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Review of Book by Gary Fields

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Territories of Profit: Communications , Capitalist Development and the Innovative Enterprises of GF Swift and Dell Computer

Territories of Profit: Communications , Capitalist Development and the Innovative Enterprises of GF Swift and Dell Computer

Published in: Business, Education

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  • 1. Territories of Profit: Communications , Capitalist Development and the Innovative Enterprises of GF Swift and Dell Computer - Gary Fields
  • 2. The Railroad and Telegraph as Commerce System and Market Space
        • Communications and Commerce
        • Infrastructure Interconnection
          • Connecting the Atlantic and Pacific Coasts with wire in 1861 and rails in 1869.
          • Single transport and communication medium.
          • Twins of the 19 th century commerce
        • Markets before railroad and telegraph
        • Rail and telegraph based trade
          • Completion of Galena and Chicago Union Railroad
          • East-West Railroad lines
        • Advantages
          • Speed
          • Reliability
  • 3. The Railroad and Telegraph as Commerce System and Market Space
    • Increase in livestock shipping.
    • Institutionalization of Interregional trade.
      • Standards and Futures
    • Urban impacts
      • Increase in urban population
      • Emergence of cities as manufacturing enters.
      • Mass Markets and manufacturing
    • Govt. Policies
      • Single National market
  • 4. The Business Enterprise of G.F.Swift & Company
    • Organization of Swift
      • Dispersed Branch distribution houses
      • Pull system
      • Vertically integrated, Large scale Enterprise
      • Territorial Spread and localized concentration
    • Early Meatpacking
      • Perishable Nature of Meat
      • Lack of refrigeration facilities
      • Long distance transport of cattle
    • The Stockyards
    • Cattle commission houses
  • 5. The Business Organization of G.F.Swift & Company
    • Pooling arrangements between live-stock carrying railroads.
      • Inedible portion of the animal was also charged.
    • Integrated production and distribution strategy.
    • Refrigeration, transportation, communication and organization
    • Improvised refrigerated rail car
    • Consignment arrangements with the local butchers
  • 6. The Business Organization of G.F.Swift & Company
    • Butcher Aristocracy
      • Butcher workman Industrial laborer
    • Increase in no. of wage earners from 8000 to 70000 from 1870 to 1900.
    • By 1903, swift became the largest meat packing firm in the world.
    • Dressed beef trust
    • Investments by firms in the cattle stockyards.
    • Direct system of operations
      • Relied on orders from retail butchers
      • High volume throughput
      • Customization
      • Balancing supply and demand – using telegraph
  • 7.  
  • 8.
    • Vertically Integrated Organization
    • Ancillary operations
      • Swift refrigerator transportation company
      • Ice manufacturing and distribution
      • Swift fertilizer works
  • 9. Internet as commerce system and Market Space
    • Revolution in communication as a platform fro reorganizing competitive activity.
    • Commercialization of Internet
      • Invention of core infrastructure technology
      • Transformation into system for delivering profit
      • Exploitation of the built system
    • Infrastructure Users
    • Users as innovators
    • Internet commercialization
      • Splitting ARPANET into 2 pieces
      • Local Area networks(LANs)
      • World Wide Web and Internet Browser
  • 10. Internet as commerce system and Market Space
    • Host Computers
      • 1984 – 1000+ 1986 – 313,000
    • The Web, the Browser and Web Commerce
    • Web commerce
      • “ pulled” information channel
      • Goods Information , user buyer
      • Explosion of web portals, web hosting-services and search engines.
    • Internet commerce and Govt. policy
      • Telecommunications Act of 1996
        • Open competition for construction of internet infrastructure
      • Framework for Global Electronic commerce
        • Predictable legal environment for Internet commerce
  • 11. Internet as commerce system and Market Space
    • Internet retail space
      • Amazon.com and Internet Market Space
      • Internet Efficiency and Internet Geography
        • Interfirm sales
  • 12. The Business Organization of Dell Computer
    • “ build-to-order”
