Structure and Function The respiratory system performs two major tasks: •Exchanging air between the body and the outside environment known as external respiration •Bringing oxygen to the cells and removing carbon dioxide from them referred to as internal respiration 2
The Pathway of Oxygento the Internal Cell• Mouth and nose• Pharynx (throat)• Larynx (voice box)• Trachea (windpipe)• Bronchi• Bronchioles• Alveoli (air sacs)
The Structure and Functionof the Nose• The nose is a cavity that is divided by a wall of cartilage called the septum.• The structures inside the nose warm and filter the air. • Cilia (hairs that warm the air) • Mucous membranes (trap dust and bacteria)
The Structure and Functionof the Pharynx• Also called the throat• Passageway for food and air• Connects the mouth to the larynx
The Structure and Functionof the Epiglottis• Lid on the top of the larynx• When food is swallowed, the lid closes so that food is directed down the esophagus and not into the lungs.• Air passes over the open epiglottis and enters the larynx.
Larynx, Trachea, and Bronchi
The Structure and Functionof the Larynx• Also called the voice box• A tube made up of nine separate cartilages to maintain openness• Lined with mucous membranes that form two folds called the vocal cords
The Structure and Functionof the Trachea• Also called the windpipe• Held open by C-shaped rings of cartilage• The wall between the rings is elastic to adjust for body positions.• Above the middle of the sternum, the trachea divides into two sections called bronchi.
The Structure and Function of theBronchus and Bronchiole• The bronchus connects the trachea to the lungs.• Once inside the lungs, the bronchus divides and divides again to become microscopic bronchioles that act as tiny air passageways.
The Structure and Functionof the Alveolus• Also called the air sacs• Clusters of capillaries located at the ends of each bronchiole• The body contains approximately 500 million alveoli
The Diaphragm and the Brain andHow They Relate to Breathing• The main muscle of respiration is called the diaphragm.• When the diaphragm contracts, it produces a vacuum that causes air to be drawn in.• When the diaphragm relaxes, air is forced out of the lungs.
Occurrences That AlterBreathing• Coughing • Deep breaths followed by forceful exhalation that can clear mucus from the lower respiratory tract• Hiccoughs • Caused by spasm of the diaphragm, possibly the result of an irritation to the diaphragm
Occurrences That AlterBreathing• Sneezing – Air is forced through the nose to clear the upper respiratory structures• Yawning – Deep, prolonged breath that can be caused by a drop in oxygen levels• Crying – A change in the breathing pattern that is in response to emotions
Diagnostic, Procedural & Laboratory TestsMethods Used toDiagnose RespiratoryDisorders:•Auscultation(stethoscope)•Assessing respiratoryrate Normal Adult•Percussion respiratory rate is 15 to 20 respirations per15•Sputum analysis minute.
Pulmonary Function Tests Pulmonary function tests measure the mechanics of breathing.Peak flow meter•measures the capacity for breathing Spirometer•a pulmonary function testing machine that measures thelungs volume and capacityForced Vital Capacity Forced Expiratory VolumeHighest breathing Shows breathing capacity atcapacity following the different parts of the 16deepest breath respiratory cycle
Abnormalities/MassesAbnormalities such asmasses andrestricted blood flowwithin the lungs canbe detected via: •Chest x-rays •MRI •Lung scans Structures of the respiratory system can be observed via: 17 •Endoscopy •Bronchoscopy
Bronchoscopy and Chest X-Ray• Bronchoscopy • A tube is inserted into the trachea to view the airways or to remove a foreign body• Chest x-rays • Studies that tell the general health of the lungs and surrounding tissue
Atelectasis and Bronchitis• Atelectasis • Lack of air in the lungs resulting from collapse of the alveolus• Bronchitis • Acute or chronic disease that results in inflammation of the bronchial walls and narrowing of the airways
Chronic Obstructive PulmonaryDisease (COPD)• A chronic condition that is usually the result of a combination of respiratory disorders• A progressive disease that causes dyspnea, respiratory failure, and death
Emphysema and Epistaxis• Emphysema • Irreversible enlargement of the air spaces in the lungs caused by destruction of the alveolar walls • Results in the inability to exchange oxygen and carbon dioxide• Epistaxis • Nosebleeds
Laryngitis and Pleurisy• Laryngitis • Acute or chronic inflammation of the vocal cords• Pleurisy • Inflammation of the pleura that results as a complication of infections, pneumonia, tuberculosis, or injury
Paroxysmal Nocturnal Dyspnea• Associated with chronic lung disease or left ventricular heart failure• Individuals awaken at night with a sensation of suffocation that is probably caused by an accumulation of fluid in the lungs
Pneumonia and Pneumothorax• Pneumonia • Acute infection of the lung tissues • The leading cause of death among patients already in a weakened state• Pneumothorax • Air or gas that has accumulated between the two pleural layers, causing collapse of the lung tissue
Tuberculosis• Acute or chronic bacterial lung infection that is highly contagious• The body reacts to the bacteria by converting destroyed tissue into a cheeselike material that can develop into fiber optic obstruction of the lung cavities.
