BFP Andes: concepts and advances<br /><ul><li>J. Rubiano and Andes Basin Focal Project Team
King’s College, University of London,  jerubiano@gmail.com</li></ul>CoCoon Matchmaking Meeting <br />Cali, Colombia - 22-2...
Outline<br />What is the Andes BFP<br />Work and products<br />Network of partners<br />
BFPANDES : Aim<br />The aim of the BFPANDES is “to have the best available science used in the formulation and testing of ...
The Andes ‘basin’ (all basins above 500 masl) and the 13 key sub-basins<br />Context:<br />Transnational, globally importa...
Silvia Benitez Water Conservation <br />Programme Co-ordinator<br />Carmen Candelo Reina<br />Governance and Livelihoods P...
Where are the poor?<br />Why they are poor?<br />Which are the related factors?<br />Which are the opportunities?<br />
% of population<br />with unmet <br />basic needs<br />
Andean socio-economic selected indicators (1=FAO, 2=WHO, 3=CEPAL, 4=DHS, U=Urban, R=Rural)<br />
Agriculture in theEconomy<br />
0.55<br />0.50<br />IMPORTS AND EXPORTS<br />IN THE ANDEAN REGION<br />1980 – 2007 <br />
Migration in theRegion<br />
Urbanization of poverty<br />
Public and private debt in the Andes<br />
What is the current institutional context?<br />What are their main constraints and advantages?<br />What needs to be chan...
Colombia<br />
Ecuador<br />Peru<br />Bolivia<br />
INSTITUTIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL INDEXVariables considered<br /><ul><li>Social</li></ul>Poverty measures (UBN and Poverty lines...
Composed representation of key characteristics of  <br />IEI-Col = ∑ (A+B+C+D+E)/5<br />A = No_Finance_Institutions<br />B...
How much water?<br />Where?<br />When?<br />
Methods : water availability<br />Whole-Andes analysis of water availability at 1km spatial resolution  using the FIESTA d...
Results : water availability<br />Total annual rainfall<br />(mm) <br />TRMM&gt;<br />&lt;WorldClim<br />trmm<br />wclim<b...
Actual evapotranspiration (mm/yr)<br />Water balance (mm/yr) [worldclim]<br />
J<br />F<br />M<br />A<br />M<br />J<br />J<br />A<br />S<br />O<br />N<br />D<br />Rainfall (mm/month)  - highly variable...
How water is used, by whom and where?<br />What are the current and potential benefits out of water?<br />
Methods : water productivity<br />Water productivity : often defined as the crop per drop or yield per unit of water use b...
Dry matter production<br />(Kg/Ha./yr) <br />[without trees]<br />Results : water productivity<br />
Dry matter production <br />DMP (in g/ha/yr) <br />&lt;Averaged in <br />500m elev. bands<br />Averaged by <br />Catchment...
&lt;Crop per drop of rainfall (RUE)<br />(g/Ha./mm) <br />[without trees].<br />Averaged by <br />catchment<br />Crop per ...
DMP (in Dg/ha/day) <br />DMP (in Dg/ha/day) <br />Elevation(m)<br />Rainfall (mm/yr)<br />Crop per drop of rainfall (RUE) ...
Dams  :  points in the landscape at which water=productivity<br />Tropics :  land areas draining into dams<br />by: Leo Sa...
Water productivity : dams in the Andes<br />Andes : 174 large dams<br />Area draining into dams : 389,190 km2 (10.5% of la...
Environmental services : the role of cloudforests<br />Peru/Bolivia % of water derived from cloud stripping<br />
Tracing the impact of protected areas on water<br />Assuming that water originating <br />from protected areas is better t...
Number of urban people drinking water originating in a protected area – WDPA 2009 (Colombia) [gl_sumurbpc]<br />The benefi...
What have been made/attempted before?<br />What is feasible to do from now on?<br />With whom, where, how?<br />
Strategic Interventions so far<br /><ul><li> Agricultural and income diversification
 Compensation/ payment for environmental services
 Risk Management
 Institutional capacity building and policy dialogues
 Access to irrigation infrastructure</li></li></ul><li>Environmental vs. ecosystem services : cloud forest example<br />An...
 low evapo-transpiration </li></ul>The pan-tropical average cloud-forest water balance is 452 mm/yr cf 124 mm/yr for the t...
Potential for Aquaculture in the Andes<br />Food Security - Is Aquacultureanalternative in Andean system?<br />How this ac...
Products<br />capacity built in local students, institutions/stakeholders through training, workshops and tools, <br />(b)...
