Jammu & Kashmir LSE Mar '11

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A few slides that I shared during a talk on Jammu & Kashmir on 3rd March '11.

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  • http://satyameva-jayate.org/2008/08/13/this-was-the-beginning/
  • Source: http://satyameva-jayate.org/2010/09/05/jk-finances/
  • Jammu & Kashmir LSE Mar '11

    1. 1. Jammu & Kashmir Backdrop to a discussion Shantanu Bhagwat 3 rd March 2011 http://Satyameva-Jayate.org/
    2. 2. Agenda <ul><li>Background and context </li></ul><ul><li>Myths vs. Reality </li></ul><ul><li>The roots of current unrest, protests and violence </li></ul><ul><li>The &quot;pampering&quot; of J&K </li></ul><ul><ul><li>..and the forgotten “J” in J&K </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Nailing the Lies and countering propoganda </li></ul><ul><li>A proposed &quot;solution” </li></ul><ul><li>What can you do? </li></ul>
    3. 3. Background and Context <ul><li>Some important dates and time-line </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Oct 1947: Pakistani army including irregulars and tribals attacks Jammu & Kashmir </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Jan 1948: India raised issue of Pakistan’s aggression at United Nations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Aug 1948: UN passes a resolution on conflict </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Jan 1950: UN passes another resolution that supersedes the 1948 Resolution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>May 1951: Karan Singh convenes Jammu & Kashmir’s Constituent Assembly </li></ul></ul>
    4. 4. <ul><li>The accession of Jammu and Kashmir to India was incomplete </li></ul><ul><li>The promised plebiscite is (still) awaited </li></ul>Myths vs. Reality Source: Sh Arvind Lavakare: http://satyameva-jayate.org/2005/08/05/excellent-factual-background-to-the-kashmir-issue
    5. 5. <ul><li>Oct 1951: Sheikh Abdullah addresses first meeting of the Constituent Assembly and mentions three alternatives </li></ul><ul><ul><li>accession to India, accession to Pakistan and complete independence. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Feb 1954: Drafting Committee presents its report to the newly elected Constituent Assembly </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Unanimously approved (64 in favour; 11 absent) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Nov 1956: Constitution officially enacted. Section 3 therein says, ‘ The State of Jammu and Kashmir is and shall be an integral part of the Union of India. ’ </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Section 147 prohibits any bill to amend Section 3 from being introduced or moved in either House of the State Legislature </li></ul></ul>Myths vs. Reality Source: Sh Arvind Lavakare: http://satyameva-jayate.org/2005/08/05/excellent-factual-background-to-the-kashmir-issue
    6. 6. <ul><li>The accession of Jammu and Kashmir to India was incomplete </li></ul><ul><li>The promised plebiscite is (still) awaited </li></ul>Myths vs. Reality Source: Sh Arvind Lavakare: http://satyameva-jayate.org/2005/08/05/excellent-factual-background-to-the-kashmir-issue
    7. 7. <ul><li>In Jan ’48, under Article 35 of the UN Charter, India took up the matter of Pakistan’s armed aggression against India (Oct ’47) at the United Nations </li></ul><ul><li>Note that the issue that was raised was Pakistan’s aggression against India , not the legality of the Instrument of Accession. </li></ul>Myths vs. Reality
    8. 8. <ul><li>Part I provided for a cease-fire </li></ul><ul><li>Part II provided for a truce agreement under which Pakistan would accept unconditional withdrawal of its troops, tribesmen, and all unlawful Pakistan nationals from Jammu and Kashmir </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Part II further recognized the necessity of India to maintain an army in Jammu and Kashmir to maintain law and order in the state. </li></ul></ul>UN Resolution, Aug 1948
    9. 9. <ul><li>Part III stated </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ The Government of India and the Government of Pakistan reaffirm their wish that the future status of the State of Kashmir shall be determined in accordance with the will of the people, and to that end, upon acceptance of the truce agreement (of Part II), both Governments agree to enter consultations with the Commission (UNCIP) determine fair and equitable conditions whereby such free expression will be assured ” </li></ul></ul>UN Resolution, Aug 1948
