review of evolution of e-health in Europe, focusing on the strategic implications of the differences (and similarities) between the European and US e- health environments can assist us in better discerning emerging trends and distinct commercial opportunities at the interface between the pharmaceutical industry and e-health. The European e-health space differs substantially from that of the US, National health insurance, social factors, consumer and provider characteristics and regulatory barriers force us to rethink the prevailing health portal and connectivity approach to e-health. Restrictions on direct-to-consumer advertising of prescription drugs: regulatory authorities in Europe, as well as the European Commission, are reacting with conservative caution to the DTCC debate Limited opportunities for private sector connectivity solutions seem to limit the successful application of e-health as a pharmaceutical marketing tool in Europe. 23
    • e-Marketing Opportunities Medical portals 24
    • e-Marketing Opportunities Search Engine Optimization (SEO) SEO is something unique to the Internet environment: 47% of Web users said that the most common way they find products or information is through search engines. The top 10 results to a search query get 78% more traffic than subsequent listings, many firms use SEO to be sure their site is high on the list. 1. Register with the top and niche search engines for their industry. Although search engine robots are constantly looking for new Web pages, registration accelerates the process. 2. Use key words that describe their sites in hidden HTML tags located by search engines (Meta tags). 3. Craft the text and titles on their pages to reflect these topic areas, including different spellings of key words that users might type into the search engine. Many search engines charge a slotting fee for top positions, 13% said they pay for the links or clicks-through To stay high on the listing of search results, SEO strategies change almost daily. 25
    • e-Marketing Opportunities E-Detailing European market is still in an early stage of development and adoption. In fact, only 15% of European physicians have participated in an electronic detailing program today, a number that has remained statistically stagnant year over year. That said, the electronic detailing market in Europe does have a few companies acting as active players – with Pfizer and GlaxoSmithKline (GSK) driving the majority of market share today. Although the sales force initially looked at e-detailing with skepticism, wondering if online promotion would render the traditional sales call obsolete, most reps are actually seeing the opposite effect: 1. e-detail actually increases the overall time spent with the rep. The office visit takes on a new life in the context of a growing array of clinical information sources – online and offline. 2. physicians participating in e-detailing are more likely to report they spend more time with a rep as a result of an e-detail, as opposed to taking away time from the rep as a result. Ahead-of-the-curve companies across Europe are capitalising on e-detailing as a low- cost opportunity to increase physician engagement and improve the overall sales call quality. 26
    • Strategies
    • e-Marketing Strategies Implementing a Web 2.0 e-Marketing Strategy Examine stakeholder and customer behaviour within the digital space Improve relationship marketing by moving beyond individual channels Engage with mobile, social media and optimized web coverage 28
    • Discover Discover Consumer behaviour within the digital space The aim of the audit is to capture the unique drivers of the brand around its functional, rational, emotional and social attributes to determine what matters most to current and potential consumers. 29
    • e-Marketing Strategies Rational Approach Emotional Approach High Involvement Sport Car Life Insurance Jewellery Family Car Auto Insurance Contact Lenses Perfume Washing Machine Sunglasses Informative Affective Engine Oil ToothPaste Swatch Watch Sun Lotion Low Involvement New Year Greetings Card Shampoo Pizza Ketchup Disposal Razor Beers Sodas Routine Hedonism 30
    • e-Marketing Strategies Effects of Web 2.0 on Consumer’s decision making process Understanding the sources of customer value and the motives of consumers to use these applications are the first steps to this direction. Web 2.0 applications are becoming increasingly popular due to the advantages they offer to users (transparency, referrals, contacts with other users, etc) and their effect on customer power. Interaction with peers triggers new customer needs and alter buying attitudes. Customer preferences and decisions are increasingly based on inputs provided by parties beyond the control of online marketers: 1. peer reviews, 2. referrals, 3. blogs, tagging, 4. social networks, 5. online forums, 6. user-generated content 31
