Linguistic and LiteracyDevelopment of Children and Adolescent
Linguistics is the words a personuses to express themselves.Talking, singing, and sharing with peoplethey can converse with. Literacy is thewritten words a person reads orwrites, not expecting conversation.Development of anything is the way itgrows or changes as we do. Kids chatabout kid things and read kid books.Adults usually only do with and forkids.
Natural History of Language Development traditionally language developmentdepend upon the principle ofreinforcement. the principle of reinforcement is apsychological concept based on the ideathat the consequence of an action willinfluence the future behavior.
other learning theorist islanguage primarily learnedthrough imitation.
“father of modern linguist” proposed the nativist approach to language development which asserts that children have an innate Language Acquisition Device (LAD) an inborn mechanism that encourages and facilitates language learning and enables them to learn a Noam language early andChomsky quickly.
Modern theorist hold aninteractionist view thatrecognizes children asbiologically prepared forlanguage but requires extensiveexperience with spokenlanguage for adequatedevelopment.
emphasizes the critical roles parents and early caregivers play in language development. proposed the Language Acquisition Support System (LASS). This typically means thatJerome the parents, as agents of the culture, speakBruner slowly to the child.
The Antecedent of Language DevelopmentWhat do you mean of the word“antecedent”? It means that which precedes or goesbefore. So therefore, antecedents of thelanguage development talks about the wayor means which help the child to preparedhim/her learn the language.
Here are the following devicesthat make up the antecedent:PSEUDODIALOGIES this is one of the early training devices characterized by the give and take conversation between the child and the mother or other person. Adult maintains the flow of conversation.
PROTODECLARATIVES an infant uses gestures to make some sort of statement about an object.
PROTOIMPERATIVES gestures of an infant or young child may use to get someone to do something he or she wants. Children can make statement about things and get other people to do things for them.
Bilingual Language Development Bilingualism are the childrenlearn two languagessimultaneously, puts children to anadvantage in terms of languageproficiency. It affords advancedcognitive skills, flexibility ofthought and greater acceptance ofpeers from other culturalbackgrounds.
Cognitive Advantages of Bilingualism 1. Bilingualism does not impact on early language milestone like babbling. 2. In bilingual homes, infants readily discrimination between the two languages phonologically and grammatically. 3. Learning a grammatical device as using “s” to denote plurals in one language facilitate learning corresponding devices in other language.
4. Bilingualism is associated with anadvantage in metalinguistic ability, orcapacity to think about language amongpre-school and school age children.5. Most bilingual children manifestgreater ability than monolingualchildren when it comes to focusingattention on language.
Cognitive Disadvantages of Bilingualism1. Limited vocabulary.2. Think more slowly in the language in which they have the lesser fluency.3. Parents who choose bilingualism should consider whether they can help their children achieve fluency in both languages.4. Children who speak their immigrant parent’s tend to be attached to their parent’s culture.
bilingual parents should weigh theadvantages and disadvantages of thebilingualism and decide on the kind oflinguistic environment they will providetheir children. “motherese” – parents find a way tounderstand the children’s special wordsfor things. Kind of adaptation done bythe parents in the process of learningthe language.
Code switching is a special linguistic and social skill. Sometimes students read the text in English and mentally translate it into their native language for easier understanding.
Language and culture haveimportant implications for how childrenlearn in school and how teachers teachlanguage. Some implications are:1.Children use the four language system at thesame time in the process of communicating2. Children bring their unique backgrounds ofexperience to the process of learning.3. Children’s cultural and linguistic diversityimpact on the student’s learning process.
Emergent and Early Literacy: Reading Development and Performance From birth, infants listen to sounds ofspeech and that of their native language.Babbling starts at the end of the secondmonth. This usually reflects the soundsthey hear in the native language, at theage of 12 months, infants utter the firstword. It is only in the second year wheretheir is vocabulary expansion.
Holophrase Children may communicate single words not only to name things but also to communicate more complex thoughts. the first stage of language acquisition.
Fast mapping is the child’s ability to map the meaning of a new word onto a referent after hearing the word used on context just once.Vocabulary explosion is the rapid addition of new words to toddlers vocabulary which usually occurs late in the second year.
What is Emergent Literacy? Emergent literacy is a term first used byMarie Clay to describe how young children interactwith books and when reading and writing, eventhough they could not read or write in theconventional sense. A vast amount of research hassince been done within the fields ofpsychology, childdevelopment, education, linguistics, and sociology.Emergent literacy is a gradual process that takesplace over time from birth - until a child can readand write in what we consider to be a conventionalsense. A key to the term literacy is theinterrelatedness of all parts of language:speaking, listening, reading, writing, and viewing.It is never too early to begin reading to a child.