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Andes BFP

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Andes BFP

  1. 1. BFP Andes: concepts and advances<br /><ul><li>J. Rubiano and Andes Basin Focal Project Team
  2. 2. King’s College, University of London, jerubiano@gmail.com</li></ul>CoCoon Matchmaking Meeting <br />Cali, Colombia - 22-23 September, 2009<br />
  3. 3. Outline<br />What is the Andes BFP<br />Work and products<br />Network of partners<br />
  4. 4. BFPANDES : Aim<br />The aim of the BFPANDES is “to have the best available science used in the formulation and testing of land and water policy for better livelihoods in the Andes”. <br />BFPANDES : Key issues<br />Institutions. Are the institutions using and sharing the best available information and if not why not? <br />Optimal allocation. What are the biophysical, knowledge and power/equity barriers to optimal least-conflict allocation of water? <br />Sustainability. Which management interventions maximize economic returns (production), alleviate poverty whilst minimizing degradation of water, soil and environment?<br />
  5. 5. The Andes ‘basin’ (all basins above 500 masl) and the 13 key sub-basins<br />Context:<br />Transnational, globally important<br />Heterogeneous (hyper humid to hyper arid)<br />Steep slopes, competing demands on land use<br />Environmentally sensitive<br />www.ambiotek.com/aguaandes<br />
  6. 6. Silvia Benitez Water Conservation <br />Programme Co-ordinator<br />Carmen Candelo Reina<br />Governance and Livelihoods Program <br />Director<br />Noel Trejos Chief Scientist in <br />Integral Management<br />John Pender<br />Economist<br />Meagan <br />Keefe<br />Agricultural <br />Economist<br />Jairo Valderrama<br />Biologist <br />Edwin Pajares<br />Director of Natural<br /> Resource Sharing <br />Program<br />Alonso Moreno<br />Natural Resource<br />Sustainable <br />Management<br />Programme<br />Mario Aquirre Senior Officer<br /> Water Program <br />Ernesto Guhl Cam<br />SEI, Cauca University, Valle University, CAN, Proyecto GEF Paramo, CIAT, UNAL, CONDESAN, Kings College London, Universidad Autonoma,deOccidente, <br />
  7. 7. Where are the poor?<br />Why they are poor?<br />Which are the related factors?<br />Which are the opportunities?<br />
  8. 8.
  9. 9.
  10. 10. % of population<br />with unmet <br />basic needs<br />
  11. 11. Andean socio-economic selected indicators (1=FAO, 2=WHO, 3=CEPAL, 4=DHS, U=Urban, R=Rural)<br />
  12. 12. Agriculture in theEconomy<br />
  13. 13. 0.55<br />0.50<br />IMPORTS AND EXPORTS<br />IN THE ANDEAN REGION<br />1980 – 2007 <br />
  14. 14.
  15. 15.
  16. 16. Migration in theRegion<br />
  17. 17. Urbanization of poverty<br />
  18. 18. Public and private debt in the Andes<br />
  19. 19. What is the current institutional context?<br />What are their main constraints and advantages?<br />What needs to be changed?<br />
  20. 20. Colombia<br />
  21. 21. Ecuador<br />Peru<br />Bolivia<br />
  22. 22. INSTITUTIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL INDEXVariables considered<br /><ul><li>Social</li></ul>Poverty measures (UBN and Poverty lines), Current status of education, health (Chronic and Total Malnutrition), demography, public services infrastructure, social and non social investment (including potable water and irrigation)<br /><ul><li>Economic</li></ul>Per capita consumption, purchase power, financial support.<br /><ul><li>Political</li></ul>People displaced by violence<br />
  23. 23. Composed representation of key characteristics of <br />IEI-Col = ∑ (A+B+C+D+E)/5<br />A = No_Finance_Institutions<br />B = Total_enrolled_Students (2005)<br />C = Health_Investment (2006)<br />D = Potable_Water_Investment (2006)<br />E = Total_displaced_People_received (2001-2007)<br />IEI-Ecu∑ (2(A+B)+C+D+E)/5<br />A = Iliteracy_rate<br />B = Unsatisfied_Basic_Needs<br />C = Global_malnutrition_in_kids&lt;5<br />D = %_Poor_below_PovLine<br />E = %_poor_below_extreme_PovLine<br />IEI-Per = ∑ {(A+B+C+D+E+F) – (G+H+I)}/5<br />A = No_kids_primary_school_completed<br />B = No_kids_primary_school_finished_on_time<br />C = No_educated_kids_between_4&5<br />D = No_educated_kids_between_12&16<br />E = No_young_Secondary_School_completed<br />F = No_young_Secondary_School_finished_on_time<br />G = Malnutrition_rate (1999)<br />H = pople_no_electricity<br />I = Adult_Iliteracy_rate (2005)<br />IEI-Bol = ∑ (A+B+C+D+E+F+G+H)/5<br />A = Education_Units<br />B = No_of_teaching_rooms<br />C = Human_Development_Index (2001)<br />D = Yearly_Average_expenditure<br />E = PerCapita_compsumption_USD-Year (2001)<br />F = Social_Investments_USD (2006)<br />G = Non_Social_Invest_USD (2006)<br />H = No_Finance_Institutions<br />Tough conditions, bigger effort<br />Less difficult<br />*<br />* Standardize for the four countries, main capitals excluded<br />
