NOTE: The journal title and the volume number are in italics. Issue numbers are not required if the journal is continuously paged. If paged individually, the issue number is required and is in regular type in parentheses adjacent to the volume number.
NOTE: Use the article’s DOI (Digital Object Identifier), the unique code givenby the publisher to a specific article.NOTE: Use the journal’s home page URL (or web address) if there is no DOI.This may require a web search to locate the journal’s home page. There is noperiod at the end of web address. Break a long URL before the punctuation.
Transcript of "APA Version 6 Quick Guide"
APA Format Quick Reference6th Edition<br />EDPY 582<br />Jennifer Ann Morrow and Susanne Kaesbauer<br />The University of Tennessee<br />
Overview<br />APA is the official style of writing of the American Psychological Association (APA)<br />Used to present findings and arguments in a coherent and concise manner<br />APA is often used in social sciences<br />APA dictates the structure of the writing<br />Easier to write and read<br />Critical thinking<br />Required for professional publications<br />
General Document Guidelines<br />Limit the use of the first person, instead use third person<br />Examples: the researcher, they, the experimenter<br />You cannot prove a theory or hypothesis<br />Avoid the words “proves” and “proof”<br />Instead use “the results support/does not support the hypothesis” or “the results confirm/disconfirm the hypothesis”<br />Avoid slang terms<br />Use terms “participants” for humans and “subjects” for animals<br />
General Document Guidelines<br />Format to have one inch margins on each side<br />Use 12pt Times New Roman Font<br />Double space the entire paper (incl. title, abstract, appendix, references, footnotes, tables)<br />Spacing after punctuation: one space after commas, colons, and semicolons; two spaces after periods<br />Order of pages: Title page, Abstract, Body, References, Footnotes, Tables, Figures, Appendices<br />Left-align everything except title page and select headers<br />Indent paragraphs 5-7 spaces. Do not add additional spacing between paragraphs<br />
Use of Numbers<br />Use numerals for numbers 10 and above<br />Use numerals when preceding units of measurement<br />Ex: 20mg, 46cm<br />Write out the number when beginning a sentence with it<br />Example: Twenty participants were randomly assigned…<br />Use numerals for statistical functions, percentages, ratios, percentiles<br />Ex: the 11th percentile<br />Use commas to separate groups if three digits<br />
Abbreviations<br />Use sparingly and only if they make the paper easier to read<br />Write it out completely the first time followed by the abbreviation in parentheses<br />Ex: A two-way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) was used to test hypothesis one<br />Write out units of measurement, unless preceded by numbers<br />
Title Page<br />Running head: Abbreviates the title and reappears on every page of the manuscript<br />Set up a left-aligned header and capitalize the word “Running” and “head” and the entire abbreviated title<br />
Title Page<br />Page Numbers:Appears on every page of the research paper starting on the title page<br />In the header created for the running head, insert right-aligned page numbering starting with the number 1 on the same line as the running head<br />
Title Page<br />Byline: Name of author/authors and their institutional affiliation. The order of the authors on the title page must be how you want it to appear on publications<br />Author name(s) appear centered under the title in the upper half of the page. Use first name, followed by middle initial, followed by last name<br />Author(s) affiliation(s) appear centered under the author name on the upper half of the page. Use the affiliation where the research was conducted<br />
Abstract<br />Abstract:<br />Place the abstract on a new page after the title page<br />Write “Abstract” in upper and lowercase letters centered on first line of the page<br />Type the abstract as one paragraph without paragraph indentations. The paragraph should be left aligned. The Abstract should be 150-250 words<br />Keywords:<br />Write 3-5 key words under the abstract<br />Example: “Keywords: attrition, learning, comprehension”<br />Indent and italicize the word “Keyword:” followed by colon in uppercase and lowercase letters in the line under the abstract paragraph. Next list the keywords separated by commas in lowercase letters<br />
Introduction<br />Begin the introduction section on a new page. This should be page three<br />At the top of the page type and center the full title, in uppercase and lowercase letters<br />Begin the first paragraph in the next line using left-alignment and indent it and each following paragraph of the introduction section<br />When adding subheadings use upper and lowercase letters, bold, left align and indent for the second level header. Start the following text on a new line and indent it<br />Use past tense for the literature review<br />
