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Introduction to the ecosystem approach as a framework for management of ecosystem use

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Kevern Cochrane and Warwick Sauer …

Kevern Cochrane and Warwick Sauer
Presentation at the 2nd Targeted Workshop for GEF IW Projects in Africa on Economic Valuation in November 2012 in Addis Ababa.


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  • Just to briefly mention the method used to identify and prioritise the issues for each fishery. It was a three step process.
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    First to identify the risks or issues using 7 broad categories. All issues raised were noted to ensure that all opinions were considered.
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    The prioritisation process then allowed objective ranking of the issues.
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    Each issue was assessed in terms of the impact of it occurring and the likelihood of it occurring.
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    Finally the Performance Reports for all issues above a moderate score were compiled.
    Lynne Shannon coordinated the scientific effort to use these reports to determine what indicators are necessary and discuss indicators which already exist. She will discuss this further in her presentation. I will just show a summary graph for each fishery.
  • Transcript

    • 1. Introduction to the ecosystem approach as a framework for management of ecosystem use Kevern Cochrane and Warwick Sauer
    • 2. CBD Definition of an EcosystemCBD Definition of an Ecosystem ApproachApproach  The ecosystem approach is a strategy for the integratedThe ecosystem approach is a strategy for the integrated management of land, water and living resources thatmanagement of land, water and living resources that promotes conservation and sustainable use in anpromotes conservation and sustainable use in an equitable way. …It is … focused on levels of biologicalequitable way. …It is … focused on levels of biological organization which encompass the essential processes,organization which encompass the essential processes, functions and interactions among organisms and theirfunctions and interactions among organisms and their environment. It recognizes that humans, with theirenvironment. It recognizes that humans, with their cultural diversity, are an integral component ofcultural diversity, are an integral component of ecosystems.ecosystems. http://www.cbd.int/ecosystem/
    • 3. FAO Definition ofFAO Definition of EAFEAF An Ecosystem Approach to FisheriesAn Ecosystem Approach to Fisheries strives tostrives to balance diverse societalbalance diverse societal objectivesobjectives, by taking account of the, by taking account of the knowledge and uncertainties aboutknowledge and uncertainties about biotic, abiotic and human componentsbiotic, abiotic and human components of ecosystems and theirof ecosystems and their interactionsinteractions and applyingand applying an integrated approachan integrated approach to fisheries withinto fisheries within ecologicallyecologically meaningful boundariesmeaningful boundaries.. (FAO, 2003)(FAO, 2003)
    • 4. Legal Framework - CBDLegal Framework - CBD  The primary principle (Article 3, CBD 1992 ) ofThe primary principle (Article 3, CBD 1992 ) of the CBD is that:the CBD is that:  ““States have, in accordance with the Charter ofStates have, in accordance with the Charter of the United Nations and the principles ofthe United Nations and the principles of international law, the sovereign right to exploitinternational law, the sovereign right to exploit their own resources pursuant to their owntheir own resources pursuant to their own environmental policies, and the responsibility toenvironmental policies, and the responsibility to ensure that activities within their jurisdiction orensure that activities within their jurisdiction or control do not cause damage to the environmentcontrol do not cause damage to the environment of other States or of areas beyond the limits ofof other States or of areas beyond the limits of national jurisdiction.”national jurisdiction.”
    • 5. Legal Framework – CBD (cont.)Legal Framework – CBD (cont.)  Decision II/10 of the 2nd CoP to CBD,Decision II/10 of the 2nd CoP to CBD, 1995 “Encourages the use of integrated1995 “Encourages the use of integrated marine and coastal area management asmarine and coastal area management as the most suitable framework forthe most suitable framework for addressing human impacts on marine andaddressing human impacts on marine and coastal biological diversity and forcoastal biological diversity and for promoting conservation and sustainablepromoting conservation and sustainable use of this biodiversity.”use of this biodiversity.”
