Ss 11 chap 12 living standards


Published on

  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Total views
On SlideShare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Ss 11 chap 12 living standards

  1. 1. LivingLivingStandardsStandardsWhy can’t I havewhat he’s got?ORIs it possible for everyoneto have the samestandard of living (in acountry and around theworld)?
  2. 2. Standard of LivingStandard of Living standard of livingstandard of living refers torefers tothethe quality and quantity ofquality and quantity ofgoods and services availablegoods and services availableto peopleto people, and the way these, and the way thesegoods and services aregoods and services aredistributed within adistributed within apopulationpopulation generally measuresgenerally measureseconomic welfareeconomic welfare Other measures such asOther measures such asaccess and quality of healthaccess and quality of healthcare, educational standardscare, educational standardsand social rights are oftenand social rights are oftenused as wellused as well One aspect ofOne aspect of Quality ofQuality ofLifeLife
  3. 3. Quality of LifeQuality of Life Indicator of how good life is for the citizens of aIndicator of how good life is for the citizens of agiven areagiven area physically, psychologically, andphysically, psychologically, andsociallysocially. Includes:. Includes:WealthWealthPersonal safetyPersonal safetyHealthHealthNutritionNutritionStatus of women and childrenStatus of women and childrenPoverty linePoverty lineFreedom of expressionFreedom of expressionEconomic freedomEconomic freedomRight to a safe and clean environmentRight to a safe and clean environment
  4. 4. Developed NationsDeveloped Nations industrialized, peopleindustrialized, peoplewell-housed, healthy,well-housed, healthy,and educatedand educatedinfrastructureinfrastructure – such– suchthings as transportationthings as transportationand communication links,and communication links,electric-power distributionelectric-power distributionsystems, schools, andsystems, schools, andhospitals – are wellhospitals – are welldeveloped – known asdeveloped – known as“First World”“First World”Examples: Canada, USA,Examples: Canada, USA,most European nationsmost European nations
  5. 5. Developing / UnderdevelopedDeveloping / Underdeveloped Poor infrastructurePoor infrastructure::few schools, doctors,few schools, doctors,and hospitals; roadsand hospitals; roadswere mainly unpaved,were mainly unpaved,few railways, fewfew railways, fewpeople withpeople withtelephones, only citiestelephones, only citieswith electrical powerwith electrical power known as “Thirdknown as “ThirdWorld”World”
  6. 6. UN Human Development IndexUN Human Development Index(HDI)(HDI) Living Standards Measure of countriesLiving Standards Measure of countries Comparative measure of:Comparative measure of:1.1. Adult literacy (people who can read) rateAdult literacy (people who can read) rate• percentage of the population 15 years and older who canpercentage of the population 15 years and older who canread and writeread and write2.2. life expectancy ratelife expectancy rate• Average number of years a person or population canAverage number of years a person or population canexpect to liveexpect to live3.3. per capita GDP (gross domestic product)per capita GDP (gross domestic product)• GDP - total value of all goods and services produced in aGDP - total value of all goods and services produced in acountry in one in one year.• divide this # by the # of people in a country, you get thedivide this # by the # of people in a country, you get theaverage GDP per personaverage GDP per person, or, or per capitaper capita
  7. 7. ““Most Livable” Countries, 2007Most Livable” Countries, 20071.1.IcelandIceland2.2.NorwayNorway3.3.AustraliaAustralia4.4.CanadaCanada5.5.IrelandIreland6.6.SwedenSweden7.7.SwitzerlandSwitzerland8.8.JapanJapan9.9.NetherlandsNetherlands10.10.FranceFrance11.11.FinlandFinland12.12.United StatesUnited States13.13.SpainSpain14.14.DenmarkDenmark15.15.AustriaAustria16.16.United KingdomUnited Kingdom 17.17.BelgiumBelgium 18.18.LuxembourgLuxembourg19.19.New ZealandNew Zealand20.20.ItalyItaly21.21.GermanyGermany22.22.IsraelIsrael23.23.GreeceGreece24.24.SingaporeSingapore25.Korea, Rep. Of25.Korea, Rep. Of26.26.SloveniaSlovenia27.27.CyprusCyprus28.28.PortugalPortugal29.29.Brunei DarussalamBrunei Darussalam 30.30.BarbadosBarbados2008:
  8. 8. ““Least Livable” Countries, 2007Least Livable” Countries, 20071.1.Sierra LeoneSierra Leone2.2.Burkina FasoBurkina Faso3.3.Guinea-BissauGuinea-Bissau4.4.NigerNiger5.5.MaliMali6.6.MozambiqueMozambique7.7.Central African RepublicCentral African Republic8.8.ChadChad9.9.EthiopiaEthiopia10.10.Congo, Dem. Rep. of theCongo, Dem. Rep. of the11.11.BurundiBurundi12.12.Côte dIvoireCôte dIvoire13.13.ZambiaZambia14.14.MalawiMalawi15.15.BeninBenin16.16.AngolaAngola17.17.RwandaRwanda18.18.GuineaGuinea19.19.TanzaniaTanzania20.20.NigeriaNigeria21.21.EritreaEritrea22.22.SenegalSenegal23.23.GambiaGambia24.Uganda24.Uganda25.Yemen25.Yemen26.Togo26.Togo27.Zimbabwe27.Zimbabwe28.Timor-Leste28.Timor-Leste29.Djibouti29.Djibouti30.Kenya30.Kenya
  9. 9. Human Development IndicatorsHuman Development Indicators Other than those used inOther than those used inthe HDI, other humanthe HDI, other humandevelopment indicatorsdevelopment indicatorsinclude:include: Education ratesEducation ratesThe percentage of theThe percentage of thepopulation who attend orpopulation who attend orattended some sort ofattended some sort offormal educationformal education Fertility RatesFertility RatesThe average number ofThe average number ofchildren that would be bornchildren that would be bornto a woman over herto a woman over herlifetimelifetime
  10. 10. Human Development IndicatorsHuman Development Indicators Infant mortality ratesInfant mortality ratesReported number of infantsReported number of infantsdying under 5 years of age,dying under 5 years of age,per 1,000 live birthsper 1,000 live births DiseaseDiseasePrevalence of disease in anPrevalence of disease in anarea such asarea such as HIV/AIDSHIV/AIDS ––PandemicPandemicPandemic: an epidemic thatPandemic: an epidemic thatoccurs over a wide geographicoccurs over a wide geographicareaareaworst in developing countries likeworst in developing countries likeAfrica where lack of educationAfrica where lack of educationand access to medical suppliesand access to medical suppliesand treatments cause the diseaseand treatments cause the diseaseto keep spreading at a rapid rateto keep spreading at a rapid rate
  11. 11. Highly Indebted Poor Countries (HIPC’s)Highly Indebted Poor Countries (HIPC’s) most countries at themost countries at thebottom of the HDI arebottom of the HDI arein debt to thein debt to thedeveloped nationsdeveloped nations countries that are so incountries that are so indebt to developeddebt to developedcountries thatcountries that most ofmost ofits gross nationalits gross nationalproduct is used to payproduct is used to payinterest on those debtsinterest on those debts
  12. 12. Newly Industrialized CountriesNewly Industrialized Countries known as “Secondknown as “SecondWorld”World” countries between 2countries between 2categoriescategories countries in thecountries in thetransition stagetransition stagebetween developingbetween developingand developedand developednations.nations. Most have rapidlyMost have rapidlygrowing economies.growing economies. Example: ChinaExample: China
  13. 13. Additional Challenges inAdditional Challenges inDeveloping CountriesDeveloping Countries Poverty Cycle – TrapPoverty Cycle – Trap Health ChallengesHealth Challenges Lack of education andLack of education andemployment, especially foremployment, especially forwomenwomen Discrimination against WomenDiscrimination against Women Armed Conflict i.e. Rwanda,Armed Conflict i.e. Rwanda,Darfur; land minesDarfur; land mines Child LabourChild Labour Access to Clean DrinkingAccess to Clean DrinkingWaterWater Natural Disasters – i.e.Natural Disasters – i.e.tsunamitsunami