    • e-Marketing Strategies Effects of Web 2.0 on Consumer’s decision making process As a result, the internet, and particularly the Web 2.0 as a new marketplace component, further complicates the time-honoured ‘textbook’ buying behaviour process described in the Inputs, Processing, Response model where the elements A and B represent the traditional influencers of the consumer behaviour: these are the conventional marketing influences (A) and the uncontrollable personal influencers (B).Notes:A and B: Factors affecting thebuying decision-making process intraditional shopping environments.A, B and C: Factors affecting thebuying decision-making process inan internet (Web 1.0)-mediatedenvironment.A, B, C and D: Factors affectingthe buying decision-makingprocess in an internet (Web 2.0)-mediated environment 32
    • Create Develop insight-rich brand and communication strategies. Business-building, culturally- relevant and media-agnostic ideas are the hallmarks of our work, recognizing that in today’s world, consumers play a vital role in the dialogue. With piercing truths and illuminating insights, Brand Enlightenment fuels the creative brief, providing the spark in our expression of the brand. 33
    • Engage Transmedia Storytelling The right messages are crafted to the right audience at the right time. Like a vintner blending the perfect Cabernet Sauvignon, this requires artistic creativity in both messaging and media engagement. 34
    • e-Marketing Strategies Consumer Involvement Model Foote-Cone-Belding Model (“think, feel, do”) Model suggests that consumers: • Become aware of and learn about a new product (think): steps are awareness and knowledge, • Develop a positive or negative attitude about it (feel): steps are liking and preference, • Move to purchasing it (do). High-involvement product decisions (high financial, emotional, or social risk): • Consumers spend time gathering information and considering alternatives prior to buying such products. Low-involvement decisions: consumers just hear about a product, give it a try, and then decide if they like it. To build brands and inform customers: • A firm operates at the cognitive & attitude levels of the hierarchy of effects, • Uses information publishing, Web advertising, e-mail campaigns, and other promotional techniques. 35
    • e-Marketing Strategies Consumer Involvement process 36
    • e-Marketing Strategies Consumer Involvement Model 37
    • e-Marketing Strategies Consumer Involvement Model 38
    • Paid-Owned-Paid-Owned-Earned Messaging Paid, Owned and Earned Messaging are used to dissect the brand and its initiatives in the planning process. 39
    • e-Marketing Strategies Closed Loop Strategies Another hot topic in pharma e-marketing is closed loop marketing. The main objective is to avoid to leave customer communication gap open. Segmentation is giving way to "particle" marketing, which is dealing with individuals rather than segments.Traditional Pharma Marketing and SegmentationNew Particle Pharma Marketing based on Social Networks To gather and continuously refine segmentation approach and ways to contact individual customers- It is closed loop. 40
    • e-Marketing Strategies Closed Loop Strategies Consumers are becoming more aware: According to a recent Forrester report, "one in five consumers are using Social computing as the single means of obtaining knowledge about their health conditions.” Particle Marketing is the only way to fill the consumer communication gap, it is closed loop - where you end up with as many segments as individuals Segmentation Building customer Integration Monitor communities Pull Strategy, Videos Web Site, blogs, chatAccurately define target Chat rooms, Blogs, on specific disease, on frequenting audience provide accurate and treatments, on scientific reliable information, progresses, Viral Streaming Video campaign 41
    • e-Marketing Propositions The evolution of communications requires a new approach to reputation measurement Social Media Web Government Buzz 2.0 Podcasting Operations Media Folksonomy Relations Relations Wireless Grassroots Blogs Promotions outreach Tagging RSS YouTube Press releases IR Wikipedia Pitching Online outreach reporters Search Management Engines and Strategy Third party Finance outreach Public Affairs Metaverses Flick Branding r Special Viral Events Content marketing Employee Optimization Communications MySpace Facebook Syndication Brand Advergaming Social Networking Management Consumer- generated Content Citizen Journalism Recruitment, Retention Customer Loyalty 42
    • Where to start
    • e-Marketing Propositions Who are you targeting ! Which social media sites do they spend time on? How do they participate, if at all? Consideration Behaviours Preferences Methods of publishing or sharing 44
    • e-Marketing Propositions What are your goals? Connect with customers Gain customer insight Educate Build though leadership Gain more coverage Promote product or services Augment SEO program 45