    10. 10. <ul><li>Superseded the August 1948 resolution </li></ul><ul><li>Stated that </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The question of the accession of the State of Jammu and Kashmir to India or Pakistan will be decided through the democratic method of a free and impartial plebiscite; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A plebiscite will be held when it shall be found by the Commission that the cease-fire and truce arrangements set forth in Parts I and II of the Commission's Resolution of 13 August 1948, have been carried out and arrangements for the plebiscite have been completed; </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Note that there was no mention of any “third option” of “independence” </li></ul>UN Resolution, Jan 1950
    11. 11. Agenda <ul><li>Background and context </li></ul><ul><li>Myths vs. Reality </li></ul><ul><li>The roots of current unrest, protests and violence </li></ul><ul><li>The &quot;pampering&quot; of J&K </li></ul><ul><ul><li>..and the forgotten “J” in J&K </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Nailing the Lies and countering propoganda </li></ul><ul><li>A proposed &quot;solution” </li></ul><ul><li>What can you do? </li></ul>
    12. 12. The Beginning… <ul><li>1987: Complains from political parties that elections have been rigged </li></ul><ul><li>1989: Beginning of terrorist movement, armed, funded and supported by Pakistan </li></ul><ul><li>1990s: Formation of radical Islamic terrorist groups; The “movement” acquires overt and unambiguous Islamic overtones </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Partly driven by the arrival in the valley of Kashmir of large numbers of Islamic &quot;Jihadi&quot; fighters who had fought in Afghanistan against the Soviet Union in the 1980s </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>..and support by Pakistan’s newly elected PM, Benazir Bhutto </li></ul></ul><ul><li>~ Jan 1990: The exodus begins </li></ul><ul><ul><li>http://satyameva-jayate.org/2008/08/13/this-was-the-beginning/ </li></ul></ul>Source: BBC: http://news.bbc.co.uk/hi/english/static/in_depth/south_asia/2002/india_pakistan/timeline/1989.stm
    13. 13. Fast Forward: late ’00s <ul><li>Recent violence very likely manifestation of a political conflict </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ ..between the old bourgeoisie, and an emerging new élite of contractors and businessmen ” - Praveen Swami </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Sporadic and concentrated in a few localities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In first half of 2010, 45% of all violent clashes took place in Srinagar </li></ul></ul>Source: “The Stone Throwers” by Praveen Swami published in Outlook, July 12, 2010
    14. 14. Fast Forward: late ’00s <ul><li>Srinagar, Baramulla and Sopore accounted for 70% of all violent clashes </li></ul><ul><li>The pattern was similar in 2009 too </li></ul><ul><li>In the first half of 2010, more than half of all civilians killed, almost 40% of civilians injured and a third of police personnel injured can be accounted for in clashes in Srinagar city </li></ul><ul><li>According to former Governor, Lt Gen S K Sinha, 15 of the 22 districts of J&K have been unaffected through this period of violence </li></ul>Source: “The Stone Throwers” by Praveen Swami published in Outlook, July 12, 2010
    15. 15. Elephant in the room? <ul><li>The one unknown (and difficult to quantify) factor: Islamism </li></ul><ul><li>Geelani has been at the forefront of the revival of radical Islam in the Kashmir valley </li></ul><ul><li>In a 2008 interview, he called for the creation of an Islamic Nizamiat , or state, in which the &quot; creed of socialism and secularism should not touch our lives and we must be totally governed by the Koran and the Sunnat ” </li></ul><ul><li>Geelani might be the single biggest road-block to peace in Jammu & Kashmir </li></ul><ul><ul><li>http://satyameva-jayate.org/2010/09/07/geelani-roadblock/ </li></ul></ul>Source: “The Stone Throwers” by Praveen Swami published in Outlook, July 12, 2010
    16. 16. Agenda <ul><li>Background and context </li></ul><ul><li>Myths vs. Reality </li></ul><ul><li>The roots of current unrest, protests and violence </li></ul><ul><li>The &quot;pampering&quot; of J&K </li></ul><ul><ul><li>..and the forgotten “J” in J&K </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Nailing the Lies and countering propoganda </li></ul><ul><li>A proposed &quot;solution” </li></ul><ul><li>What can you do? </li></ul>
    17. 17. The “pampering” of J&K <ul><li>60%-70% of the State’s expenditure is supported by grants from the Centre </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Unlike other states, J&K receives 90% of money from the Centre in the form of “grants” and 10% as loans </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In case of other states, a mere 30% is grants </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Of the total grants by the Central government, J&K has historically received between 10-12% while its population is about 1% of the total population of India </li></ul><ul><li>Average figure of people below poverty line is 26% for India; 3.7% for Kashmir – thanks to this generous aid </li></ul>Source: http://satyameva-jayate.org/2010/09/05/jk-finances/ and Lt Gen S K SInha quoted at FINS Seminar, 26th Oct ’10 Mumbai
