Unit 4 Outcome 1Unit 4 Outcome 1Introducing global health andIntroducing global health andhuman developmenthuman developmentChapter 8 p.264 -268Chapter 8 p.264 -268Dot point 1Dot point 1““definitions of developed anddefinitions of developed anddeveloping countries according todeveloping countries according tothe WHO, including high/lowthe WHO, including high/lowmortality strata”mortality strata”
Developed countriesDeveloped countries p.266p.266• Developed (industrialised): welldeveloped industry, mining oragriculture sectors, healthyeconomy based on trade• High Gross Domestic product(GDP): total value of goods andservices produced by a countryin a year = one indicator that acountry is developed• Therefore: flourishing economy,established healthcare,education system, high literacyand immunisation rates• eg of countries = Australia, NewZealand, USA, Canada, Japan,Sweden, Italy, UK, ...
Developing countriesDeveloping countries p. 266p. 266• Less developed and generallyhave a low GDP• Less access to technology, poorindustry, limited trade• Infrastructure poorly developed• Business /finance system isweak• High rates of poverty caused bydebt, colonisation, internationaltrade arrangements, may beimpoverished through war,conflict or natural disasters• Thus have limited healthcarefacilities, low literacy rates• Short life expectancy, highmorbidity, low literacy andimmunisation rates• eg countries = Afghanistan,Thailand, Vanuatu, Zimbabwe,China, Cambodia, Bangladesh,...
It is difficult to classify a country asIt is difficult to classify a country aseither developed or developingeither developed or developingbecause they may have somebecause they may have somefeatures that are common to bothfeatures that are common to bothgroupings.groupings.There are many factors thatThere are many factors thatcontribute to development, such ascontribute to development, such ashealth status and health systems,health status and health systems,economics (including the level ofeconomics (including the level ofwealth or GDP), environmentalwealth or GDP), environmentalhealth, and education.health, and education.
WHO regionsWHO regions• The WHO have grouped countries into 6regions- Based on geographical location- These regions may include bothdeveloped and developing countries- It is difficult to categorise all countries asdeveloped or developing, many levels• UN has not established a formaldefinition.• WHO uses the following to categorisethem:- High mortality developing countries- Low mortality developing countries- Developed countries
WHO Mortality Strata p266-267WHO Mortality Strata p266-267• The WHO has also classified its member states (there areThe WHO has also classified its member states (there aremore than 190) into five mortality strata.more than 190) into five mortality strata.• Statistics for child and adult mortality are analysed and theStatistics for child and adult mortality are analysed and thecountries are classified accordingly.countries are classified accordingly. Child mortalityChild mortality refersrefersto the mortality rates of children under five years per 1000to the mortality rates of children under five years per 1000live births.live births. Adult mortalityAdult mortality refers to the mortality of malesrefers to the mortality of malesaged between 15 and 59.aged between 15 and 59.• Classifying the countries by mortality rates alone putsClassifying the countries by mortality rates alone putscountries with other countries experiencing similar healthcountries with other countries experiencing similar healthoutcomes. Health campaigns and interventions can then beoutcomes. Health campaigns and interventions can then bedevised for each strata in order to improve the healthdevised for each strata in order to improve the healthoutcomes of their respective populations.outcomes of their respective populations.
VCAA…VCAA…The WHO classifies countries into five mortality strata basedThe WHO classifies countries into five mortality strata basedon the mortality rates of children under five years of age andon the mortality rates of children under five years of age andadults. (adult male mortality ages 15–59 years old)adults. (adult male mortality ages 15–59 years old)•• Mortality strata A – very low child mortality and low adult mortality.Mortality strata A – very low child mortality and low adult mortality.•• Mortality strata B – low child mortality and low adult mortality.Mortality strata B – low child mortality and low adult mortality.•• Mortality strata C – low child mortality and high adult mortality.Mortality strata C – low child mortality and high adult mortality.•• Mortality strata D – high child mortality and high adult mortality.Mortality strata D – high child mortality and high adult mortality.•• Mortality strata E – high child mortality and very high adult mortality.Mortality strata E – high child mortality and very high adult mortality.•Countries in A strata considered developed, while thosein strata D or E considered developing•It is more difficult to label strata B or CTable 8.1 – WHO member states by region and strata p. 267Table 8.1 – WHO member states by region and strata p. 267
Exam Question 2010Exam Question 2010• Section A,Section A, Question 4Question 4• List two characteristics used by the WorldList two characteristics used by the WorldHealth Organization (WHO) to describe aHealth Organization (WHO) to describe adeveloping country.developing country.• 1.1.• 2.2.(2 marks)(2 marks)
AnswerAnswer• Characteristics used by the World Health OrganizationCharacteristics used by the World Health Organization(WHO) to describe a developing country include (any two(WHO) to describe a developing country include (any twoof): Note – must state if the characteristic is high/lowof): Note – must state if the characteristic is high/low•• under-five mortality rateunder-five mortality rate•• adult mortalityadult mortality•• child mortalitychild mortality•• infant mortalityinfant mortality•• incomeincome•• adult literacyadult literacy•• life expectancylife expectancy•• level of economic developmentlevel of economic development•• gross domestic product.gross domestic product.