Upper Respiratory Infection Upper respiratory infection is a term that covers an infection of some or all of the respiratory tract.Other Conditions: 28 •Croup •Epistaxis •Pertussis •Diptheria •Rhinorrhea
Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary DiseaseChronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) isa term for any disease with chronic obstruction ofthe bronchial tubes and lungs such as: •Emphysema •Chronic BronchitisAsthma causesnarrowing of the bronchileading to Normal Asthmaticdyspnea, wheezing and bronchiole bronchiole, scoughing. howing 29 constriction
Allergic Rhinitis and Asthma• Allergic rhinitis • A reaction of the eyes, nose, and sinuses to airborne allergens• Asthma • A chronic disorder that causes swelling, inflammation, and constriction of the bronchi and bronchioles • Can be caused by exposure to allergens
HemoptysisHemoptysisLung or bronchial hemorrhage that results in the spitting ofblood.Cystic FibrosisDisease of the exocrine glands that causes secretion ofabnormally thick mucus which leads to chronic obstruction.AtelectasisCollapsed alveoli leading to collapse of a lung or part of alung.Pneumonia 31 Acute infection of the alveoli.
Environmental ConditionsConditions caused by environmental agents Pneumoconiosis •Caused by dust in the lungs Anthracosis •Caused by coal dust Asbestosis •Caused by asbestos particles released during construction of ships and buildings Silicosis •Caused by the silica dust 32 from grinding rocks or glass
OtorhinolaryngologistsOtorhinolaryngologists are physicians thatspecialize in disorders of the upper respiratorytract.Surgical Removal Conditions•Tonsillectomy •Laryngectomy•Adenoidectomy •Pneumonectomy 33 •Lobectomy
Surgical IncisionsSurgical Incisions•Laryngotracheotomy•Sinusotomy•Thoracotomy•Tracheotomy Tracheostomy tube •Endotracheal intubation is the insertion of a tube through the nose or 34 mouth, pharynx, larynx and into the trachea to establish an airway.
Respiratory Distress Syndrome• Can kill infants between the ages of birth and 8 months of age• Normal breathing becomes rapid and shallow.• The nostrils flare and the sternum retracts.• The infant “grunts.”
PharmacologyAntibiotics, antihistamines and anticoagulants areused for respiratory disorders just as with othersystem disorders. Medications specific to Respiratory Conditions:Bronchodilators•Dilate the bronchial walls Expectorants •Promote coughing and expulsion of mucus 36
Mechanical DevicesMechanical Devices that aid in Respiration Ventilators•Actually serve as abreathing substitute forpatients who can notbreathe on their own. Nebulizers•Deliver medicationthrough the mouth ornose to ease breathing 37problems
Agents to Treat Respiratory Conditions Treat Respiratory Conditions Agents Used toAntitussive Expectorants(relieves coughing) (promotes coughing and Decongestants expelling of mucus) (decreases and 38 prevents mucus buildup)