Surveyors & surveying in dentistry / dentistry dental implants

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Surveyors & surveying in dentistry / dentistry dental implants

  1. 1. SURVEYORS & SURVEYING INDIAN DENTAL ACADEMY Leader in continuing dental education www.indiandentalacademy.com www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  2. 2. ContentsContents Introduction History & development Definitions Types of surveyor Uses of surveyor Significance of survey lines Parts of surveyor Surveying the diagnostic cast Surveying the master cast Recent advances Conclusion Bibliography www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  3. 3. A partial denture will not succeed unless it is designed andA partial denture will not succeed unless it is designed and constructed in harmony with all the physiologic andconstructed in harmony with all the physiologic and mechanical problems present in the patient’s mouth.mechanical problems present in the patient’s mouth. Haphazard construction, lack of plan, lack of abutmentHaphazard construction, lack of plan, lack of abutment preparation is a few of the causes of partial denture failures.preparation is a few of the causes of partial denture failures. INTRODUCTION www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  4. 4. The surveying procedure is an integral part of planningThe surveying procedure is an integral part of planning process which helps the dentist to determine which teeth areprocess which helps the dentist to determine which teeth are most desirable as abutment for placing the rest seats formost desirable as abutment for placing the rest seats for maximum support and distribute stresses without excessivemaximum support and distribute stresses without excessive clasping and tooth coverage.clasping and tooth coverage. The procedure of surveying requires enormous amount ofThe procedure of surveying requires enormous amount of learning, but time spent in study is worth, the reward oflearning, but time spent in study is worth, the reward of success that will follow.success that will follow. www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  5. 5. DEFINITIONSDEFINITIONS SURVEYORSURVEYOR:-:- A paralleling instrument used in construction of aA paralleling instrument used in construction of a prosthesis to locate and delineate the contours and relative positionsprosthesis to locate and delineate the contours and relative positions of abutment teeth and associated structures. GPT-8of abutment teeth and associated structures. GPT-8 SURVEYINGSURVEYING:-:- An analysis and comparison of the prominence ofAn analysis and comparison of the prominence of intra oral contours associated with the fabrication of a dentalintra oral contours associated with the fabrication of a dental prosthesis.prosthesis. www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  6. 6. HISTORY & DEVELOPEMENTHISTORY & DEVELOPEMENT www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  7. 7. Until 1920s most RPD wereUntil 1920s most RPD were designed and constructed by timedesigned and constructed by time honored method of “eye balling”.Ahonored method of “eye balling”.A prosthesis made on the basis of educatedprosthesis made on the basis of educated guesses.guesses. Before the invention of the dentalBefore the invention of the dental surveyors dentists evaluate facialsurveyors dentists evaluate facial contours and undercuts of teeth by visualcontours and undercuts of teeth by visual survey of dental casts.survey of dental casts. Dr w.m. Randalls technique 1890 www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  8. 8. EARLY PARALLELING INSTRUMENTSEARLY PARALLELING INSTRUMENTS Their purpose is to ensure the parallelism of the properTheir purpose is to ensure the parallelism of the proper alignment of precesion attachments.alignment of precesion attachments. Dr.Herman E.S.Chayes 1920 developed the parallelometer.Dr.Herman E.S.Chayes 1920 developed the parallelometer. www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  9. 9. Robinson surveyor 1918 Hanau surveyor 1917 www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  10. 10. Dr. A. J. FortunatiDr. A. J. Fortunati is generally given credit for being the first tois generally given credit for being the first to employ a mechanical device for determining the relative parallelismemploy a mechanical device for determining the relative parallelism of two or more tooth surfaces, in the year 1918.of two or more tooth surfaces, in the year 1918. The first commercial dental surveyor to be offered to theThe first commercial dental surveyor to be offered to the profession was designed by weinstein and Roth(1923) neysprofession was designed by weinstein and Roth(1923) neys surveyor.surveyor. Neys surveyor 1923 Neys surveyor 1938 www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  11. 11. JELENKO SURVEYORJELENKO SURVEYOR DEVELOPED BY NOBLE G WILLS 1937DEVELOPED BY NOBLE G WILLS 1937 www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  12. 