Exam Question 2012Exam Question 2012a. Select one developing country from the table and usea. Select one developing country from the table and use
Answer:Answer:• Following is a possible approach to answering this question.Following is a possible approach to answering this question.- Afghanistan is a high-mortality strata developing country.- Afghanistan is a high-mortality strata developing country.The life expectancy is low (68yrs), the Under-5 mortalityThe life expectancy is low (68yrs), the Under-5 mortalityrate per 1000 people is very high(199 deaths per 100) andrate per 1000 people is very high(199 deaths per 100) andmaternal mortality is high (1400 per 1000 000), whichmaternal mortality is high (1400 per 1000 000), whichsupports high mortality strata.supports high mortality strata.• Students needed to select a developing country –Students needed to select a developing country –Afghanistan, Bhutan, Burkina Faso, Chad – or no marksAfghanistan, Bhutan, Burkina Faso, Chad – or no markscould be awarded.could be awarded.• Many students were able to state that the developingMany students were able to state that the developingcountry was Strata E or D, given the statistics.country was Strata E or D, given the statistics.
Question:Question:• Explain how the WHO strata levels canExplain how the WHO strata levels canassist in providing aid programs.assist in providing aid programs.• Answer:Answer:• The WHO strata levels can assist in providing aidprograms by being using the strata information to predictwhere services may be needed in the future and plantheir projects accordingly, for example in areas with veryhigh and high child mortality rates immunisationprograms could be implement.
Contributing Reasons?Contributing Reasons?DebtDebt• International debt a concern for developingcountries• Problem begins in 1970’s and 80’s when largeloans were made to poor nations by othercountries & financial institutes such as WorldBank• Encouraged to borrow funds to buildinfrastructure such as transport systems &grow crops for export to improve economy• However many governments made poor use ofthe $; purchased weapons, extravagantbuildings• As a result when price of oil and farmingequipment increased & returns for crops werelow....were not able to earn enough $ to repaydebt• Too many countries spend their $ on repayingdebt
ColonialismColonialism • Level of poverty stems backto 18thor 19thcentury• Colonisers: Britain Spain,Portugal, Holland, andFrance exploited the rawmaterials and resources ofthe colonies in order todevelop and support theirown trade industries• Gold, and other valuablematerials were mined, cashcrops such as tobacco andcoffee were planted, andlocal populations were usedas cheap labour
• Before colonisation a large proportion of thecountries were self-sufficient• Europeans arrived: locals were made towork for the new masters, or grow cashcrops for low wages• Food shortages developed due to land nowunavailable for previous use• As a result many families left the countryside &moved to towns & cities to search foremployment• Resulted: low paying jobs, food supplyuncertain, crowded & unsanitary, disease• Small pox introduced by colonial powers, manydeaths• Many previously colonised countries have todayregained their independence - East Timor inWestern Pacific Region....hard to rebuild...
TradeTrade• Many developing countries dependMany developing countries dependon exports for incomeon exports for income• While international trade hasWhile international trade haspotential to help poorer nationspotential to help poorer nationscombat poverty, it is often wealthiercombat poverty, it is often wealthiercountries that benefit more from thecountries that benefit more from thetrade arrangementstrade arrangements• Because of the small range ofBecause of the small range ofagricultural or mining exportsagricultural or mining exportsavailable, developing countries areavailable, developing countries arevulnerablevulnerable in global marketin global market• Buyer has control of priceBuyer has control of price• Weather problems or diseased cropsWeather problems or diseased cropsmay force developing countries tomay force developing countries tosell products at a lower pricesell products at a lower price• Taxes placed on imported processedTaxes placed on imported processedfoods affect their involvement infoods affect their involvement inworld marketworld market