Automated Start-up of a Difficult Process By Dustin Beebe, P.E.
Presenter <ul><li>Dustin Beebe, P.E. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Graduated from  Arkansas  with B.S. in Chemical Engineering </l...
Presentation Goals <ul><li>Brief Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>What makes processes difficult? </li></ul><ul><li>How to m...
About ProSys <ul><li>ProSys is an innovative professional engineering firm specializing in the area of process control </l...
Engineering Services <ul><li>Engineering Services include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Basic Control </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>...
Issues that Affect Startup <ul><li>CSB - $10 B per year lost due to operator error </li></ul><ul><li>Aging workforce – exp...
Total Automation Results <ul><li>Quicker startups (1/2 to 2/3 reduction) </li></ul><ul><li>Repeatable – like it’s on rails...
Process Stability <ul><li>In a chemical process </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stability is increased by adding mass </li></ul></ul...
What makes processes so difficult? <ul><li>Small envelopes </li></ul><ul><li>Multitasking </li></ul><ul><li>Computational ...
Process Envelopes <ul><li>Process Envelopes: </li></ul><ul><li>Envelopes represent a process context which when violated r...
Process Envelopes <ul><li>Process Envelopes: </li></ul><ul><li>Small envelopes make it difficult to maintain operations </...
Examples of small envelopes <ul><li>Operational / Controllability </li></ul><ul><ul><li>An exothermic reaction requires an...
Examples of multitasking/computational <ul><li>Operational / Controllability & Economic </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A train of s...
Process Envelopes <ul><li>Process Envelopes: </li></ul><ul><li>Maintaining Boundaries </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Operator Respo...
<ul><li>Operator Response </li></ul><ul><li>Pros </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Keeps it running </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In-plac...
Process Envelopes <ul><li>Interlocks </li></ul><ul><li>Pros </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Deterministic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li...
Process Envelopes <ul><li>Regulatory Controls </li></ul><ul><li>Pros </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stabilizes </li></ul></ul><ul><...
Corralling the Process APC Regulatory Sequence State Logic Interlocks Alarms issued for unexpected or unplanned events   T...
Manually Operated Plant <ul><li>Operator </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Follows manual procedure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Coordin...
Automated Plant <ul><li>Automation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Follows procedure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Coordinates regulato...
On the Edge <ul><li>F-16 Fighter </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Is designed for negative static stability (NSS) in subsonic flight ...
On the Edge <ul><li>Flight Control Computer (FLCC) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Takes input from the pilot and manipulates contro...
On the Edge <ul><li>Process Envelopes: </li></ul><ul><li>Economic envelopes can often fall on the edge of an operational o...
On the Edge <ul><li>Process Envelopes: </li></ul><ul><li>APCs have constraint control and can be layered with override str...
Total Automation on TDC/TPS State logic Dynamic Alarming and Sequence Coordination Configuration and Maintenance Operation...
 
State Transitions <ul><li>All State Transitions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Controls are coordinated in a repeatable manner </li...
State Transitions <ul><li>Manual or Auto </li></ul><ul><li>States are summarized on display for operator </li></ul><ul><li...
Elements of Good Implementation <ul><li>Acquire correct tools </li></ul><ul><li>Get trained or use experienced personnel <...
Total Automation Results <ul><li>Quicker startups (1/2 to 2/3 reduction) </li></ul><ul><li>Repeatable – like it’s on rails...
The Modern Automated Plant <ul><li>Utilizes process control </li></ul><ul><li>Does not require the same skill level and ex...
The Modern Automated Plant <ul><li>Reduces training costs versus a manual plant </li></ul><ul><li>Is  safer  and more effi...
Questions ? www.prosys.com [email_address]
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Eliminating Difficult Start-ups with State Based Controls

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Eliminating Difficult Start-ups with State Based Controls

  1. 1. Automated Start-up of a Difficult Process By Dustin Beebe, P.E.