12. Original Wills surveyor1929 Kings college surveyor 1940 Electronic surveyor 1958 Columbia parallelomer 1940www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  13. 13. RetentoscopeRetentoscope Rotating head supports 3 horizontal armsRotating head supports 3 horizontal arms.. a. Conventional surveying arma. Conventional surveying arm b. Hand piece for millingb. Hand piece for milling c. Dial-undercut gauge.c. Dial-undercut gauge. www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  14. 14. Chayes milling machine Kavo milling machine Albrecht milling machine precision dental milling instrumentsprecision dental milling instruments www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  15. 15. the highriser surveyor is a pendulum armthe highriser surveyor is a pendulum arm blockout/survey instrumentblockout/survey instrument  The arm can freely swing back and forth,The arm can freely swing back and forth, rotate, or move up or downrotate, or move up or down  Arm can be locked to hold it at a setArm can be locked to hold it at a set vertical heightvertical height  Spring tension is easily adjusted toSpring tension is easily adjusted to individual preferenceindividual preference  Heating element attachment is designedHeating element attachment is designed for easy use and various size tips arefor easy use and various size tips are availableavailable www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  16. 16. The SKYSCRAPER surveyor is a dual pendulum Electronic Blockout/Survey ADVANTAGES The heating element does not have to be removed when surveying; By simply rotating the column the new tool is ready for use www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  17. 17. Micro surveyor compassMicro surveyor compass www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  18. 18. Today, the Ney and Jelenko (wills) surveyors are the mostToday, the Ney and Jelenko (wills) surveyors are the most commonly used. Several other types of surveyors have beencommonly used. Several other types of surveyors have been designed and are in use today, many of these are moredesigned and are in use today, many of these are more elaborate, costly and possess little advantage than simple typeelaborate, costly and possess little advantage than simple type of surveyors.of surveyors. www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  19. 19. Mc call & Hugel reported that 11 dentalMc call & Hugel reported that 11 dental surveyors had been featured in scientific exhibitssurveyors had been featured in scientific exhibits at the American Dental Association’s 1948at the American Dental Association’s 1948 Annual meeting. These were:Annual meeting. These were: 1. Ney 19231. Ney 1923 2. Brown Maier 19252. Brown Maier 1925 3. Wills – 19293. Wills – 1929 4. Lentz – circa 19354. Lentz – circa 1935 5. Linier – 19375. Linier – 1937 6. Ney – 19376. Ney – 1937 7. Franzwa - 19377. Franzwa - 1937 8. Ringle – Hiatt – Smith - 19448. Ringle – Hiatt – Smith - 1944 9. Mc key - 19449. Mc key - 1944 10. Hagman - 194410. Hagman - 1944 11. Roach - 194411. Roach - 1944 www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  20. 20. Ney surveyorNey surveyor (1937)(1937)  It is the most widely used Surveyor.It is the most widely used Surveyor.  In the Ney surveyor the vertical arm isIn the Ney surveyor the vertical arm is retained by friction with in a fixedretained by friction with in a fixed bearing.bearing.  The shaft may be moved up and downThe shaft may be moved up and down with in this bearing, but remains in anywith in this bearing, but remains in any vertical position until again moved.vertical position until again moved. www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  21. 21. This instrument can be converted into a milling machine byThis instrument can be converted into a milling machine by clamping a straight hand piece to the surveying arm.clamping a straight hand piece to the surveying arm. Ney offers two types ofNey offers two types of clamps for this purpose. Replacing theclamps for this purpose. Replacing the instrument storage compartment oninstrument storage compartment on the top of the vertical arm with a ballthe top of the vertical arm with a ball bearing modified the Ney surveyor,bearing modified the Ney surveyor, allowing the horizontal arm to rotateallowing the horizontal arm to rotate 360 degree horizontally. This360 degree horizontally. This modification facilitated surveying andmodification facilitated surveying and milling.milling. www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  22. 22. J .F. Jelenko/wills surveyorJ .F. Jelenko/wills surveyor  Originally developed by Noble G.Originally developed by Noble G. Wills, also known as Wills surveyorWills, also known as Wills surveyor (circa 1937) & marketed by the(circa 1937) & marketed by the J.F.Jelenko and company.J.F.Jelenko and company.  