  14. 14. Causes of PovertyCauses of Poverty Armed ConflictsArmed ConflictsDisrupt attempts at aidDisrupt attempts at aidand developmentand development(farming, infrastructure,(farming, infrastructure,industry)industry) Natural DisastersNatural DisastersLimited ResourcesLimited Resourcesinhibit the constructioninhibit the constructionof adequate housing,of adequate housing,infrastructure, andinfrastructure, andmechanismsmechanisms
  15. 15. Causes of PovertyCauses of Poverty Lack ofLack ofEducationEducationCannot findCannot findjobs that willjobs that willsupport a familysupport a family Lack ofLack ofEmploymentEmploymentIncomeIncomeinequalities andinequalities andtoo few jobs fortoo few jobs forlow incomelow incomegroupsgroups
  16. 16. Causes of PovertyCauses of Poverty High birthratesHigh birthratesEnormousEnormousdemand ondemand onscarce resourcesscarce resourcesStarvationStarvationDiseaseDisease Low Levels ofLow Levels ofLiteracyLiteracyCannot find jobsCannot find jobsthat will support athat will support afamilyfamily
  17. 17. Causes of PovertyCauses of Poverty High Debt BurdenHigh Debt BurdenProvide lower standardsProvide lower standardsReduced wagesReduced wagesUndercutting their ownUndercutting their ownresources in order toresources in order tocompete economically incompete economically inthe global marketthe global market Infectious DiseasesInfectious DiseasesDeath of significantDeath of significantportions of theportions of thepopulationpopulationStrain on resourcesStrain on resourcesReliance on foreign aidReliance on foreign aid
  18. 18. NEW Cause: Climate ChangeNEW Cause: Climate Change
  19. 19. Illiteracy andlimited education;particularly ofgirls and womenPoorNutrition /Lack of foodsecurityEnvironmentaldegradationUnhealthy humanbehaviourLow Status ofwomen / genderinequityInadequateaccess tohealth servicesSocial unrestand armedconflictInadequateaccess to safewater andsanitationSquattersettlements andpoor housingRapid populationgrowth and rural-urban migrationPoverty andinequityMAJORDETERMINANTS OFHEALTHIn DevelopingCountries
  20. 20. The root of most health issues:The root of most health issues:WATERWATER
  21. 21. Baby born tomalnourished /impoverishedmotherMarry young;few jobopportunities;limited socialinfluenceFamilyin debt dueto low wages(can leadto break-upof family& abuse) Baby’sdevelopment isslowedPoor nutritionandmedical carePhysical andmentaldevelopment areslowedPoorperformancein schoolLowLiteracy Level(little / noeducation)Reducedlikelihood ofeconomicsuccess (low jobskills)Limited diet,poor generalhealthChildren go towork insteadof school ORChild becomes anuneducated,unskilled workerunable to earn aliving wageWhen adult – need tosend children to workto help support familyAlso – Natural Disasterand/or Armed Conflict= Loss of Resources= Enhanced Vulnerability to PovertyPoverty Cycle in Developing Countries
  22. 22. The Vulnerable Ones: Women and ChildrenThe Vulnerable Ones: Women and Children the burden of poverty createsthe burden of poverty createsparticular hardships for womenparticular hardships for womenand children because manyand children because manydeveloping societies havedeveloping societies havemale-dominated societiesmale-dominated societieswherewhere females and childrenfemales and childrenhave lower status than menhave lower status than men often haveoften have no legal rights, orno legal rights, orthe legal system may allowthe legal system may allowthem to be treated as propertythem to be treated as property women may even be killed towomen may even be killed tosatisfy a family’s honorsatisfy a family’s honor in some tribal societies, womenin some tribal societies, womenand children may have to eatand children may have to eatwhatever is left after the menwhatever is left after the menhave finished their meals – canhave finished their meals – canlead tolead to malnutritionmalnutrition