  2. 2. Presenter <ul><li>Dustin Beebe, P.E. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Graduated from Arkansas with B.S. in Chemical Engineering </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Joined ProSys in 1996 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Earned Professional Engineer designation in 2001 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Became CEO of ProSys in 2009 </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Presentation Goals <ul><li>Brief Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>What makes processes difficult? </li></ul><ul><li>How to manage </li></ul><ul><li>Q & A </li></ul>
  4. 4. About ProSys <ul><li>ProSys is an innovative professional engineering firm specializing in the area of process control </li></ul>
  5. 5. Engineering Services <ul><li>Engineering Services include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Basic Control </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Advanced Control </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Boundary Management </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Alarm Management </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Operator Interface </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dynamic Simulation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Many More… </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Issues that Affect Startup <ul><li>CSB - $10 B per year lost due to operator error </li></ul><ul><li>Aging workforce – experience is retiring </li></ul><ul><li>Variability in Operator expertise on shifts </li></ul><ul><li>Staffing levels </li></ul><ul><li>Prolonged start-up time </li></ul><ul><li>Excessive off-spec product </li></ul><ul><li>Equipment damage </li></ul><ul><li>Greater process complexity </li></ul>
  7. 7. Total Automation Results <ul><li>Quicker startups (1/2 to 2/3 reduction) </li></ul><ul><li>Repeatable – like it’s on rails </li></ul><ul><li>Reduced errors and overshoots </li></ul><ul><li>Positive HSE impact </li></ul><ul><li>More Reliable </li></ul><ul><li>Less off-spec product </li></ul><ul><li>More benefits depending on situation </li></ul>
  8. 8. Process Stability <ul><li>In a chemical process </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stability is increased by adding mass </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>More metal (heat sink, spare capacity) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>More inventory (spare capacity, time to respond) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Comes at a cost </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>More heat loss </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>More off-spec product </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Loss of efficiency / under leveraged asset </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Materials / Labor </li></ul></ul></ul>
  9. 9. What makes processes so difficult? <ul><li>Small envelopes </li></ul><ul><li>Multitasking </li></ul><ul><li>Computational </li></ul><ul><li>Running next to the limit </li></ul><ul><li>Trip / Interlock logic </li></ul>
  10. 10. Process Envelopes <ul><li>Process Envelopes: </li></ul><ul><li>Envelopes represent a process context which when violated result in consequences </li></ul><ul><li>Consequence represents to which envelope the boundary belongs </li></ul>Safety Operational Reliability Environmental Economic Product A Economic Product B
  11. 11. Process Envelopes <ul><li>Process Envelopes: </li></ul><ul><li>Small envelopes make it difficult to maintain operations </li></ul>Safety Operational Reliability Environmental Economic Product A Economic Product B
  12. 12. Examples of small envelopes <ul><li>Operational / Controllability </li></ul><ul><ul><li>An exothermic reaction requires an exact stoichiometry </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Variability of just 5% off of ratio results in loss of reaction and requires restart of heater and reduction of feed </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Examples of multitasking/computational <ul><li>Operational / Controllability & Economic </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A train of separation columns that have limited inventory within the column to feed the next </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A small adjustment to the column could end up with a dynamic response that starves downstream columns </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Operator has to adjust multiple columns to keep from going on total reflux or slopping product </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Process Envelopes <ul><li>Process Envelopes: </li></ul><ul><li>Maintaining Boundaries </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Operator Response </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interlocks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Regulatory Controls </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>SP </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Override </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Automation </li></ul></ul>Safety Operational Reliability Environmental Economic Product A Economic Product B
  15. 15. <ul><li>Operator Response </li></ul><ul><li>Pros </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Keeps it running </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In-place </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cons </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Keeps it running </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Human Reliability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Not Reproducible </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Safety Exposure </li></ul></ul>Process Envelopes Safety Operational Reliability Environmental Economic Product A Economic Product B
  16. 16. Process Envelopes <ul><li>Interlocks </li></ul><ul><li>Pros </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Deterministic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Good layer of protection </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cons </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Moves away from operational and economic envelopes </li></ul></ul>Safety Operational Reliability Environmental Economic Product A Economic Product B
  17. 17. Process Envelopes <ul><li>Regulatory Controls </li></ul><ul><li>Pros </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stabilizes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Steers to target </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cons </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Not intelligent of operational objective </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Need to be coordinated </li></ul></ul>Safety Operational Reliability Environmental Economic Product A Economic Product B
  18. 18. Corralling the Process APC Regulatory Sequence State Logic Interlocks Alarms issued for unexpected or unplanned events Trips due to interlocks should be rare!