Many operators preferred thisMany operators preferred this instrument because of the springinstrument because of the spring loaded surveying arm.loaded surveying arm. www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  23. 23. They differ principally in that the Jelenko arm swivels where as theThey differ principally in that the Jelenko arm swivels where as the Ney arm is fixed.Ney arm is fixed. The objective of this feature is to permit movement of the arm in aThe objective of this feature is to permit movement of the arm in a horizontal plane rather than to depend entirely on the horizontalhorizontal plane rather than to depend entirely on the horizontal movement of the cast.movement of the cast.  The vertical arm of the Jelenko surveyor is spring mounted andThe vertical arm of the Jelenko surveyor is spring mounted and returns to the top position when released.returns to the top position when released.  Most recent design of Jelenko surveyor still retained the springMost recent design of Jelenko surveyor still retained the spring loaded surveying arm.loaded surveying arm. www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  24. 24.  Williams surveyor features gimbal stageWilliams surveyor features gimbal stage table which is adjustable to any desiredtable which is adjustable to any desired anterior ,posterior, or lateral tilts.anterior ,posterior, or lateral tilts.  Super structure of this surveyor consists ofSuper structure of this surveyor consists of jointed arm and spring supported survey rod.jointed arm and spring supported survey rod.  This surveyor is best suited for placement ofThis surveyor is best suited for placement of internal attachments rather than analyzinginternal attachments rather than analyzing and other purposes.and other purposes. Williams surveyorWilliams surveyor www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  25. 25. PARTS OF SURVEYORPARTS OF SURVEYOR 1.1. Platform:-Platform:-on which the base ison which the base is moved.moved. 2.2. Vertical armVertical arm:-supports the super:-supports the super structure.structure. 3.3. Horizontal armHorizontal arm:-from which the:-from which the surveying tools suspends.surveying tools suspends. 4.4. Surveying ArmSurveying Arm: it carries the: it carries the mandrelmandrel 5.5. Locking deviceLocking device 6.6. Surveying instrumentsSurveying instruments 7.7. Cast Holder:Cast Holder: Table to which theTable to which the cast is attached.cast is attached. www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  26. 26. TOOLS OF SURVEYORTOOLS OF SURVEYOR • Analyzing rodAnalyzing rodA solid cylindricalA solid cylindrical metal rod Used to analyze the cast tometal rod Used to analyze the cast to establish the path of insertion.it is aestablish the path of insertion.it is a diagnostic surveying tool.diagnostic surveying tool. Undercut gaugesUndercut gaugesavailable in three sizesavailable in three sizes Used to measure the undercut on theUsed to measure the undercut on the cast.cast. 0.01 inch or 0.25mm undercut.0.01 inch or 0.25mm undercut. 0.02 inch or 0.50 mm undercut.0.02 inch or 0.50 mm undercut. 0.03inch or 0.75 mm undercut.0.03inch or 0.75 mm undercut. www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  27. 27. Wax knifeWax knife:: used in the late stagesused in the late stages of RPD construction to eliminateof RPD construction to eliminate or block out areas of undesirableor block out areas of undesirable undercuts with wax on the castundercuts with wax on the cast before the frame work is made.before the frame work is made. Carbon marker-Carbon marker- used to scribe the line onused to scribe the line on the cast.the cast. www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  28. 28. www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  29. 29. USES OF DENTAL SURVEYORUSES OF DENTAL SURVEYOR 1.1. To determine the most desirable path of placement and removalTo determine the most desirable path of placement and removal for removable partial denture.for removable partial denture. 2.2. To identify proximal tooth surface that are need to be madeTo identify proximal tooth surface that are need to be made parallel so that they act as guiding planes during placement andparallel so that they act as guiding planes during placement and removal.removal. 3.3. To measure and locate areas of teeth that may be used forTo measure and locate areas of teeth that may be used for retention.retention. 4.4. To determine whether tooth and bony areas of interference willTo determine whether tooth and bony areas of interference will need to be eliminated surgically or by selecting a different path ofneed to be eliminated surgically or by selecting a different path of placement.placement. 5.5. To determine the most suitable path of placement that willTo determine the most suitable path of placement that will permit locating retainers and artificial teeth to the best aestheticpermit locating retainers and artificial teeth to the best aesthetic advantages.advantages. www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  30. 