    • e-Marketing Propositions What is your strategy? Content: Mix of research results and user generated content Interaction: Consumers expect it, KOL or your experts can provide answers to customers or visitors’ questions Sharing: Must be easy and user friendly 46
    • e-Marketing Propositions What will be your tatics? What technology wil you implement? Blog(s) Social Network Wiki Forums Reviews Microblogging Video, podcast Virtual worlds 47
    • e-Marketing Propositions What will you measure and report? Social Media is less about ROI and more about influence What metrics are the best indications of success according to your audience, objectives, strategy and tactics? It is all about the data, behavioural data, transaction data and social data 48
    • e-Marketing Propositions Social Networking: Close the loop ! Basic information that will help to clearly explain Product Lifecycle allows the firm to improve trust, transparency… 49
    • e-Marketing Propositions Social Networking: Close the loop ! Communication and articles about specific desease allows the experts or the Key Opinion Leaders to close the loop for the firm. 50
    • e-Marketing Propositions Social Networking: Close the loop ! Questions/Answers about specific desease allows the scientists of the company to close the loop. 51
    • e-Marketing Propositions Social Networking: Close the loop ! Videos about specific desease allows also the scientists or the KOL of the company to close the loop.The interest is clearly identified here 52
    • e-Marketing Propositions Social Networking: Close the loop ! Forum concerning specific desease allows patients or practitioners to exchange experiences, advices, information. 53
    • Potential Solutions and Tools
    • Potential solutions1. SMO: Social Media Optimisation solutions:Several companies are now providing specialized tools and platform for social mediamarketing. Tools can be used for a variety of different things such as: Social Media Monitoring 1. Social Aggregation 2. Social Book Marking and Tagging 3. Social Analytics and Reporting 4. Automation 5. Social Media 6. Blog Marketing 7. Validation Some popular tools include: 1. Sysomos - Social media monitoring and analytics provider 2. Hubspot - Inbound social media market 3. Klout - Monitoring and analytics 4. Twtbuck- Social network advertising 55
    • Potential solutions2. SEO: Search Engine Optimisation:SEO is something unique to the Internet environment, 47% of Web users said that themost common way they find products or information is through search engines. The top 10 results to a search query get 78% more traffic than subsequent listings, many firms use SEO to be sure their site is high on the list. 1. Register with the top and niche search engines for their industry. Although search engine robots are constantly looking for new Web pages, registration accelerates the process. 2. Use key words that describe their sites in hidden HTML tags located by search engines (Meta tags). 3. Craft the text and titles on their pages to reflect these topic areas, including different spellings of key words that users might type into the search engine. Many search engines charge a slotting fee for top positions, 13% said they pay for the links or clicks-through To stay high on the listing of search results, SEO strategies change almost daily. 56
    • Potential solutions2. SEO: Search Engine Optimisation: Method Percent Changing meta-tags 61% Changing page titles 44% Reciprocal linking 32% Purchasing multiple domain names 28% Multiple home pages (doorways) 21% Hiding keywords in background 18% Paid links/ pay per click 13% None of the above 13% 57
    • Potential solutions3. Link Building ToolsLink building is one of the most important and most time consuming aspects ofsearch engine optimization. There are a few free tools which will help you check yourcurrent links and help build your linking campaigns.Most link building software programs create automated search queries which areagainst the TOS for most major search engines.Top Free Link Building Tools 1. Xenu Link Slueth - Free download checks your site for broken links and can help you build a sitemap. 2. Linktree - Topical hub finder which allows you to compare the backlinks of multiple competitors. Pages which are linking into many different competitor websites may be a great place to acquire links from. 3. Prog - Tool searches Google and provides PageRank of each search result. Sorting backlinks while viewing 100 results per page makes it easy to see who your competitors most important links are and whether or not they are renting links. 58