  24. 24. How much water?<br />Where?<br />When?<br />
  25. 25. Methods : water availability<br />Whole-Andes analysis of water availability at 1km spatial resolution using the FIESTA delivery model (http://www.ambiotek.com/fiesta) and long term climatologies from WORLDCLIM (1950-) and TRMM (1996-)<br />
  26. 26. Results : water availability<br />Total annual rainfall<br />(mm) <br />TRMM&gt;<br />&lt;WorldClim<br />trmm<br />wclim<br />
  27. 27. Actual evapotranspiration (mm/yr)<br />Water balance (mm/yr) [worldclim]<br />
  28. 28. J<br />F<br />M<br />A<br />M<br />J<br />J<br />A<br />S<br />O<br />N<br />D<br />Rainfall (mm/month) - highly variable spatially and seasonally, hyper-humid to hyper-arid<br />
  29. 29. How water is used, by whom and where?<br />What are the current and potential benefits out of water?<br />
  30. 30. Methods : water productivity<br />Water productivity : often defined as the crop per drop or yield per unit of water use but in BFPANDES defined more broadly as the contribution of water to human wellbeing through production of food, energy and other goods and services<br />Whole-Andes analysis of plant production based on dry matter production calculated from SPOT VGT (1998-2008), masked to exclude trees.<br />Whole Andes analysis of production per unit rainfall (crop per drop)<br />Precise digitisation of all dams in the Andes using Google Earth Dams Geowiki (http://www.kcl.ac.uk/schools/sspp/geography/research/emm/geodata/geowikis.html)<br />Calculation of dam watersheds using HydroSHEDS<br />
  31. 31. Dry matter production<br />(Kg/Ha./yr) <br />[without trees]<br />Results : water productivity<br />
  32. 32. Dry matter production <br />DMP (in g/ha/yr) <br />&lt;Averaged in <br />500m elev. bands<br />Averaged by <br />Catchment&gt;<br />Lowest elevations have highest productivity.<br />Colombian and Ecuadorian Andean catchments have<br />Highest productivity along with Eastern foothill catchments in the South<br />
  33. 33. &lt;Crop per drop of rainfall (RUE)<br />(g/Ha./mm) <br />[without trees].<br />Averaged by <br />catchment<br />Crop per drop &gt; (g/Ha./mm)<br />[without trees].<br /> for areas with &lt;500mm rainfall<br />Lowest elevations have greatest crop per drop. Small lowland-dominated Pacific and Eastern foothill catchments have greatest crop per drop<br />
  34. 34. DMP (in Dg/ha/day) <br />DMP (in Dg/ha/day) <br />Elevation(m)<br />Rainfall (mm/yr)<br />Crop per drop of rainfall (RUE) (g/Ha./mm)<br />Rainfall (mm/yr)<br />Rainfall (mm/yr)<br />
  35. 35. Dams : points in the landscape at which water=productivity<br />Tropics : land areas draining into dams<br />by: Leo Saenz<br />Developed the first georeferenced global database of dams (www.kcl.ac.uk/geodata)<br />There are at least 29,000 large dams between 40N and 40S<br />57% in Asia, 23% in South America, 12% in Africa, 6.5 % in Asia and the Caribbean, 1.3 % Australia, 0.2 % Middle East. 80% are in the largest countries (China, India, Brazil, South Africa, Zimbabwe, Mexico)<br />33% of land area between 40S and 40N drains into a dam (capturing some 24% of rainfall and thissurface provides important environmental and ecosystem services to specific companies.<br />
  36. 36. Water productivity : dams in the Andes<br />Andes : 174 large dams<br />Area draining into dams : 389,190 km2 (10.5% of land area)<br />At least 80,300Mm3 of water storage capacity<br />At least 20,000 MW HEP capacity<br />Also used for drinking water, irrigation and industrial purposes<br />
  37. 37. Environmental services : the role of cloudforests<br />Peru/Bolivia % of water derived from cloud stripping<br />