  23. 23. Women – Developing WorldWomen – Developing World woman in a developing countrywoman in a developing countrymay have to work over 12may have to work over 12hours a day to ensure thehours a day to ensure thesurvival of her familysurvival of her family often left to support family whenoften left to support family whenmen migrate (move) in searchmen migrate (move) in searchof workof work education – often a luxuryeducation – often a luxuryrestricted to malesrestricted to males only 1/3 of girls in rural India goonly 1/3 of girls in rural India goto school – compared w/ ½to school – compared w/ ½boysboys feeling: education wasted onfeeling: education wasted ongirlsgirls many families keep girls @many families keep girls @home to look after the youngerhome to look after the youngerchildren and help w/ choreschildren and help w/ choresuntil they are married and moveuntil they are married and moveinto their husband’s villageinto their husband’s village
  24. 24. Women – Developing WorldWomen – Developing World cultural tradition dictatescultural tradition dictatesthat when a woman isthat when a woman ismarried she is reborn intomarried she is reborn intoher husband’s family, soher husband’s family, sothere is an incentive tothere is an incentive tomarry youngmarry young demographers agree thatdemographers agree thateconomic developmenteconomic developmentand the fertility rate ofand the fertility rate ofcountries are connectedcountries are connected decline in # of children adecline in # of children awoman has frees her towoman has frees her toimprove her life & theimprove her life & thelives of her childrenlives of her children
  25. 25. Women – Developing WorldWomen – Developing World better educated women havebetter educated women havefewer children – tend to marryfewer children – tend to marrylater and have fewer children,later and have fewer children,usually because they are betterusually because they are bettereducated about contraceptioneducated about contraceptionand better able to resist familyand better able to resist familypressure to have more childrenpressure to have more children children of educated womenchildren of educated womenalso more likely to survivealso more likely to survive know more about theknow more about theimportance of immunization,importance of immunization,clean water, and good nutritionclean water, and good nutrition study in Peru – showed infantstudy in Peru – showed infantmortality rate dropped for everymortality rate dropped for everyyear of schooling the motheryear of schooling the motherhadhad key to improving status ofkey to improving status ofwomen: educationwomen: education
  26. 26. Women –Women – Example: Women in Niger, AfricaExample: Women in Niger, Africa Niger – lies almost entirely in Sahara DesertNiger – lies almost entirely in Sahara Desert#176 out of 177 on 2004 HDI#176 out of 177 on 2004 HDIlife expectancy: under 49 yrslife expectancy: under 49 yrsliteracy – 14%literacy – 14%65% of pop’n survive on less than $180/yr65% of pop’n survive on less than $180/yruranium - #1 export – recent drop in price hasuranium - #1 export – recent drop in price hasredcued country’s earningsredcued country’s earningsdonor aid has been withheld until the militarydonor aid has been withheld until the militarygovernment returns the government to civiliangovernment returns the government to civilianrulerule women – large role in economy – makingwomen – large role in economy – makingpottery, selling firewood, cloth, etc.pottery, selling firewood, cloth, etc. yet in traditional Muslim society –bound toyet in traditional Muslim society –bound toobey the wishes of male relatives – husbands,obey the wishes of male relatives – husbands,fathers, brothers, etc.fathers, brothers, etc. polygamy (practice of having more than onepolygamy (practice of having more than onewife) – widespreadwife) – widespreadaverage marrying age – 15average marrying age – 15average # of children – 7.4average # of children – 7.4
  27. 27. Children in CrisisChildren in Crisis Children – often 1st victimsChildren – often 1st victimsof underdevelopmentof underdevelopment famine, disease, war, etc –famine, disease, war, etc –prey on society’s mostprey on society’s mostvulnerable dependentsvulnerable dependents even if survive critical 1st 5even if survive critical 1st 5years – children in someyears – children in somedeveloping nations havedeveloping nations havefew educationalfew educationalopportunities and are all tooopportunities and are all toooften exploited as childoften exploited as childlabour – some trapped inlabour – some trapped insex tradesex trade high birth rates in manyhigh birth rates in manydeveloping areas – ensuresdeveloping areas – ensuresthis will continuethis will continue
