Term paper format_apa_stlye

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Term paper format_apa_stlye

  1. 1. STEP 10 : PRESENTING YOUR RESEARCH PAPER IN THE APA FORMAT
  2. 2. The APA Format General Document Guidelines <ul><li>Margins : One inch on all sides (top, bottom, left, right) </li></ul><ul><li>Font Size and Type : 12-pt. font (Times Roman or Courier are acceptable typefaces) </li></ul><ul><li>Line Spacing : Double-space throughout the paper, including the title page, abstract, body of the document, references, appendixes . </li></ul>
  3. 3. The APA Format General Document Guidelines <ul><li>Spacing after Punctuation : Space once after all punctuation . This includes using one space (not two!) following punctuation marks at the ends of sentences. </li></ul><ul><li>Alignment : Flush left ( creating uneven right margin ) </li></ul><ul><li>Paragraph Indentation : 5-7 spaces </li></ul>
  4. 4. The APA Format General Document Guidelines <ul><li>Active voice : As a general rule, use the active voice rather than the passive voice . For example, use &quot; We predicted that ...&quot; rather than &quot;It was predicted that ...&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>Pagination : The page number appears one inch from the top right edge of the paper on the first line of every page (except Figures ), beginning with the title page </li></ul>
  5. 5. The APA Format reference: http://www.iiu.edu .my http://www.vanguard.edu/ (last modified August 1, 2007) <ul><li>Your research paper should follow a definite order, which consists of the following: </li></ul><ul><li>Cover page </li></ul><ul><li>Title page </li></ul><ul><li>Abstract </li></ul><ul><li>Content page </li></ul><ul><li>Body </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Introduction </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Body paragraphs </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Conclusion & Recommendations </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>References </li></ul><ul><li>Glossary (if necessary) </li></ul><ul><li>Appendix (if necessary) </li></ul>
  6. 6. 1. COVER PAGE <ul><li>TITLE OF YOUR PAPER </li></ul><ul><li>NAME </li></ul><ul><li>MATRIC NUMBER </li></ul><ul><li>KULLIYAH </li></ul><ul><li>TUTOR’S NAME </li></ul><ul><li>SECTION </li></ul><ul><li>YOUR AFFILIATION </li></ul><ul><li>DATE OF SUBMISSION </li></ul><ul><li>( Use UPPERCASE LETTERS ) </li></ul>
  7. 7. 1. COVER PAGE MATRIC NO KULLIYAH LECTURER’S NAME SECTION: DATE OF SUBMISSION
  8. 8. 2. TITLE PAGE <ul><li>Pagination : The Title Page is page 1. </li></ul><ul><li>Key Elements : Running head, Paper title, author(s) and author affiliation(s), </li></ul><ul><li>Running head : The running head is typed flush left (all uppercase) following the words &quot;Running head:&quot; on the line below the manuscript page header . It should not exceed 50 characters , including punctuation and spacing . The running head is a short title that appears at the top of pages of published articles </li></ul>
  9. 9. 2. TITLE PAGE <ul><li>Manuscript Page Header : The first two or three words of the paper title appear five spaces to the left of the page number on every page, beginning with the title page . Using most word processors, the manuscript page header and page number can be inserted into a header, which then automatically appears on all pages </li></ul><ul><li>Paper Title : Uppercase and lowercase letters, centered on the page. </li></ul><ul><li>Author (s): Uppercase and lowercase letters, centered on the line following the title. </li></ul><ul><li>Institutional affiliation : Uppercase and lowercase letters, centered on the line following the author (s). </li></ul>
  10. 11. 3. Abstract <ul><li>The abstract begins on a new page (page 2 ). </li></ul><ul><li>Although an abstract appears at the beginning of a paper, it should be written last. . </li></ul><ul><li>You need to have completed all other sections before you can select and summarize the essential information from your arguments. </li></ul>
  11. 12. 3. Abstract <ul><li>Your abstract should </li></ul><ul><li>give a general sentence ( lead sentence ) introducing the topic. </li></ul><ul><li>be a brief, comprehensive summary of the contents of the term paper. </li></ul><ul><li>have an accurate, concise and specific piece of writing that presents the objective , the various perspectives and conclusions of your research. </li></ul>
  12. 13. 3. Abstract <ul><li>allow readers to survey the main content of an article in not more than 120 words . </li></ul><ul><li>conclude by suggesting needed future areas of research , or </li></ul><ul><li>give specific examples of the effects that your research discovered </li></ul><ul><li>be informative – it should allow readers to decide whether they want to continue reading the research paper or not. </li></ul>
  13. 14. 3. Abstract <ul><li>be written in a single paragraph in a block format </li></ul><ul><li>contain key words about what is essential in the research paper so that someone else can retrieve information from it. </li></ul><ul><li>strictly follow the chronology of the research paper. </li></ul><ul><li>use digits – except those that begin a sentence – i.e. 16 instead of sixteen </li></ul>
  14. 15. 3. Abstract <ul><li>use logical connections (or transition) whenever appropriate. </li></ul><ul><li>add no new information , but simply summarize the report. </li></ul><ul><li>Use the active forms of verbs to emphasize the information. </li></ul>
  15. 16. 3. Abstract