30.  To permit accurate mouth preparation to be made to eliminateTo permit accurate mouth preparation to be made to eliminate dental and osseous contours.dental and osseous contours.  To record the cast position and its relation to path of placement.To record the cast position and its relation to path of placement.  To develop axial contours of wax patterns.To develop axial contours of wax patterns.  Surveying ceramic veneer crownsSurveying ceramic veneer crowns  Placement of intra coronal retainers (internal attachments).Placement of intra coronal retainers (internal attachments). www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  31. 31. Auxiliary usesAuxiliary uses 1.1. Hold the dental hand piece in order to parallel frictionalHold the dental hand piece in order to parallel frictional attachments in abutment teeth.attachments in abutment teeth. 2.2. Analyze the abutment teeth prior to constructing a fixedAnalyze the abutment teeth prior to constructing a fixed prosthesis.prosthesis. 3.3. Determine the need for alveoloplasty for an edentulous area ofDetermine the need for alveoloplasty for an edentulous area of the mouth.the mouth. www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  32. 32. Survey linesSurvey lines  Survey lineSurvey line :: a line produced on a casta line produced on a cast by a surveyor marking the greatestby a surveyor marking the greatest prominance of contour in relation toprominance of contour in relation to the planned path of placement ofthe planned path of placement of restorationrestoration  The significance of survey line is thatThe significance of survey line is that any rigid, nonflexible part of theany rigid, nonflexible part of the prosthesis must be designed to lieprosthesis must be designed to lie above the survey line, and onlyabove the survey line, and only flexible parts may be designed to goflexible parts may be designed to go below it.below it.  The survey line also helps to locateThe survey line also helps to locate areas of undesirable tooth undercutsareas of undesirable tooth undercuts that must be avoided or eliminated.that must be avoided or eliminated.www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  33. 33. HEIGHT OF CONTOURHEIGHT OF CONTOUR  The term first used by KENNEDY.The term first used by KENNEDY.  It represents the greatest bulge ofIt represents the greatest bulge of diameter of a crown when vieweddiameter of a crown when viewed from a specific angle or changes asfrom a specific angle or changes as the vertical position of the tooththe vertical position of the tooth changed.changed.  Tipping or tilting the cast will causeTipping or tilting the cast will cause the height of contour to movethe height of contour to move accordingly.accordingly. www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  34. 34.  DE VAN 1935 referred theDE VAN 1935 referred the surface of a tooth that is occlusalsurface of a tooth that is occlusal to the height of contour asto the height of contour as SUPRA BULGE and surfaceSUPRA BULGE and surface gingival to the height of contourgingival to the height of contour as INFRA BULGE.as INFRA BULGE. www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  35. 35. Blatterfein classification of survey linesBlatterfein classification of survey lines www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  36. 36. Typical survey lineTypical survey line www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  37. 37. Atypical A survey lineAtypical A survey line  Survey line that is too highSurvey line that is too high ( occlusal ) in the near zone( occlusal ) in the near zone and too low ( gingival ) in theand too low ( gingival ) in the far zone.far zone.  Commonly found in buccalCommonly found in buccal surfaces of canines andsurfaces of canines and premolars.premolars.  A reverse circlet clasp is used.A reverse circlet clasp is used. www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  38. 38. AATYPICAL B SURVEY LINETYPICAL B SURVEY LINE  Survey line that is too highSurvey line that is too high (occlusal) in the near and far zone(occlusal) in the near and far zone as compared to typical survey lineas compared to typical survey line  It is frequently found on the buccalIt is frequently found on the buccal surfaces of the uppers teeth.surfaces of the uppers teeth. www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  39. 39. Two factors control clasp designTwo factors control clasp design 1. esthetics 2. periodontium1. esthetics 2. periodontium 1.1. If esthetics is unimportant and periodontium is good- typicalIf esthetics is unimportant and periodontium is good- typical C clasp may be usedC clasp may be used 2.2. If esthetics is important and periodontium is good-semirigidIf esthetics is important and periodontium is good-semirigid and flexible 3and flexible 3rdrd of C clasp may be eliminated on buccal sideof C clasp may be eliminated on buccal side 3.3. If periodontium is weak- ideal contour must be established onIf periodontium is weak- ideal contour must be established on abutment tooth by operative procedure.abutment tooth by operative procedure. www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  40. 