  38. 38. Tracing the impact of protected areas on water<br />Assuming that water originating <br />from protected areas is better than<br />that originating elsewhere:<br />As you travel downstream<br />from the protected areas their<br />contribution to flow diminishes as<br />rivers are swamped with water <br />from non-protected areas<br />% of water originating in a protected area – WDPA 2009 (Colombia) [gl_pc_wc_fin]<br />see www.kcl.ac.uk/geodata<br />
  39. 39. Number of urban people drinking water originating in a protected area – WDPA 2009 (Colombia) [gl_sumurbpc]<br />The beneficiaries can easily <br />number millions of people. A <br />strong case for PWS.<br />see www.kcl.ac.uk/geodata<br />
  40. 40. What have been made/attempted before?<br />What is feasible to do from now on?<br />With whom, where, how?<br />
  41. 41. Strategic Interventions so far<br /><ul><li> Agricultural and income diversification
  42. 42. Compensation/ payment for environmental services
  43. 43. Risk Management
  44. 44. Institutional capacity building and policy dialogues
  45. 45. Access to irrigation infrastructure</li></li></ul><li>Environmental vs. ecosystem services : cloud forest example<br />An environmental service:<br />Cloud forests occur underneath persistent ground level cloud in the tropics. This cloud generates: <br /><ul><li> high rainfall inputs
  46. 46. low evapo-transpiration </li></ul>The pan-tropical average cloud-forest water balance is 452 mm/yr cf 124 mm/yr for the tropics as a whole. This is a function of the climate in which the cloud forest sits not the cloud forest itself and would occur even in the absence of the forest.<br />An ecosystem service:<br />Cloud forests strip passing cloud/fog water very efficiently and this water ends up in the rivers. If the cloud forests are replaced by pasture, this stripping does not occur and the extra water is lost. This service is dependent on the ecosystem as well as the environment.<br />Example of water from montane forests<br />Peru/Bolivia % of water derived from cloud stripping<br />
  47. 47. Potential for Aquaculture in the Andes<br />Food Security - Is Aquacultureanalternative in Andean system?<br />How this activity compete with others?<br />
  48. 48. Products<br />capacity built in local students, institutions/stakeholders through training, workshops and tools, <br />(b) report, maps and baseline data diagnosing current status of water poverty, water productivity, environmental security and their social and institutional context along with likely future impacts (http://www.bfpandes.org) <br />The AguAAndes Policy Support System – a web based tool for understanding the likely impact of particular scenarios of change and policy options on water and water poverty in any Andean catchment (http://www.policysupport.org/links/aguaandes).<br />
  49. 49. The AGUAANDES POLICY SUPPORT SYSTEM<br />SimTerra : the most detailed global databases, tiled<br />+<br />Detailed grid –based process models<br />+<br />Tools to test scenarios and policy options<br />http://www.policysupport.org/links/aguaandes<br />
  50. 50. Networking and Knowledge Sharing<br /><ul><li>Andes BFP Lima, Peru Workshop
  51. 51. Andes BFP Fuquene, Cundinamarca - Workshop
  52. 52. CONDESAN - Environmental Services Conference – Manizales, Colombia
  53. 53. Water Workshop at Externado University – Bogota
  54. 54. International Forum on Water and Food, Ethiopia
  55. 55. PROSUL Workshop, Brasil
  56. 56. Policy Support System On line questionnaire.
  57. 57. FINAL ANDES BFP MEETING - Agua2009 Conference, Cali – Colombia 9 – 11 NOV 2009 www.ambiotek.com/bfpandesworkshop</li></li></ul><li>Gracias<br />
  58. 58. Methods : Institutions<br />Composed representation of a selection of key social, economical and political variables that helps answering where an intervention will face hash conditions, need higher effort and more investment. <br />It also expresses which characteristics can be used as indicators of progress for development and poverty reduction strategies.<br />It is made with the most reliable country data at municipal level.<br />Methods for data processing include PCA, Cluster and Spatial Analyses.<br />
  59. 59. COLOMBIA<br />PERU<br />ECUADOR<br />BOLIVIA<br />http://www.latin-focus.com/<br />http://www.bcb.gov.bo/webdocs/Diciembre2008/estadodeuda2008.pdf<br />

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