  16. 17. 4. Content page <ul><li>The content page </li></ul><ul><li>Comes after the abstract </li></ul><ul><li>Shows the contents of the paper (including the abstract) and the organization of your ideas </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Divides your paper into three main parts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Introduction </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Body </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Conclusion </li></ul></ul></ul>
  17. 18. 4. Content page TABLE OF CONTENTS Page A bstract 2 l Introduction 4 ll Arguments Argument 1 5 Argument 2 7 Counterargument 9 Refutation - Argument 3 10 Islamic Pers pective 1 2 lll Conclusion 14 References 15
  18. 19. 5. Body of the paper <ul><li>The body of the paper begins on a new page (page 3). </li></ul><ul><li>In BLOCKS , the body covers the (I) introduction , (II) arguments and (III) conclusion & recommendations. </li></ul><ul><li>Devise a topic heading for each block. They must relate to your thesis statement. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Please keep referring back to your thesis statement. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Do not forget the Islamic perspective (s). </li></ul>
  19. 20. 5. Body of the paper <ul><li>What do we mean by blocks?? </li></ul>
  20. 21. 5. Body of the paper <ul><li>Do you remember the essay you did in class? </li></ul><ul><li>The building blocks of the essay were Paragraphs. </li></ul><ul><li>Paragraphs of: </li></ul><ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Counterargument and Rebuttal </li></ul><ul><li>Argument 1 </li></ul><ul><li>Argument 2 </li></ul><ul><li>Argument 3 </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusion </li></ul>
  21. 22. 5. Body of the paper <ul><li>Those paragraphs should be further developed into SECTIONS that will be the building blocks of your research paper. </li></ul>1.0 Introduction 2.0 The Case Against the Extension of Islamic Law 2.1 Political Forces 2.2 Economic Forces 3.0 The Case in Favour of the Extension of Islamic Law 3.1 God Given Rules of Life 3.2 Muslim Majority 3.3 Ease of Application 4.0 Conclusion
  22. 23. 5. Body of the paper <ul><li>In other words, </li></ul><ul><li>to progress from the essay to the research paper... </li></ul><ul><li>We have to expand our paragraphs into… Sections!!! </li></ul>
  23. 24. Now ,how do we do that?
  24. 25. 5. Body of the paper <ul><ul><ul><li>First, look at the paragraphs of your argumentative essay again… </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>You introduced the issue and your thesis statement </li></ul><ul><li>You presented your first and subsequent arguments </li></ul><ul><li>You dealt with any possible rebuttals from opposing camp </li></ul><ul><li>You provided your Islamic perspectives </li></ul><ul><li>You concluded </li></ul>
  25. 26. 5. Body of the paper <ul><li>Now, do similar things in the sections of our research </li></ul><ul><li>paper </li></ul><ul><li>You introduce the issue and your thesis statement </li></ul><ul><li>You present your first and subsequent arguments </li></ul><ul><li>You deal with any possible rebuttals from opposing camp </li></ul><ul><li>You provide your Islamic perspectives </li></ul><ul><li>You conclude and provide recommendations </li></ul>
  26. 27. 5. Body of the paper <ul><li>But instead of covering the </li></ul><ul><li>ideas in one paragraph… </li></ul><ul><li>We cover the ideas in </li></ul><ul><li>several paragraphs to form </li></ul><ul><li>a section of our research </li></ul><ul><li>paper </li></ul><ul><li>Where does all the extra </li></ul><ul><li>information come from? </li></ul><ul><li>Facts </li></ul><ul><li>Statistics </li></ul><ul><li>Authorities </li></ul><ul><li>Anecdotes </li></ul><ul><li>Scenarios </li></ul><ul><li>Cases </li></ul><ul><li>Textual references </li></ul>
  27. 28. 5. Body of the paper <ul><li>So, a paragraph of the essay… </li></ul><ul><li>First of all, as women constitute a little over half of the population of the world, they surely have the right to be represented by women. In modern society we frequently hear the expression human rights and more recently this has been extended to women’s rights ,not by men but by women’s pressure groups, run by women, for women. Such women’s groups have done a great deal to help the position of women not only in the West but also in third world countries where many women are in a disadvantaged state. Schemes for better healthcare, family planning ,educational opportunities and equality at the workplace are just a few examples of how women politicians have worked to improve the position of women in society . It might be argued that men are also very aware of the plight of women and do their utmost to help them and create a better quality of life for them. This may be true in some cases but the reality is that women politicians are always better placed to understand women’s problems and do something to put them right . It is clear that women do have an important role to play in political life in terms of representing other women in society. </li></ul>
  28. 29. 5. Body of the paper <ul><li>Becomes a section of the paper… </li></ul><ul><li>3.2 Women’s Representative Role in Society </li></ul><ul><li>Women constitute a little over half of the population of the world . It was estimated that in the year 2003 the percentage of women in the world stood at 54.93% with the tendency for the percentage to grow (Owen, 2005). This being the case, women surely have the right to be represented by women .According to Lampard (2003),”Women have to fight for their representative rights in the countries of the Third World just as they did in the developed world many years ago” (p. 99).Indeed, in modern society we frequently hear the expression human rights and more recently this has been extended to women’s rights , not by men but by women’s pressure groups, run by women, for women. </li></ul>