    • Dell’s process relies on
      • Absent intermediaries
      • Customization
      • Use of internet for procurement and assembly operations
    • Dell accumulates profit as a logistics firm
    • Levels of inventory
      • 1994 – 32 days of inventory
      • 2002 – 4 days of inventory
    • Collaborative relationship – between Dell and its Network partners
  • 13. The Business Organization of Dell Computer
    • Open standards and modularity
      • Constant technological change, constant downward price pressure
    • Indirect channel
    • Perishable quality of computers – price and time
    • Inventory problem
    • Genesis of DELL
      • Custom Direct
        • The company did not stock the retailer and reseller
      • Target – corporate customers
      • Problems with component inventory
      • Shift in sales mechanism
        • Using indirect channels for sale – Value added resellers(VAR)
  • 14. The Business Organization of Dell Computer
    • Online selling
      • PCs configurable online
      • Reduction in transaction cost from $50 to $5 per order
    • Internet-generated information and communication as substitute to inventory
      • Central to this was an ERP system by SAP
    • i2 business organization
      • Business with “internet at its core”
      • All geographical regions use this web-based information system
    • Burst Capacity
    • DSi2 – i2+Burst Capacity
      • Global supply planning
        • Master Production Plan
      • Demand fulfillment
  • 15. The Business Organization of Dell Computer
    • Virtually Integrated Firm
      • Systems Compatible with dell’s i2 system
      • Organization built on nonmarket foundations
    • Geography and the Dell Organization
      • Centralized form of control
      • Spatial proximity between key nodes in Dell’s network
      • Influencing location of network partners
    • Geography of Assembly
      • Locations – Penang(Malaysia), Xiamen (Taiwan), Austin & Nashville (North America), Eldorado do Sul (Brazil), Limerick (Ireland)
    • Geography of supply
      • East Asia, Mexico, United States
  • 16. Structural Foundations for e-commerce Adoption : A comparative organization of retail trade between Japan and the United States - Yuko Aoyama
  • 17. Characteristics of Retail Trade
    • The characteristics of trade are historically determined
    • Sell products available at brick-and-mortar store online – US
    • Selling products available online at brick and mortar stores – Japan
    • Neighborhood stores – access points of e-commerce for Japanese customers
    • In Tokyo there are 16 convenience stores/mi2.
    • Preexisting practices, cultural preferences and Institutional environment - alter patterns of technology use in consumption.
  • 18.
    • Convenience, familiarity and social habits
    • E-commerce technological requirements
      • Computer literacy
      • PC ownership
      • Availability of credit cards
    • Organizational characteristics of retail trade
      • Economic variables
      • Population growth and density
    • 55% of food and beverage sales were in small stores in Japan
  • 19. Evolution of Nonstore Retailing in USA and Japan
    • USA :
    • Direct marketing for import goods
      • Horticulture
    • Mail order trade
    • Mass-market based approach to niche markets
      • Avg. Household income > $75000 per annum
      • Well versed with the procedures of receiving refunds, returns and exchanges.
  • 20. NonStore trade in Japan
    • Japan:
    • Introduced in 1875
    • They combined store-front sales with catalog businesses.
    • Problems faced
      • Densely populated spatial structure
      • Mistrust of merchants
      • Undeveloped printing technologies and postal system
      • Limited market size for Japanese catalogs
    • 1973 Large Scale Retail Law
      • For sustaining mom-and-pop stores
    • Virtual stand still of Japanese economy and decline in consumer demand.
  • 21. Convenience Stores in Japan
    • Starting market from ground zero
    • Exchange of cash for goods
    • Seven eleven Japan
    • High energy cost – lack of refregiration
    • Advantages of Convenience store chains
      • Assistance from the chain
    • Innovation
      • Locational Strategy
      • Marketing Strategy
      • Adoption of IT
    • Heavy investment in IT – better supply routes
  • 22. Convenience Stores in Japan
    • Second stage of Informatization
    • Delivery of online based services
    • Alliances between convenience stores and e-commerce vendors
    • Easy access and legitimacy to online retailers