40. ATYPICAL C SURVEY LINEATYPICAL C SURVEY LINE  Survey line that is at gingivalSurvey line that is at gingival margin in both the near andmargin in both the near and far zonesfar zones  For such a survey line underFor such a survey line under cuts oncuts on 1.1. Distobuccogingival andDistobuccogingival and distolinguogingival corners ofdistolinguogingival corners of adjacent teethadjacent teeth 2.2. The far proximal surfaceThe far proximal surface 3.3. The near proximal surfaceThe near proximal surface may be used to effect primarymay be used to effect primary retentionretention www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  41. 41. COLOR CODINGCOLOR CODING A color coding system on the diagnostic casts helpsA color coding system on the diagnostic casts helps prevent confusion on the part of a dental laboratory technicianprevent confusion on the part of a dental laboratory technician or any one trying to understand the design being proposed.or any one trying to understand the design being proposed. There is no universally accepted color coding system.There is no universally accepted color coding system. As result, any system agreed to understood by laboratory andAs result, any system agreed to understood by laboratory and submitting dentist is considered acceptable.submitting dentist is considered acceptable. www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  42. 42. BrownBrown - out line the metallic portion.- out line the metallic portion. BlueBlue - out line the acrylic portion of the- out line the acrylic portion of the denture basedenture base RedRed - to indicate areas on the teeth to be- to indicate areas on the teeth to be prepared.prepared. Solid redSolid red - rests and rest seats.- rests and rest seats. Black pencil and carbon markerBlack pencil and carbon marker - used to- used to denote the survey linesdenote the survey lines www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  43. 43. DETERMINATION OF PATH OFDETERMINATION OF PATH OF INSERTIONINSERTION DEFINITIONDEFINITION The direction in which the restoration movesThe direction in which the restoration moves from the point of initial contact of its rigid parts withfrom the point of initial contact of its rigid parts with supporting teeth to it’s terminal resting positionsupporting teeth to it’s terminal resting position.. www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  44. 44. FACTORS INFLUENCING THEFACTORS INFLUENCING THE PATH OF INSERTIONPATH OF INSERTION www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  45. 45. The following four factors must be consideredThe following four factors must be considered before path of insertion is selected:before path of insertion is selected: 1.Retentive undercuts.1.Retentive undercuts. 2.Interferences.2.Interferences. 3.Esthetics.3.Esthetics. 4.Guiding planes.4.Guiding planes. www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  46. 46. RETENTIVE UNDERCUTSRETENTIVE UNDERCUTS  The first unchangeable rule toThe first unchangeable rule to remember when surveyingremember when surveying diagnostic cast for removablediagnostic cast for removable partial denture is that retentivepartial denture is that retentive undercuts must be present onundercuts must be present on abutment teeth when the castabutment teeth when the cast displays a horizontal tilt.displays a horizontal tilt.  This is necessary becauseThis is necessary because dislodging forces are alwaysdislodging forces are always directed perpendicular to thedirected perpendicular to the occlusal plane.occlusal plane. www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  47. 47. Identifying the most favorable tiltIdentifying the most favorable tilt Tilting is changing the position of the cast, whichTilting is changing the position of the cast, which thus changes the long axis of each tooth on thethus changes the long axis of each tooth on the cast relative to the horizontal plane.cast relative to the horizontal plane. www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  48. 48. Change in the tilt then changes the position of surveyChange in the tilt then changes the position of survey line and location and extent of the undercut.line and location and extent of the undercut. www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  49. 49. The basic position or tiltThe basic position or tilt of the cast on surveyorof the cast on surveyor should be the horizontal tilt.should be the horizontal tilt. In the horizontal tilt,In the horizontal tilt, occlusal surfaces of theocclusal surfaces of the teeth are at or near parallelteeth are at or near parallel to the horizontal plane.to the horizontal plane. www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  50. 