  29. 30. 5. Body of the paper <ul><li>And you provide supports for your arguments… </li></ul><ul><li>Such women’s groups have done a great deal to help the position of women not only in the West but also in Third World countries where many women are in a disadvantaged state. In India, for example, great efforts are being made by women’s groups to improve the position of women in society with the rural poor especially being targeted by these groups (Gerard, 2001). In 2003, schemes for better healthcare and family planning were given new impetus by the World Health Organization’s Year of Health programme (Crouch, 2005). In African countries ,whilst there is still much to be achieved in terms of healthcare, women activists have been working hard to ensure basic healthcare for all and it was reported that 20,000 extra hospital beds are now available in six West African states (Rooney, 2005) </li></ul>
  30. 31. 5. Body of the paper <ul><li>YOU CAN THEN CONTINUE DEVELOPING THESE IDEAS INTO NEW PARAGRAPHS!!! </li></ul><ul><li>Educational opportunities………. </li></ul><ul><li>Equality at the workplace …….. </li></ul>
  31. 32. 5. Body of the paper <ul><li>Then, you can write a concluding paragraph for the section: </li></ul><ul><li>It is clear that women do have an important role to play in political life in terms of representing other women in society . Yes, it is true that men do much to protect women and enhance their position in society, but only incidentally. It takes women to really understand women’s problems and in the final analysis it takes women to raise their own profile in the political world and thereby help women worldwide. In the words of female activist Jeanne Beckham (2000),”It is our destiny and fundamental duty in life to ensure the wellbeing of our under- privileged sisters throughout the world regardless of their colour, creed, age or nationality” (pp. 35-36). </li></ul>
  32. 33. 5. Body of the paper <ul><li>The same can be done for the… </li></ul><ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>The Counterarguments and rebuttals </li></ul><ul><li>The other Supporting Arguments and </li></ul><ul><li>The Conclusion </li></ul>
  33. 34. 5. Body of the paper I. Introduction <ul><li>Introduce your paper; issues or problems leading to your arguments </li></ul><ul><li>Include your thesis statement </li></ul><ul><li>Ensure that the thesis statement is a sentence that comes at the end of your introduction. </li></ul><ul><li>(Apply the things that you have learnt on how to write a good introduction) </li></ul>
  34. 35. 5. Body of the paper III. Conclusion and Recommendations <ul><li>When writing a conclusion you should include your overall main points. . </li></ul><ul><li>A good conclusion should show exactly what your research discovered . Did you prove your argument? </li></ul><ul><li>You can always make a suggestion in the conclusion. </li></ul><ul><li>(Remember the things that you have learnt on how to write your conclusion and recommendations) </li></ul>
  35. 36. 6. References <ul><li>A reminder </li></ul><ul><li>A list of all sources cited in the paper must be included at the end of the paper. This list is entitled &quot;References &quot; and must begin on a separate page after the last page of text. This heading should be centred on the page. </li></ul>
  36. 37. 6. References <ul><li>The reference list will be arranged in alphabetical order , by author's last name. If there is more than one work by the same author, place the entries in order of publication date, from oldest to most recent . (i.e. list 1991 references before 1995 references for the same author). </li></ul>
  37. 38. 6. References <ul><li>The first line of each entry in the list of references is typed flush to the left margin. Subsequent lines for the same entry are indented one-half inch . All lines are double-spaced with no extra spaces between entries. </li></ul>
  38. 39. 6. References <ul><li>All author's names in the references list are to use the inverted form; with last name first . Initials should be used for the author's first name. For two or more authors, separate the names by commas and use &quot; & &quot; instead of &quot;and&quot; for the last name mentioned. </li></ul>
  39. 40. 6. References <ul><li>When an author appears as both a sole author, and as the first author of a group, list the single author entry first . </li></ul><ul><li>If no author name is available for a publication, alphabetize the entry by the title of the work , and use a shortened version of the title in parenthetical &quot;in-text&quot; citations in the body of the text. </li></ul>
  40. 41. 6. References <ul><li>For the title of the work being cited, use italics . </li></ul><ul><li>When referencing BOOKS, capitalize the first word and all proper nouns contained in the title and sub-title . Do not use all capitals. </li></ul>
  41. 42. 6. References
  42. 43. 6. References
  43. 44. 7. Glossary (if necessary) <ul><li>A glossary contains all the technical words that you need to explain to the ‘lay readers’. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>If you use non-technical words you do not need a glossary </li></ul></ul>
  44. 45. 8. Appendix (if necessary) <ul><li>An appendix will contain the additional materials referred to in your paper </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It could be graphs that you have used. </li></ul></ul>
  45. 46. PRESENTING YOUR RESEARCH PAPER IN THE APA FORMAT <ul><li>Please check the marking scheme for your argumentative research paper with your tutors. </li></ul>
  46. 47. <ul><li>The end </li></ul>

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