Parents can promote early Parents can promote early literacy development for literacy development for toddlers and preschoolers by: infants by: * surrounding children with a* introducing cloth or cardboard literature rich environment filled books with brightly colored with pictures books, magazines, games, etc. * reading books that have * reading simple stories with one rhyme, rhythm and repetition central character and a basic like nursery rhymes plot * pointing out words in the * responding to questions your environment (such as on child might have about print in signs, etc) and explaining the your house or elsewhere in the meaning of the words environment * supporting early writing by making sure that paper, crayons, pencils and markers are available
Factors Affecting Development: According to Dr. GailE.Tompkins (2002), Piaget recognizesthat children are naturally curiousabout the world, objective andmotivated learners.
Early Language Stimulation Learning occurs through the processof equilibrium. Disequilibrium often timesreferred to as cognitive conflict arisesfrom encounters that a child cannotunderstand not assimilate. A child in thiscase, frets, gets confused, feels agitatedso that the compelled to seek for abalance with the environment. The balancecalled equilibrium.
When confronted with anenvironment that is new butcomprehensible, the child is ableto make sense of it. When thechild’s schema can accommodatethe new information then thedisequilibrium caused by the newexperience will motivate the childto learn, thus regaining a higherdevelopment.
The three steps of the process are: 1. Disruption of equilibrium by the introduction of new information. 2. Occurrence of disequilibrium followed by the dual process f assimilation and accommodation function: and 3. Attainment of equilibrium at higher developmental level.
The process of equilibrium isrepetitive. Its happen again andagain throughout the day. Learningoccurs only when new information isnot too difficult. New but difficultinformation cannot be easily relatedto what is alreadyknown, hence, there is no learning.This is true to both children andadults. Assimilation is made possibleand with too familiar informationwhich can be easily accommodated.
Russian psychologist asserted that children learn through socially meaningful interactions and that language is both social and an important facilitator of learning. LevVygotsky
Vygotsky describes learning in two levels.The actual development level, in which thechildren perform a task on his/her own. Thesecond level is potential development level, atwhich children perform a task with assistance.This is the reason why children need help ofadults to do more difficult things. Vygotsky also believed that a child learnsmore when a task he/she attempting to do iswithin the zone of proximal development. It isthe tasks that a child can perform withguidance but cannot independently. Incontrast, children learn little from doing tasksthat they can already do independently.
Scaffold is a term used by Vygotsky andJerome Bruner as a metaphor to describeadults’ contributions to children’s learning.Scaffolds are support mechanisms thatadults provide to help children to performtasks successfully. Adults show supportwhen they demonstrate, guide, supplyinformation, and make complex tasksimple. A sign that a child is ready to befunctioning independently is when he/sheshow signs of knowledge and experiencethat make them ready to perform a task.
The 3 components of the roles of teachers in guiding students’ learning:1.Teachers mediate or augment children’slearning through social interaction.2.Teachers are flexible and provide supportbased on feedback from children as theyengaged in the learning task.3.Teachers vary the amount of supportfrom very explicit to vague, to suitchildren’s needs.
Egocentric speech means talkingto them self orally. This is done bychildren when they are playing alone.Even older children or adults also dothis, it seemed to guide them in theirthinking. Vygotsky calls children’segocentric speech as “self-talk”. It istalking to them self mentally ratherthan orally. Self-talk becomes innerspeech that guides children in theirlearning.
The following are ideas contributed by the constructivist and sociolinguistic learning theorists:1.Students actively participate inlearning.2.Students learn by associating newinformation to acquired knowledge.3.Students organize their knowledge inschemata.
4.Students consciously andautomatically use skills and strategiesas learning progresses.5.Students learn through socialinteractions.6.Teachers provide scaffolds forstudents.
Literate Communities and Environment ELEMENTARY CLASSROOMS Serves as venue for language acquisition.Can be modified to include many facets to facilitate.Desk and tables should b grouped.There should be separate areas to serve as listening center, computer center and a center for dramatic activities.There should be provided literacy play centers.A democratic classroom is an advantage.
TEACHERPlays multi-faceted role in a language classroom.Serves as knowledge providers only.Assumed a more complex role in creating aclassroom environment that will be conducive tolearning.Make sure the school becomes a real life forstudents.Serves as models.They are the classroom managers.
