Autonomous car

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Autonomous Car, Automatic Cars, Driverless Car

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Autonomous car

  1. 1. Autonomous Car THE NEXT REVOLUTION - J AY J . PAT EL
  2. 2. Outline:  Introduction  Structure  Features  ‘Intelligent Cruise Control’ & ‘Collision Avoidance System’  ‘Lane Support System’ & ‘Detecting Traffic Lights’  ‘Automatic Night Vision’ & ‘Self Parking’ & ‘Electronic Stability Control’  Evaluation Of Technologies  Advantages & Disadvantages  A Real-World Example  Conclusion JAY J. PATEL (D. G. RUPAREL COLLEGE OF ARTS, SCIENCE & COMMERCE) 2
  3. 3. Introduction  The Word “Autonomous Car” says it all.  Ideally an intelligent autonomous car would have an automatic pilot, which can park itself, guide through dense traffic in towns and at high speeds between towns, understand lanes and follow the prescribed traffic rules.  The driver would have the ability to switch between automatic and manual. In the current world, fully autonomous systems will not appear for some time although they may be introduced sooner if the traffic environment is greatly constrained. JAY J. PATEL (D. G. RUPAREL COLLEGE OF ARTS, SCIENCE & COMMERCE) 3
  4. 4. Structure JAY J. PATEL (D. G. RUPAREL COLLEGE OF ARTS, SCIENCE & COMMERCE) 4
  5. 5. Structure (Cont.) JAY J. PATEL (D. G. RUPAREL COLLEGE OF ARTS, SCIENCE & COMMERCE) 5
  6. 6. Features  Intelligent Cruise Control  Collision Avoidance System (Automatic Braking)  Lane Support System  Detecting Traffic Lights  Automatic Night Vision  Self Parking Electronic Stability Control JAY J. PATEL (D. G. RUPAREL COLLEGE OF ARTS, SCIENCE & COMMERCE) 6
  7. 7. Intelligent Cruise Control  Traditional cruise control systems have been in use for many years. They maintain a constant vehicle speed, set by the driver, thereby improving comfort in steady traffic conditions.  The use of cruise control would be significantly increased if the vehicle speed could automatically adapt to the traffic flow.  It uses a radar setup allowing the vehicle to slow when approaching another vehicle and accelerate again to the preset speed when traffic allows. JAY J. PATEL (D. G. RUPAREL COLLEGE OF ARTS, SCIENCE & COMMERCE) 7
  8. 8. Intelligent Cruise Control JAY J. PATEL (D. G. RUPAREL COLLEGE OF ARTS, SCIENCE & COMMERCE) (Cont.) 8
  9. 9. Collision Avoidance System  The main requirement for a collision avoidance system is to be able to predict accurately the likelihood of an imminent collision.  If a collision is likely then the system should respond in such a way as to reduce the threat.  The response could involve the automatic control of the vehicle or simply an appropriate warning to the driver.  It Senses an imminent distance with another vehicle or a velocity related danger.  Responds by either pre-charging the brakes or by applying the brakes to slow the vehicle without any driver input.  Detects by radar, video, infrared, ultrasonic, GPS sensors. JAY J. PATEL (D. G. RUPAREL COLLEGE OF ARTS, SCIENCE & COMMERCE) 9
  10. 10. Collision Avoidance System JAY J. PATEL (D. G. RUPAREL COLLEGE OF ARTS, SCIENCE & COMMERCE) (Cont.) 10
  11. 11. Lane Support System  A mechanism is designed in such a way that it warns a driver when the vehicle begins to move out of its lane.  It is designed to minimize accidents by addressing the main causes of collisions: driving error, distraction, talking on a cell phone and drowsiness.  To avoid this U.S. developer of intelligent transportation system technologies, have produced “AutoVue” — an embedded camera-based lane-marking recognition and warning system.  By monitoring the visual lane markings on the road and signaling the driver with an audible or tactile warning. The lane markings are detected by processing images from a video camera and the system achieves lane-marking detection at 15 frames per second. AutoVue alerts a tired, distracted, or inattentive driver that he or she is about to leave their lane. JAY J. PATEL (D. G. RUPAREL COLLEGE OF ARTS, SCIENCE & COMMERCE) 11
  12. 12. Lane Support System (Cont.) JAY J. PATEL (D. G. RUPAREL COLLEGE OF ARTS, SCIENCE & COMMERCE) 12
  13. 13. Detecting Traffic Lights A sensor “Actinometer“ is used to detect the intensity of radiation. Light of different colors will radiate different -2-intensity of radiation which will be detected by the sensor. If the detected intensity is of red colour or yellow colour then controller will send a command to stop the vehicle. The command will be followed by robot (to convert the computer command into mechanical input). JAY J. PATEL (D. G. RUPAREL COLLEGE OF ARTS, SCIENCE & COMMERCE) 13