50. www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  51. 51. The anterior tilt increaseThe anterior tilt increase the mesial undercut onthe mesial undercut on teeth.teeth. www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  52. 52. In the posterior tilt,the occlusal plane is lower in posterior region.In the posterior tilt,the occlusal plane is lower in posterior region. www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  53. 53. The posterior tilt will increaseThe posterior tilt will increase the distal undercuts, andthe distal undercuts, and decrease the mesialdecrease the mesial undercuts.undercuts. www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  54. 54. www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  55. 55. www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  56. 56. INTERFERENCESINTERFERENCES INTERFERENCES IN MANDIBLEINTERFERENCES IN MANDIBLE www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  57. 57. Lingually inclined teethLingually inclined teeth www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  58. 58. INTERFERENCES IN THE MAXILLAINTERFERENCES IN THE MAXILLA www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  59. 59. BONY UNDERCUTSBONY UNDERCUTS www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  60. 60. ESTHETICSESTHETICS  To obtain optimum esthetics, the metal,usually in the form ofTo obtain optimum esthetics, the metal,usually in the form of clasp arms must be concealed without compromising necessaryclasp arms must be concealed without compromising necessary support and stability of the prosthesis.support and stability of the prosthesis.  The artificial teeth must be placed in the most natural positionThe artificial teeth must be placed in the most natural position possible.possible. www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  61. 61.  Avoiding unnecessary display of theAvoiding unnecessary display of the metal,the tilt of the survey table shouldmetal,the tilt of the survey table should be such that the survey line on teethbe such that the survey line on teeth that are visible be as close to thethat are visible be as close to the gingival margin.gingival margin.  The ideal position of the clasp for theThe ideal position of the clasp for the retentive purpose is gingival third ofretentive purpose is gingival third of the tooth.the tooth.  When lost anterior teeth are notWhen lost anterior teeth are not replaced immediately gaps will bereplaced immediately gaps will be reduced.reduced. www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  62. 62. GUIDING PLANESGUIDING PLANES  Guiding planes are formed fromGuiding planes are formed from the proximal tooth surfaces of thethe proximal tooth surfaces of the teeth and are contacted by theteeth and are contacted by the minor connectors or other rigidminor connectors or other rigid components of the partial denture.components of the partial denture.  These planes guide the prosthesisThese planes guide the prosthesis for removal and placement.for removal and placement.  the guide planes are in intimatethe guide planes are in intimate contact with the minorcontact with the minor connectors,help to stabilizeconnectors,help to stabilize against the lateral forces.against the lateral forces. www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  63. 63. NO OF PATH OF INSERTIONNO OF PATH OF INSERTION www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  64. 64. PRESERVING TILT THROUGHPRESERVING TILT THROUGH TRIPODINGTRIPODING Once tilt has been selectedOnce tilt has been selected for given removable partialfor given removable partial denture design, this tilt shoulddenture design, this tilt should be preserved, so that it can bebe preserved, so that it can be reestablished accurately to thereestablished accurately to the surveying table.surveying table. This procedure is termedThis procedure is termed TRIPODINGTRIPODING. This helps in. This helps in returning the cast to the surveyorreturning the cast to the surveyor for future reference.for future reference. www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  65. 65. www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  66. 66. Method-2Method-2 Cast position can also beCast position can also be tripoded by marking linestripoded by marking lines on the base of the cast withon the base of the cast with the surveyor and carbonthe surveyor and carbon marker after the tilt has beenmarker after the tilt has been selected.selected. This method has anThis method has an dis-advantage of smudgingdis-advantage of smudging the lines during handling ofthe lines during handling of the castthe cast www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  67. 67. SURVEYING THE MASTER CASTSURVEYING THE MASTER CAST www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  68. 68.  