  19. 19. Manually Operated Plant <ul><li>Operator </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Follows manual procedure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Coordinates regulatory controls </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Coordinates with outside operations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Responds to alarms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fights interlocks </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Automated Plant <ul><li>Automation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Follows procedure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Coordinates regulatory controls </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduced manual outside operations </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Operator </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Responds to alarms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Coordinates with outside operations </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. On the Edge <ul><li>F-16 Fighter </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Is designed for negative static stability (NSS) in subsonic flight </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Literally flies on the verge of going out of control </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>NSS design enhances the maneuverability of the aircraft (optimal for fighter jet) </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. On the Edge <ul><li>Flight Control Computer (FLCC) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Takes input from the pilot and manipulates control surfaces to achieve desired objective </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Maintains a series of limiters that govern orientation of the aircraft. Prevents conditions which would induce unstable flight </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. On the Edge <ul><li>Process Envelopes: </li></ul><ul><li>Economic envelopes can often fall on the edge of an operational or safety boundary </li></ul>Operational Economic Product A
  24. 24. On the Edge <ul><li>Process Envelopes: </li></ul><ul><li>APCs have constraint control and can be layered with override strategies </li></ul>Operational APC Economic Product A
  25. 25. Total Automation on TDC/TPS State logic Dynamic Alarming and Sequence Coordination Configuration and Maintenance Operation Sequences Sequences Sequences
  26. 27. State Transitions <ul><li>All State Transitions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Controls are coordinated in a repeatable manner </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>There are at least 2 levels of logic on top of regulatory or discrete layer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>State logic (Macro logic) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Controller / Sequence logic (Micro logic) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Alarms are dynamically managed </li></ul></ul>
  27. 28. State Transitions <ul><li>Manual or Auto </li></ul><ul><li>States are summarized on display for operator </li></ul><ul><li>Operator can monitor and request state changes from high level and drill for detail </li></ul><ul><li>Logic is available to operator </li></ul>
  28. 29. Elements of Good Implementation <ul><li>Acquire correct tools </li></ul><ul><li>Get trained or use experienced personnel </li></ul><ul><li>Target acquisition / Justification </li></ul><ul><li>Design </li></ul><ul><li>Develop </li></ul><ul><li>Simulate </li></ul><ul><li>Train </li></ul><ul><li>Commission </li></ul><ul><li>Maintain / Improve </li></ul>
  29. 30. Total Automation Results <ul><li>Quicker startups (1/2 to 2/3 reduction) </li></ul><ul><li>Repeatable – like it’s on rails </li></ul><ul><li>Reduced errors and overshoots </li></ul><ul><li>Positive HSE impact </li></ul><ul><li>More Reliable </li></ul><ul><li>Less off-spec product </li></ul><ul><li>More benefits depending on situation </li></ul>
  30. 31. The Modern Automated Plant <ul><li>Utilizes process control </li></ul><ul><li>Does not require the same skill level and experience as a manual plant </li></ul><ul><li>Resilient to frequent transition of personnel </li></ul><ul><li>Profitable </li></ul>
  31. 32. The Modern Automated Plant <ul><li>Reduces training costs versus a manual plant </li></ul><ul><li>Is safer and more efficient to operate </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dow’s “stateful control” systems and safety culture have made the company one of the safest in the petrochemical industry </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>J.M. “Levi” Leathers – Dow Chemical </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Control Magazine, May 2010 </li></ul></ul></ul>
  32. 33. Questions ? www.prosys.com [email_address]
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