  14. 14. Automatic Night Vision  It increases a vehicle driver's perception and seeing distance in darkness or poor weather beyond the reach of the vehicle's headlights.  Cars currently using Automatic Night Vision are:       2002-2007 Lexus LX 470 2009 Lexus LS 2006 Mercedes CL-class 2009 Mercedes E-class 2009 Mercedes S-class 2002 Toyota Land Cruiser Cignus JAY J. PATEL (D. G. RUPAREL COLLEGE OF ARTS, SCIENCE & COMMERCE) 14
  15. 15. Automatic Night Vision (Cont.) JAY J. PATEL (D. G. RUPAREL COLLEGE OF ARTS, SCIENCE & COMMERCE) 15
  16. 16. Self Parking  The System uses sensors all around the car to guide it into a parallel parking space.  The driver has to find a parking space, Position the car next to it, and use the in-cabin navigation screen to tell the car where it should go.  The parking space needs to be 6 feet (1.8 meters) longer than the car JAY J. PATEL (D. G. RUPAREL COLLEGE OF ARTS, SCIENCE & COMMERCE) 16
  17. 17. Self Parking (Cont.) JAY J. PATEL (D. G. RUPAREL COLLEGE OF ARTS, SCIENCE & COMMERCE) 17
  18. 18. Electronic Stability Control  A computerized technology improves vehicle's stability by detecting and minimizing skids.  It Automatically applies the brakes.  Helps to minimize a loss of control.  Electronic Stability Control compares the driver's intended direction to the vehicle's actual direction in GPS.  Electronic Stability Control works using Wheel-Speed Sensors, Steering Angle Sensors & Rotational-Speed Sensors. JAY J. PATEL (D. G. RUPAREL COLLEGE OF ARTS, SCIENCE & COMMERCE) 18
  19. 19. Electronic Stability Control JAY J. PATEL (D. G. RUPAREL COLLEGE OF ARTS, SCIENCE & COMMERCE) 19
  20. 20. Evaluation of Technologies JAY J. PATEL (D. G. RUPAREL COLLEGE OF ARTS, SCIENCE & COMMERCE) 20
  21. 21. Advantages  Minimizes speed differentials between vehicles.  Automatic throttle reduction and brake management.  To be able to adapt - therefore, learning ability.  To be autonomous - therefore, ability to sense, model and provide output.  To avoid accidents, overcome the loss of life and financial cost.  Relieving vehicle occupants from driving & allowing them to do other tasks or to rest during their long & intense traffic journeys.  Managing traffic flow & Increasing roadway capacity by reducing the distances between cars.  The current location of vehicle can be determine using global positioning system (GPS). JAY J. PATEL (D. G. RUPAREL COLLEGE OF ARTS, SCIENCE & COMMERCE) 21
  22. 22. Disadvantages  If the vehicle is using internet which is have less security then from the hackers point of view in some cases the vehicle can be switched off on the road (in rare cases).  Hackers can change the route which is plotted in the system (in rare cases).  In case of failure of main sensor and backup sensors the vehicle can create a chance of accident.  A failure or a bug in the system can lead to fatal accidents and loss of lives. JAY J. PATEL (D. G. RUPAREL COLLEGE OF ARTS, SCIENCE & COMMERCE) 22
  23. 23. Example – Google’s Toyota Prius JAY J. PATEL (D. G. RUPAREL COLLEGE OF ARTS, SCIENCE & COMMERCE) 23
  24. 24. Conclusion  The First thing is Human Intelligence is replaced by Artificial Intelligence as a human’s work is done by some equipment's & technologies put together.  AICC and Lane Support Systems not only increases driver’s comfort but also reduce the risk of an accident.  Collision Warning System will be useful for alerting a distracted driver to hazard provided the time to impact is not too critical.  Cost is a major consideration in the automotive market.  The end objective is to be able to survive in an evolving environment and changing circumstances, a representation - of real-world system. JAY J. PATEL (D. G. RUPAREL COLLEGE OF ARTS, SCIENCE & COMMERCE) 24
  25. 25. References  Self-Driving Cars: The Next Revolution by KPMG(kpmg.com)  Using Artificial Intelligence to create a low cost self-driving car.  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Autonomous_car  http://spectrum.ieee.org/automaton/robotics/artificial-intelligence/how-google-self-drivingcar-works  http://news.discovery.com/autos/future-of-transportation/how-google-self-driving-car-works111018.htm  http://auto.howstuffworks.com/under-the-hood/trends-innovations/driverless-car.htm  http://visual.ly/how-autonomous-vehicles-work  http://www.economist.com/blogs/economist-explains/2013/04/economist-explains-how-selfdriving-car-works-driverless JAY J. PATEL (D. G. RUPAREL COLLEGE OF ARTS, SCIENCE & COMMERCE) 25
  26. 26. Thanks, J a y J . Pa t e l M.Sc. I.T. Part – II (Semester-III), D. G. Ruparel College of Arts, Science & Commerce. JAY J. PATEL (D. G. RUPAREL COLLEGE OF ARTS, SCIENCE & COMMERCE) 26

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