    18. 18. The forgotten “J” in J&K <ul><li>http://satyameva-jayate.org/2008/08/24/jammu-kashmir-comparison/ </li></ul>3 2 LokSabha seats 1594 sq kms 2629 sq kms Area per district 29.30%  69.70 %  Unemployment 3lakhs  1.2 lakhs  Representation in state govt. jobs 100% less than 70%  Rural electrification 346.6 sq kms 710.6 sq kms  Area/seat 46 37 Assembly Seats 20% 75% Total revenue 15948 sq kms 26293 sq kms Area Kashmir Jammu
    19. 19. Agenda <ul><li>Background and context </li></ul><ul><li>Myths vs. Reality </li></ul><ul><li>The roots of current unrest, protests and violence </li></ul><ul><li>The &quot;pampering&quot; of J&K </li></ul><ul><ul><li>..and the forgotten “J” in J&K </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Nailing the Lies and countering propoganda </li></ul><ul><li>A proposed &quot;solution” </li></ul><ul><li>What can you do? </li></ul>
    20. 20. Nailing the Lies <ul><li>Facts are our biggest allies </li></ul><ul><li>Poor presentation and emotional reactions are our biggest enemies </li></ul><ul><li>Two recent instances </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Noam Chomsky’s “India invaded Kashmir” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>http://satyameva-jayate.org/2010/01/10/chomsky-kashmir/ </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Amarnath </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>http://satyameva-jayate.org/2008/07/07/lies-about-amarnath/ </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>… and the lies about land transfer and changing demographics </li></ul></ul></ul>
    21. 21. Nailing the Lies Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Jammu,_Kashmir_and_Ladakh.JPG and http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Kashmir_map.svg
    22. 22. Nailing the Lies <ul><li>90+ articles with data, facts, links and resources @ http://satyameva-jayate.org/category/jammu-kashmir-related / </li></ul>
    23. 23. Agenda <ul><li>Background and context </li></ul><ul><li>Myths vs. Reality </li></ul><ul><li>The roots of current unrest, protests and violence </li></ul><ul><li>The &quot;pampering&quot; of J&K </li></ul><ul><ul><li>..and the forgotten “J” in J&K </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Nailing the Lies and countering propoganda </li></ul><ul><li>A proposed &quot;solution” </li></ul><ul><li>What can you do? </li></ul>
    24. 24. A proposed “solution” <ul><li>One Country, One Law : Starting point on Jammu & Kashmir </li></ul><ul><li>Abolition of Article 370 </li></ul><ul><li>Proactive and visible steps to encourage further assimilation of Jammu & Kashmir (and its residents) with rest of the Union. </li></ul><ul><li>A package of incentives to encourage Kashmiri Pandits to come back and resettle in the State (including measures such as tax breaks and grants) </li></ul><ul><li>Financial discipline and austerity in the government machinery and bureaucracy </li></ul><ul><li>Removal of  disparity between Kashmir valley and other parts of the state </li></ul><ul><li>Encouragement to industries and businesses from outside the state to come and set up units and businesses in J&K (including tax breaks) </li></ul><ul><li>Establishment of a few marquee institutions of higher learning/advanced studies </li></ul><ul><li>And finally, a determined effort to put  international pressure on Pakistan to hand back territory that it continues to occupy illegally – viz Gilgit-Baltistan and the euphemistically called “Azad Kashmir” </li></ul>
    25. 25. Agenda <ul><li>Background and context </li></ul><ul><li>Myths vs. Reality </li></ul><ul><li>The roots of current unrest, protests and violence </li></ul><ul><li>The &quot;pampering&quot; of J&K </li></ul><ul><ul><li>..and the forgotten “J” in J&K </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Nailing the Lies and countering propoganda </li></ul><ul><li>A proposed &quot;solution” </li></ul><ul><li>What can you do? </li></ul>
    26. 26. What can you do? <ul><li>Widen your reading </li></ul><ul><li>Email your friends and acquaintances about this </li></ul><ul><li>Share the slides and the articles </li></ul><ul><li>Organise weekly discussions (online, offline) on this topic. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>fortnightly, monthly whatever is convenient </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Stress the facts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Plebiscite/ “Azaadi” etc. are non-starters </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The real stumbling block is Article 370 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>One Country, One Law </li></ul><ul><ul><li>we must repeatedly stress this... </li></ul></ul>
    27. 27. Questions, Comments... Jai Hind, Jai Bharat! Shantanu @ Satyameva-Jayate.org

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