    • 6. UN Law of the Sea: Art. 61UN Law of the Sea: Art. 61  2. The coastal State, shall ensure ... that the2. The coastal State, shall ensure ... that the maintenance of the living resources in the EEZ is notmaintenance of the living resources in the EEZ is not endangered by over-exploitation. ... the coastal Stateendangered by over-exploitation. ... the coastal State and competent international organizations...shalland competent international organizations...shall cooperate to this end.cooperate to this end.  3. Such measures shall also be designed to maintain or3. Such measures shall also be designed to maintain or restore populations of harvested species at levels whichrestore populations of harvested species at levels which can produce the MSY, as qualified by......, thecan produce the MSY, as qualified by......, the interdependence of stocks and any generallyinterdependence of stocks and any generally recommended international minimum standards, whetherrecommended international minimum standards, whether subregional, regional or global.subregional, regional or global.  4. ....the coastal State shall take into consideration the4. ....the coastal State shall take into consideration the effects on species associated with or dependent uponeffects on species associated with or dependent upon harvested species with a view to maintaining or restoringharvested species with a view to maintaining or restoring populations of such ...species above levels at which theirpopulations of such ...species above levels at which their reproduction may become seriously threatened.reproduction may become seriously threatened.
    • 7. FAO Code of ConductFAO Code of Conduct States and users of living aquatic resourcesStates and users of living aquatic resources should conserve aquatic ecosystemsshould conserve aquatic ecosystems. The. The right to fish carries with it the obligation toright to fish carries with it the obligation to do so in a responsible manner so as todo so in a responsible manner so as to ensure effective conservation andensure effective conservation and management of the living aquaticmanagement of the living aquatic resourcesresources..
    • 8. A Sectoral Example - theA Sectoral Example - the Rationale for EAFRationale for EAF The purpose of an ecosystem approach to fisheries is to plan, develop and manage fisheries in a manner that addresses the multiplicity of societal needs and desires, without jeopardising the options for future generations to benefit from marine ecosystems. the full range of goods and
    • 9. The underlying rationale of single-speciesThe underlying rationale of single-species approaches: the Schaefer Modelapproaches: the Schaefer Model 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 0 200 400 600 800 1000 Stock size Surplusproduction BMSY B0 MSY
    • 10. The ecological reality:The ecological reality:
    • 11. Ecosystem approaches to sectorsEcosystem approaches to sectors in the broader EA frameworkin the broader EA framework Authority for Management of Marine zone Coastal zone development Management agency for EAF Conservation & environmental interests Large-scale sector Small-scale sector Offshore oil, gas and mining Agencies for land-based impacts Authority for Management of Marine zone Coastal zone development Management agency for EAF Conservation & environmental interests Large-scale sector Small-scale sector Offshore oil, gas and mining Agencies for land-based impacts
    • 12. Interim Agreement on the Establishment ofInterim Agreement on the Establishment of the Benguela Current Commissionthe Benguela Current Commission PREAMBLE  “Contracting Parties”:  Recognising the unique character of the Benguela Current Large Marine Ecosystem, the threats to it, and its significance for their socio-economic development and for the wellbeing of their people;  Conscious of their joint responsibility as custodians of this globally significant large marine ecosystem to conserve it for the benefit of present and future generations;  Recognising that effective long-term cooperation between them in implementing an ecosystem approach to the management of human activities affecting the Benguela Current Large Marine Ecosystem requires the establishment of stable institutional arrangements;
    • 13. Article 1.Use of TermsArticle 1.Use of Terms  For the purposes of this Interim Agreement - “Adverse impact”  (a) includes any actual or potential detrimental effect on the BCLME that results directly or indirectly from human conduct originating wholly or partly within the territory of a Contracting Party or from a vessel or aircraft under its jurisdiction or control; and  (b) includes any actual or potential detrimental effect on legitimate uses of the BCLME, on the health of people in the Contracting Parties or on their ability to provide for their health, safety and cultural and economic wellbeing, which occurs or may occur as a consequence of a detrimental effect referred to in (a); but  (c) does not include any actual or potential detrimental effect that is negligible or which has been assessed and determined to be acceptable under this Interim Agreement;
    • 14. ARTICLE 9. ECOSYSTEM ADVISORY COMMITTEE 1. The Ecosystem Advisory Committee shall consist of experts ...... supervised by the Management Board.  2. The role of Ecosystem Advisory Committee is –  (a) to support decision-making by the BCC and the Contracting Parties by providing them with the best available scientific, management, legal and other information, and expert advice concerning the conservation and ecologically sustainable use and development of the Benguela Current Large Marine Ecosystem; and  (b) to build capacity within the Contracting Parties to generate and provide the information and expert advice referred to in (a) on a sustainable basis.
    • 15. Recognising and Acknowledging theRecognising and Acknowledging the Impacts and InteractionsImpacts and Interactions Sector or Subsector Ecological wellbeing Human Wellbeing (Social, economic, cultural) Ability to achieve Commercially important species or habitat Species of conservation concern General Ecosystem Local/Community Sector/Subsector Governance in Same Sector Governance in Other Sectors Impact of the environment Other Sectors National Health