  28. 28. UNICEF - PNRUNICEF - PNR UNICEF - since 1990 has published an annualUNICEF - since 1990 has published an annual ProgressProgressof Nations Report (PNR)of Nations Report (PNR) on the welfare of children thaton the welfare of children thatmeasures the risk of children in countries worldwide on ameasures the risk of children in countries worldwide on ascale of zero to 100scale of zero to 100 Based on 5 factors:Based on 5 factors:1. mortality rates of children1. mortality rates of childrenunder age 5under age 52.% of children moderately /2.% of children moderately /severely underweightseverely underweight3.#s of children who do not3.#s of children who do notattend primary schoolattend primary school4.risks from armed conflict4.risks from armed conflict5.risks from the disease5.risks from the diseaseHIV/AIDSHIV/AIDS
  29. 29. UNICEF - PNR - ResultsUNICEF - PNR - Results Canada, the US, Australia, Japan, & otherCanada, the US, Australia, Japan, & otherhighly developed nations had risk scoreshighly developed nations had risk scoresof 5 or below (of no consequence)of 5 or below (of no consequence) Africa’s average score: 61Africa’s average score: 61 world average: 30world average: 30
  30. 30. Canada’s Responses toCanada’s Responses toDevelopment IssuesDevelopment Issues Canada –Canada – Foreign Aid PolicyForeign Aid PolicyGives aid ($, goods & services) to poor (developing)Gives aid ($, goods & services) to poor (developing)foreign countriesforeign countries Official Development Assistance (ODA)Official Development Assistance (ODA)Program gives financial aid to countries of Africa, Asia,Program gives financial aid to countries of Africa, Asia,and some in Central / Eastern Europeand some in Central / Eastern Europe CIDA – Canadian International DevelopmentCIDA – Canadian International DevelopmentAgencyAgencyCIDA was established in 1968 to administer the bulk ofCIDA was established in 1968 to administer the bulk ofCanada’s official development assistance (ODA)Canada’s official development assistance (ODA)programprogramCIDA’s aim is to reduce poverty, promote human rights,CIDA’s aim is to reduce poverty, promote human rights,and support sustainable developmentand support sustainable development
  31. 31. Bilateral AidBilateral Aid Aid given directlyAid given directlyfrom governmentfrom governmentto governmentto governmentUsually in theUsually in theform of grants asform of grants asopposed to loansopposed to loansandandgoods andgoods andservicesservices
  32. 32. Tied AidTied Aid Form of bilateral aidForm of bilateral aidLoans / grantsLoans / grantsprovided to aprovided to adeveloping countrydeveloping countrywith the requirementwith the requirementthat the recipient usethat the recipient usethe funds to buythe funds to buygoods or services ingoods or services inthe donor countrythe donor countryThe majority of aid isThe majority of aid istied aidtied aid
  33. 33. Multilateral AidMultilateral Aid funding multilateralfunding multilateralinstitutions /institutions /internationalinternationalorganizations suchorganizations suchas:as:UN – i.e. UNICEF,UN – i.e. UNICEF,WHOWHOWorld BankWorld Bank Often in form ofOften in form ofcashcash Often large-scaleOften large-scaleinitiatives likeinitiatives likebuilding damsbuilding dams
  34. 34. Project AidProject Aid Money, goods, orMoney, goods, orservices that aservices that adonor-nationdonor-nationprovides to aprovides to adeveloping countrydeveloping countryfor a specificfor a specificprojectproject