Levels of Heading<br />For additional headings, make sure they are consistent with the levels of heading<br />
Components of the Introduction Section<br />1) Exploring the problem<br />Here you draw the reader in<br />Specify problem leading into the study<br />2) Discussing the previous literature<br />Discuss relevant literature<br />3) Deficiencies in the literature<br />What hasn’t been looked at?<br />Leads into why you are doing your study<br />4) Purpose of study and hypotheses/research questions<br />Should flow from the discussion of the literature<br />
Method<br />The method section does not begin on a new page. Simply write “Method” in bold uppercase and lowercase letters on the next line and center it. The following text will begin on the next line<br />The second level headings (Participants, Measures, Design, Procedure, Proposed Analyses) are each on the following lines, flushed left, bolded and written in uppercase and lowercase letters. The following text will begin on the next line<br />Third level headings (used for specific measures) will be left-aligned, bolded, indented have only the first letter capitalized and end with a period. The following text will begin after the period<br />Parts of the Method Section<br />Participants<br />Measures<br />Also can be called: Materials, Instruments, or Apparatus depending on type of research project<br />Procedure<br />Design<br />Can be combined with Participants or Procedure<br />Analyses/Proposed Analyses<br />Note: It is called “Method” and not “Methods”<br />
Results<br />The results section does not start on a new page. Place the heading “Results” centered and bolded in upper-and lowercase letters on the next line and start your first paragraph on the next line<br />Remember to italicize the correct statistical symbols when reporting statistics<br />Use superscripts and subscripts<br />Italicize: N, M, F, p, df,…<br />Overview:<br />Don’t include raw data<br />Don’t discuss implications<br />Report all findings, those that are significant and those that are not significant<br />Include tables<br />Remind reader of hypotheses<br />Include preliminary analyses and dealing with assumptions as first paragraph<br />
Discussion<br />The discussion section does not start on a new page. Place the heading “Discussion” centered and bolded in upper-and lowercase letters on the next line and start your first paragraph on the next line<br />Overview:<br />Gives meaning to the results <br />State whether hypotheses were supported or not supported<br />Address limitations, implications, and future research<br />Refer back to the literature<br />
References<br />The reference page starts on a new page. Center “References” in uppercase and lowercase letters<br />Double space and format all references with a hanging indent<br />Overview:<br />Include DOI when possible [http://www.crossref.org/SimpleTextQuery/]<br />Make sure all in-text citations in the introduction and discussion section appear on the reference page<br />
References – Journal Articles<br />General Form:<br />Author, A. A., Author, B. B., & Author, C. C. (Year). Title of article. Title of Journal, xx, xxx-xxx.<br />One Author<br />Williams, J. H. (2008). Employee engagement: Improving participation in safety. Professional Safety, 53(12), 40-45.<br />
References – Journal Articles<br />Two to Seven Authors [List all authors]<br />Keller, T. E., Cusick, G. R., & Courtney, M. E. (2007). Approaching the transition to adulthood: Distinctive profiles of adolescents aging out of the child welfare system. Social Services Review, 81, 453-484.<br />Eight or More Authors [List the first six authors, ... and the last author]<br />Wolchik, S. A., West, S. G., Sandler, I. N., Tein, J.-Y., Coatsworth, D.,Lengua, L.,...Griffin, W. A. (2000). An experimental evaluation of theory-based mother and mother-child programs for children of divorce. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 68, 843-849.<br />
References - Books<br />General Form<br />Author, A. A. (Year). Title of work. Location: Publisher.<br />One Author<br />Alexie, S. (1992). The business of fancy dancing: Stories and poems. Brooklyn, NY: Hang Loose Press.<br />
References - Books<br />Corporate Author with an Edition and Published by the Corporate Author<br />American Psychiatric Association. (1994). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed.). Washington, DC: Author.<br />Anonymous Author<br />Dorland’s illustrated medical dictionary (31st ed.). (2007). Philadelphia, PA: Saunders.<br />