    • 16. Some examples of “EAF Issues”Some examples of “EAF Issues” from the Benguela Currentfrom the Benguela Current countriescountries  Bycatch of species that are important target species forBycatch of species that are important target species for other fisheries.other fisheries.  Mortality to threatened sharks, seabirds and otherMortality to threatened sharks, seabirds and other species of conservation concernspecies of conservation concern  Limited knowledge of true biodoiversity and impacts ofLimited knowledge of true biodoiversity and impacts of fishery on biodiversityfishery on biodiversity  Conflicts between industrial and small-scale fisheriesConflicts between industrial and small-scale fisheries  Impacts of trawls on the benthic fauna and floraImpacts of trawls on the benthic fauna and flora  Increasing impacts on fisheries of offshore mining and oilIncreasing impacts on fisheries of offshore mining and oil exploration and extractionexploration and extraction  Environmental impacts (e.g. Benguela Niño andEnvironmental impacts (e.g. Benguela Niño and deoxygenation events)deoxygenation events)
    • 17. EA Management andEA Management and Institutions – Responding atInstitutions – Responding at Different ScalesDifferent Scales
    • 18. ManagementManagement ProcessesProcesses i) Developing ai) Developing a managementmanagement planplan 4.1.2 Scoping [Fishery & area, Stakeholders, Broad issues] 4.1.3 Background information & analysis 4.1.5 Formulating rules Implementation & enforcement 4.1.4 Setting objectives [Broad objectives, Operational objectives, Indicators & performance measures] 4.1.6 Monitoring 4.1.6 Long-term review 4.1.6 Short-term review Consultationwithstakeholders C
    • 19. Multi-scale Requirements of EBMMulti-scale Requirements of EBM Governance StructureGovernance Structure Fanning et al. 2007. A large marine ecosystem governance framework
    • 20. Challenges to Application of EA: Institutional Needs in the BCLME* Management structures  Stakeholder participation  Access rights  Management plans  Inter-agency cooperation  International (outside BCLME) Information and research  Data  Research staff  Science and decision-making  Information dissemination Legal Monitoring, control and surveillance  Enforcement  Observer coverage *From the BCLME/FAO Project on EAF Implementation 2004-2006
    • 21. Priority Issues for Implementation ofPriority Issues for Implementation of EAF the BCLMEEAF the BCLME  Lack of capacity is a major constraint in the attempt to implementLack of capacity is a major constraint in the attempt to implement EAF.EAF.  All countries need a resource management structure that:All countries need a resource management structure that:  is suitable for EAF;is suitable for EAF;  includes the main stakeholders; andincludes the main stakeholders; and  encompasses direct involvement of stakeholders in the decision-encompasses direct involvement of stakeholders in the decision- making process.making process.  In Angola and Namibia communications with the oil industry andIn Angola and Namibia communications with the oil industry and marine diamond mining respectively must be improved.marine diamond mining respectively must be improved.  Improved capacity for long-term ecosystem monitoring, placementImproved capacity for long-term ecosystem monitoring, placement of scientific observers and improved data management are required.of scientific observers and improved data management are required.  Angola requires:Angola requires:  improved surveillance and compliance;improved surveillance and compliance;  a suitable system of access rights for the artisanal fisheriesa suitable system of access rights for the artisanal fisheries  Inadequate capacity should not preclude the implementation of EAFInadequate capacity should not preclude the implementation of EAF measures.measures.  Single species approaches are an essential component of theSingle species approaches are an essential component of the fisheries management but need to be broadened for EAF.fisheries management but need to be broadened for EAF.
    • 22. ConclusionsConclusions  The recent awareness of importance of EA recognisesThe recent awareness of importance of EA recognises interactions and impacts between different humaninteractions and impacts between different human sectors and ecosystemsectors and ecosystem  Implementation of EA builds on sectoral approaches butImplementation of EA builds on sectoral approaches but requires addition of wider knowledge and encompassingrequires addition of wider knowledge and encompassing institutionsinstitutions  Optimal use of natural resources requires that negativeOptimal use of natural resources requires that negative impacts and conflicts are addressed and resolved: thisimpacts and conflicts are addressed and resolved: this requires compromises and trade-offsrequires compromises and trade-offs  Best-available information on ecological, social andBest-available information on ecological, social and economic costs and benefits of activities and decisionseconomic costs and benefits of activities and decisions affecting activities important for wise decision-making.affecting activities important for wise decision-making. Economic valuations contribute to that information.Economic valuations contribute to that information.

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