  35. 35. NGOs (Non-GovernmentalNGOs (Non-GovernmentalOrganizations)Organizations) NGOs areNGOs are nnon-on-ggovernmentalovernmental oorganizations are non-rganizations are non-profit organizations that often conduct humanitarian andprofit organizations that often conduct humanitarian anddevelopment work around the world. NGOs are essentialdevelopment work around the world. NGOs are essentialto poverty relief poverty relief efforts. Governments such as Canada support NGOS throughGovernments such as Canada support NGOS throughdonations, but do not control what NGOs dodonations, but do not control what NGOs do Most active in ecological, health, and general welfareMost active in ecological, health, and general welfareprogramsprograms Examples:Examples:Red CrossRed CrossOxfamOxfamSave the ChildrenSave the ChildrenGreenpeaceGreenpeaceAmnesty InternationalAmnesty InternationalHabitat for HumanityHabitat for HumanityDoctors Without BordersDoctors Without Borders
  36. 36. Debt ReductionDebt Reduction CanadaCanadasupports thesupports theidea ofidea offorgiving all orforgiving all orpart of the debtpart of the debtdevelopingdevelopingcountries owecountries oweto internationalto internationalbanksbanks
  37. 37. Debt Reduction cont’Debt Reduction cont’ Debt has been chockingDebt has been chockingthe world’s weakestthe world’s weakesteconomies and blockingeconomies and blockingeconomic progress foreconomic progress forbillions of the world’sbillions of the world’spoorest peoplepoorest people Governments borrowedGovernments borrowedmoney in the past formoney in the past fordevelopment projectsdevelopment projectsfrom World Bank / IMF,from World Bank / IMF,etc.etc. Corrupt leaders oftenCorrupt leaders oftenstole the proceedsstole the proceeds
  38. 38. Debt Reduction cont’Debt Reduction cont’ To pay off interestTo pay off interestand principal of theand principal of theloanloanGovernments haveGovernments havebeen forced bybeen forced bycreditors to slashcreditors to slashtheir social spendingtheir social spendingand shrink theirand shrink theirpublic sectorpublic sectorBut debt still grows,But debt still grows,placing the poorestplacing the poorestcountries in a kind ofcountries in a kind ofdebt bondagedebt bondageMany countries of the UNMany countries of the UNhave been encouraging thehave been encouraging theelimination of these debts or atelimination of these debts or atleast a reduction in theleast a reduction in theamount owed by developingamount owed by developingnationsnations
  39. 39. Debt Reduction – con’tDebt Reduction – con’t Debt ReliefDebt ReliefEasing the obligations of a debtorEasing the obligations of a debtornation to repay loansnation to repay loans Debt SwapDebt SwapA new nation or organizationA new nation or organizationtakes over a nation’s debt intakes over a nation’s debt inexchange for some favour by theexchange for some favour by thedebtor nationdebtor nation Debt ForgivenessDebt ForgivenessCancelling obligations to repayCancelling obligations to repaydebtsdebts Debt MoratoriumDebt MoratoriumPostponement of payments onPostponement of payments onloansloans
  40. 40. Canadian InternationalCanadian InternationalDevelopment Agency (CIDA)Development Agency (CIDA) CIDACIDASupports foreign aidSupports foreign aidprojects in over 100 of theprojects in over 100 of thepoorest countriespoorest countries Manages OfficialManages OfficialDevelopment AssistanceDevelopment Assistance(ODA)(ODA) Promotes sustainability inPromotes sustainability indeveloping countriesdeveloping countries
  41. 41. CIDACIDA Focuses on 6 basic principles:Focuses on 6 basic principles:1.1. basic human needsbasic human needs2.2. gender equalitygender equality3.3. infrastructureinfrastructure4.4. human rightshuman rights5. environment5. environment6. democracy / good governance6. democracy / good governance Explores 4 socialExplores 4 socialdevelopment sectors:development sectors:1. basic education1. basic education2. HIV/AIDS2. HIV/AIDS3. health and nutrition3. health and nutrition4. child protection4. child protection
  42. 42. Does Foreign Aid Work? Issues to consider:Is Aid reaching those who need it?What do people need most in developing countries?Who is benefiting most from Foreign Aid?What are some different ways we could spend thesame amount of money on Foreign Aid and getdifferent results? Afghanistan – Security Issue Phantom Aid Malnutrition Solution Myth: Foreign Aid