The master cast for a removableThe master cast for a removable partial denture is made followingpartial denture is made following the completion of mouththe completion of mouth preparation that was indicated frompreparation that was indicated from design drawn on the diagnosticdesign drawn on the diagnostic cast.cast.  Mouth preparation may haveMouth preparation may have included development of theincluded development of the guiding planes,contouring the waxguiding planes,contouring the wax enamel surfaces, and the placementenamel surfaces, and the placement of the rest seat preparations.of the rest seat preparations. www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  69. 69. Before the master cast is sent to the laboratory forBefore the master cast is sent to the laboratory for construction of removable partial denture frame work, it must beconstruction of removable partial denture frame work, it must be surveyed to determine whether the mouth preparationsurveyed to determine whether the mouth preparation accomplished all it as supposed to with the master cast mountedaccomplished all it as supposed to with the master cast mounted on the surveying table at the same tilt at which the diagnostic caston the surveying table at the same tilt at which the diagnostic cast was designed.was designed. www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  70. 70. Objectives of surveying master castObjectives of surveying master cast 1.1. To select the most suitable path of placement by following mouthTo select the most suitable path of placement by following mouth preparations that satisfy the requirements of guide planes, retention,preparations that satisfy the requirements of guide planes, retention, non interference and esthetics.non interference and esthetics. 2.2. To permit measurements of retentive areas and to identify theTo permit measurements of retentive areas and to identify the location of clasp terminals.location of clasp terminals. 3.3. To locate the undesirable undercut areas that will be crossed by rigidTo locate the undesirable undercut areas that will be crossed by rigid parts of the restoration during placement and removal,that must beparts of the restoration during placement and removal,that must be eliminated by blockout.eliminated by blockout. 4.4. To trim blockout material parallel to the path of placement beforeTo trim blockout material parallel to the path of placement before duplication.duplication. www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  71. 71. After establishment of the path of placement and the location of undercut areas, any undercut areas that will be crossed by rigid parts of the denture must be eliminated by block out. This provides relief under frame works and ledges on which clasp patterns are to be placed. BLOCKING OUT THE MASTER CASTBLOCKING OUT THE MASTER CAST www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  72. 72. Parallel blockoutParallel blockout 1.1. cervical to guiding plane surfacescervical to guiding plane surfaces 2.2. Deep interproximal spacesDeep interproximal spaces 3.3. Tissue undercuts crossed byTissue undercuts crossed by minor connectors and any rigidminor connectors and any rigid connectorsconnectors 4.4. Beneath bar clasp armsBeneath bar clasp arms 5.5. Hard base plate wax is used forHard base plate wax is used for this purpose.this purpose. www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  73. 73. Shaped blockoutShaped blockout 1.1. On buccal and lingual surfaces to locate wax patterns forOn buccal and lingual surfaces to locate wax patterns for clasp arms.clasp arms. 2.2. hard baseplate wax is used for blockout.hard baseplate wax is used for blockout. www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  74. 74. Arbitrary blockoutArbitrary blockout 1.1. All gingival crevicesAll gingival crevices 2.2. Gross tissue undercuts situatedGross tissue undercuts situated below areas involved in design ofbelow areas involved in design of dental framework.dental framework. 3.3. Tissue undercuts distal to castTissue undercuts distal to cast framework.framework. 4.4. Labial and buccal tooth and tissueLabial and buccal tooth and tissue undercuts not involved in dentureundercuts not involved in denture design.design. www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  75. 75. Relief areasRelief areas 1.1. Beneath lingual bar connectors orBeneath lingual bar connectors or the bar portion of linguoplates.the bar portion of linguoplates. 2.2. Areas in which major connectorsAreas in which major connectors will contact thin tissuewill contact thin tissue i.i. lingual mandibular ridgeslingual mandibular ridges ii.ii. elevated palatal raphae.elevated palatal raphae. www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  76. 76. CONTOURING THE WAX PATTERNSCONTOURING THE WAX PATTERNS The surveyor blade is used as a wax carver during this phase.The surveyor blade is used as a wax carver during this phase. Generally a small amount of undercut 0.02 inch or less isGenerally a small amount of undercut 0.02 inch or less is sufficient for retentive purposes.sufficient for retentive purposes. www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  77. 