Story ReadingA story is a particular kind of narrativediscourse identified by its structure, features, content and language. Structurally threebasic elements – setting , character and plot.Young children are aware of what makes astory. Knowledge about stories is called aconcept of story. It includes knowing theelements, structure such as plot, character, setting ,theme and informationabout the authors style and conventions.Childrens concept is usually intuitive. They arenot conscious of what they know.
Key Concepts in Story Reading (Tompkins, 2002)1.The concept of story is acquired by readingand writing stories and by learning about theelements of story structure.2.Stories are distinguished from other formsof writing by their unique structural elements.3.Teachers present about the elementsof story structure and students apply whatthey have learned from stories read.
4.The concept of story informs and supportsthe reading of stories which is doneaesthetically.5.Comprehension involves three factors.6.Teachers involve students in variedactivities to development student’s use allfive comprehensive process.7.Students read and write stories as part ofliterature focus units , literature circles,reading and writing workshop , and themecycles.
Exceptional Development: Language disorder refers to any systematic deviation in the way people speak, listen, read, write or sign that interferes with their ability to communicate with their peers. Language disability covers a wide spectrum of dysfunction as in fluency and articulation disorders.
Aphasia is the loss of ability to use and understandlanguage. It excludes other language disorderscaused by physical conditions such as deafness. can be categorized according to theparticular are of the brain that is damaged intoreceptive, expressive and global aphasias. aphasia disorders usually develop quickly asa result of head injury or stroke, and progressiveforms of aphasia develop slowly from a braintumor, infection, or dementia.
Aphasia can be categorized according to the particular language:Receptive aphasia also known as Wernicke’s aphasia, fluentaphasia, or sensory aphasia. It results from alesion to a region in the upper back part oftemporal lobe of the brain called Wernicke’sarea. People afflicted with this type of aphasiamanifest no difficulty in articulation ordisfluency. Their language is characterized byexcessive fluency.
Expressive aphasia (non-fluent aphasia), also known as Brocasaphasia is one subset of a larger family ofdisorders known collectively as aphasia. It ischaracterized by the loss of the ability to producelanguage (spoken or written).Global aphasia is a type of aphasia that is commonlyassociated with a large lesion in the perisylvianarea of the frontal, temporal and parietal lobes ofthe brain causing an almost total reduction of allaspects of spoken and written language.
It is popularly known as word blindness.In Piper 1998, Dyslexia is defined as adefective reading.In 1968, the World Federation ofNeurologists defined dyslexia as a“disorder” in children.In U.S National Institutes ofHealth, dyslexia is a learning disabilitythat can hinder a persons ability to read.
Three types of Dyslexia that can affect the child’s ability to read:Trauma Dyslexia - occurs injury to the area of the brainthat controls reading and writing.Primary Dyslexia - it is a dysfunction of, rather thandamage to the left side of the brain (cortex)and does not change with age.Secondary or Developmental Dyslexia - it is felt to be caused by hormonaldevelopment during the early stages of fetaldevelopment.
Three different functions of Dyslexia:Visual Dyslexia - the inability to write symbols in thecorrect sequence.Auditory Dyslexia - involves difficulty with sounds ofletters or groups of letters.Dysgraphia - refers to the child’s difficultyholding and controlling a pencil so that thecorrect marking can be made on the paper.
Three main kinds of approaches to dealing with Dyslexia:Developmental Approach - is based on the belief that dyslexic childrenmay have slower brain development, simplyintensifies conventional methods of instructionCorrective approach - using small groups in tutorialsessions, but it emphasizes a childs assets andinterests. Those who use this method hope toencourage children to rely on their own specialabilities to overcome their difficulties.Remedial approach Try to resolve the specific educational andpsychological problems that interfere with learning.
Posterior Alexia Dejerine, describe the syndrome of PosteriorAlexia in adult who could write but not read.Two forms of Alexia:Optic Alexia - is seen in adults with occipital lesions whereletters similar in configuration are mistaken fromanother.Verbal Alexia - associated with occipital lesions wherepatients could easily recognize letters but could notgrasp whole word
Sigmund Freud Dysgnosia - A cognitive disorder, especially one resulting froma mental disorder or disease. - It means loss of the ability to recognize objects
Agnostic Dyslexia - patients can read but throw aslow, letter by letter analysis of aword.Agnosia or Absence of Knowledge - is a loss of ability to recognizeobjects, persons, sounds, shapes, orsmells while the specific sense is notdefective nor is there any significantmemory loss.