References - Books<br />Chapter in a Book<br />Booth-LaForce, C., & Kerns, K. A. (2009). Child-parent attachment relationships, peer relationships, and peer-group functioning. In K. H. Rubin, W. M. Bukowski, & B. Laursen (Eds.), Handbook of peer interactions, relationships, and groups (pp. 490-507). New York, NY: Guilford Press.<br />
References – ERIC Document<br />Shyyan, V., Thurlow, M., & Liu, K. (2005). Student perceptions of instructional strategies: Voices of English language learners with disabilities. Minneapolis, MN: National Center on Educational Outcomes, University of Minnesota. Retrieved from the ERIC database (ED495903)<br />
References - Databases<br />General Format <br />Author, A. A., Author, B. B., & Author, C. C. (Year). Title of article. Name of Journal, xx, xxx-xxx. doi:xxxxxxxxxx<br />Article Retrieved from an Online Database<br />Senior, B., & Swailes, S. (2007). Inside management teams: Developing a teamwork survey instrument. British Journal of Management, 18, 138-153. doi:10.1111/j.1467-8551.2006.00507.x<br />
References - Databases<br />Article from an Online Magazine<br />Lodewijkx, H. F. M. (2001, May 23). Individual-group continuity in cooperation and competition under varying communication conditions. Current Issues in Social Psychology, 6(12), 166-182. Retrieved fromhttp://www.uiowa.edu/~grpproc/crisp/crisp.6.12.htm<br />
References – Other Online Content<br />General Form<br />Author, A. A. (Year). Title of work. Retrieved from web address<br />Online Report from a Nongovernmental Organization<br />Kenney, G. M., Cook, A., & Pelletier, J. (2009). Prospects for reducing uninsured rates among children: How much can premium assistance programs help? Retrieved from Urban Institute website: http://www.urban.org/url.cfm?ID=411823<br />
References – Other Online Content<br />Online Report with No Author Identified and No Date<br />GVU's 10th WWW user survey. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.cc.gatech.edu/user_surveys/survey-1998-10/<br />Entire Website (in-text is sufficient)<br />Kidpsych is an excellent website for young children (http://www.kidpsych.org).<br />
In-text Citations<br />Indirect Quotation with Parenthetical Citation<br />Libraries historically highly value intellectual freedom and patron confidentiality (LaRue, 2007)<br />Indirect Quotation with Author as Part of the Narrative<br />LaRue (2007) identified intellectual freedom and patron confidentiality as two key values held historically by libraries<br />Direct Quotation with Parenthetical Citation<br />Darwin used the metaphor of the tree of life "to express the other form of interconnectedness–genealogical rather than ecological” (Gould & Brown, 1991, p. 14)<br />
In-text Citations<br />Direct Quotation with Author as Part of the Narrative<br />Gould and Brown (1991) explained that Darwin used the metaphor of the tree of life "to express the other form of interconnectedness–genealogical rather than ecological” (p. 14).<br />
References & In-text Citations of Secondary Sources<br />Seidenberg and McClelland’s study (as cited in Coltheart, Curtis, Atkins, & Haller, 1993) provided a glimpse into the world…<br />Cite the secondary source (the article that you actually read)in your reference page<br />Ex: in the above example you would include Coltheart et al. in your references<br />
Appendices<br />Singular is “Appendix” and Plural is “Appendices”<br />Each Appendix begins on a new page<br />For only one appendix, title the first line of the page “Appendix” and center it. Do not bold this heading<br />For more than one appendix, title each first line of each appendix “Appendix A”, “Appendix B” and so on. This title should be centered. Do not bold this heading<br />Appendices may contain subheadings that should be formatted according to the levels of heading on page 62 of the APA Version 6 manual<br />Appendices should appear in the order in which they were referred to in the body of the research paper<br />Tables and figures must be numbered in the order in which they were discussed in the text of the research paper<br />Must be double spaced<br />Remember, appendices often include:<br />Tables and figures<br />These should appear before other appendices<br />Informed consent forms<br />Letters to participants<br />Survey instruments<br />Interview/focus group protocols<br />Data observation sheets<br />SPSS output of analyses conducted<br />
Presentation References<br />http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/560/01/<br />http://www2.yk.psu.edu/learncenter/apa-july-09.pdf<br />http://www.calstatela.edu/library/guides/3apa.pdf<br />http://www.vanguard.edu/faculty/ddegelman/detail.aspx?doc_id=796<br />APA Manual, Version 6, 2nd Printing<br />APA Format Made Easy Presentation by Cady Block<br />APA Format Presentation by Susanne Kaesbauer<br />
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