    • Potential solutions4. Back end tools (including Web analytic tools and HTML validators):Web analytic tools can help you to understand what is happening to your websiteand measure your websites success. They range from simple traffic counters totools that work with log files and to more sophisticated tools that are based on pagetagging (putting JavaScript or an image on a page to track actions). These tools candeliver conversion-related information. 1. Log file analyzing tool: WebTrends by NetiQ 2. Tag-based analytic programs WebSideStorys Hitbox 3. Transaction-based tool: TeaLeaf RealiTea. Validators check the invisible parts of websites, highlighting potential problems and many usability issues ensure your website meets W3C code standards. 59
    • Potential solutions5. Social Media:Now that customers have unlimited options when it comes to how and where theycommunicate with your brand, it is more important than ever to be able to understand themeaning behind every data source, from your corporate website to external sources likesocial media.Customers are now in control of how they communicate with or about your business onTwitter, Facebook, and YouTube; on mobile devices; and via email, activity on yourwebsite, and conversations with your call centre.. 60
    • Potential solutions5. Global Digital Marketing plateform Interwoven Autonomy 61
    • Potential solutions6. Streaming VideoStreaming video allows computer users to begin viewing video clips stored on serverswithout downloading the entire file. After a short period to initialize and buffer the file, itbegins to “stream,” or play, in real time. Pharmaceutical companies could consider Streaming Video opportunity within three main domains: 1. Scientific information on specific protections or molecules 2. Information on advantages and effects of specific protections 3. Hybrid meeting Hybrid meetings are events that contain both live and virtual components combined. They are also great opportunities and are one of the hottest trends in meeting planning. Live Webcasts using streaming video of the conference would allow event sponsors and hosting organizations to widen their meeting exposure to include those who follow the conference online 62
    • Back Up Slides
    • Top search queries on Medical Portal iMedixTop 18 Search Queries Top 18 User Stated Interest Top 18 Search Queries that caused most Chat discussions1. Asthma 1. Diabetes 1. Asthma2. Diabetes 2. Cancer 2. Diabetes3. Appendicitis 3. Pregnancy 3. ADHD4. Cancer 4. Heart disease 4. Cancer5. Heart attacks 5. Asthma 5. Appendicitis6. Chlamydia 6. Depression 6. Acne7. ADHD 7. Weight 7. Breast cancer8. Meningitis 8. Back pain 8. Headache9. Autism 9. High blood pressure 9. Chlamydia10. Salmonella 10. Arthritis 10. Hepatitis C11. Gonorrhea 11. Anxiety 11. Flu12. Headache 12. Diet 12. ADD13. Pneumonia 13. Cholesterol 13. Alcohol withdrawal14. Boils 14. ADHD 14. Alcoholism15. Caffeine withdrawal 15. Allergies 15. Depression16. Hepatitis 16. Fibromyalgia 16. Colon cancer17. Bronchitis 17. Fitness 17. Genital herpes18. Flu 18. Appendicitis 18. Bronchitis 64
    • Search Engine Optimization (SEO) Search Engine Optimization Method Percent Changing meta-tags 61% Changing page titles 44% Reciprocal linking 32% Purchasing multiple domain names 28% Multiple home pages (doorways) 21% Hiding keywords in background 18% Paid links/ pay per click 13% None of the above 13% Source: Adapted from www.iconocast.com 65
    • Top 15 Pharma Blogs 66
    • e-Marketing Opportunities Social networking 67
    • e-Marketing Opportunities Measuring Blog value 68
    • Web 2.0 categories Categories of Web 2.0, we propose a basic classification based on application types divided into five main categories: 1. Blogs: Short for Web logs: online journals, the most known and fastest-growing category of Web 2.0 applications. Blogs are often combined with Podcasts, that is, digital audio or video that can be streamed or downloaded to portable devices. Examples: http://gizmodo.com, http://www.boingboing.net, http://www.huffingtonpost.com 2. Social networks: applications allowing users to build personal websites accessible to other users for exchange of personal content and communication. Examples: http://www.myspace.com, http://www.facebook.com, www.hyves.nl, http://www.ning.com/ 3. (Content) Communities: Websites organising and sharing particular types of content. Examples are applications of Video sharing: http://video.google.com, www.youtube.com, http://etsylove.ning.com, Photos sharing: http://www.flickr.com, Social Bookmarking www.digg.com, http://del.icio.us and publicly edited Encyclopedias www.wikipedia.org, http://en.citizendium.org/wiki/Main_Page 4. Forums/bulleting boards: sites for exchanging ideas and information usually around special interests Examples: www.epinions.com, www.personaldemocracy.com, http://www.python.org. 5. Content aggregators: applications allowing users to fully customise the web content they wish to access. These sites make use of a technique known as Real Simple Syndication or Rich Site Summary (RSS). Examples http://uk.my.yahoo.com/, http://www.google.com/ig, http://www.netvibes.com/ 69