77. CONTOURING CROWNS AND CASTCONTOURING CROWNS AND CAST RESTORATIONSRESTORATIONS www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  78. 78. Surveying ceramic veneer crownsSurveying ceramic veneer crowns 1.1. Ceramic veneer crowns are oftenCeramic veneer crowns are often used to restore abutment teeth onused to restore abutment teeth on which extracoronal direct retainerswhich extracoronal direct retainers will be placed.will be placed. 2.2. Before the final glaze isBefore the final glaze is accomplished,the abutment crownsaccomplished,the abutment crowns should be returned to the surveyorshould be returned to the surveyor on a full arch cast.on a full arch cast. 3.3. Locate the areas that needLocate the areas that need recontouring.recontouring. 4.4. The final glaze is accomplishedThe final glaze is accomplished only after the crowns have beenonly after the crowns have been recontoured.recontoured. www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  79. 79. PLACING INTERNAL ATTACHMENTS ANDPLACING INTERNAL ATTACHMENTS AND RESTSRESTS www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  80. 80.  The surveyor is used to position the intraThe surveyor is used to position the intra coronal retainers or internal attachments,coronal retainers or internal attachments, in the wax crown pattern on abutmentin the wax crown pattern on abutment teeth as the patterns are beingteeth as the patterns are being formed.Absolute parallelism among allformed.Absolute parallelism among all the attachment is essential.the attachment is essential.  A hand piece is attached to the verticalA hand piece is attached to the vertical arm of the surveyor by means of handarm of the surveyor by means of hand piece holder.piece holder.  The internal rests can be machined in theThe internal rests can be machined in the wax patterns for crowns on the abutmentwax patterns for crowns on the abutment teeth.teeth.  After the crowns are cast same handAfter the crowns are cast same hand piece and burs are used to refine the rests.piece and burs are used to refine the rests. www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  81. 81. RECENT ADVANCESRECENT ADVANCES www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  82. 82. Electronic surveyingElectronic surveying A 3-dimensional computer model of a conventional cast from a patient is obtained using an optical surface capture device (a scanner). www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  83. 83. www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  84. 84. The shape of number of components of a removable partial denture framework was modeled on the 3-dimensional scan electronically, using computer- aided design software. www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  85. 85. A plastic shape of the components was produced using a RapidA plastic shape of the components was produced using a Rapid Prototyping machine and used as a pattern.Prototyping machine and used as a pattern. www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  86. 86. Use of cad-cam technology to fabricate aUse of cad-cam technology to fabricate a removable partial denture frameworkremovable partial denture framework This is the first patientThis is the first patient fitted cobalt-chromium RPDfitted cobalt-chromium RPD framework produced byframework produced by cad-cam and rapid prototypecad-cam and rapid prototype technology.technology. www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  87. 87. www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  88. 88. www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  89. 89. ConclusionConclusion When performing oral rehabilitation with removableWhen performing oral rehabilitation with removable partial dentures, the objective of the dentist should be to make apartial dentures, the objective of the dentist should be to make a prosthesis that the patient can easily seat and remove from theprosthesis that the patient can easily seat and remove from the mouth and yet, when seated, the prosthesis should resist themouth and yet, when seated, the prosthesis should resist the dislodgment potential caused by masticatory function, especiallydislodgment potential caused by masticatory function, especially mastication of sticky foods.mastication of sticky foods. www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  90. 90. BIBLIOGRAPHYBIBLIOGRAPHY 1.1. Text Book of Partial Dentures – McCracken.Text Book of Partial Dentures – McCracken. 2.2. Text Book of Partial Dentures – Osborne &Text Book of Partial Dentures – Osborne & Lamee.Lamee. 3.3. Text Book of Partial Dentures – Millers.Text Book of Partial Dentures – Millers. 4.4. Text Book of Partial Dentures – A.A.Grant.Text Book of Partial Dentures – A.A.Grant. 5.5. Clinical removable partial prosthodontics – Kenneth L.Clinical removable partial prosthodontics – Kenneth L. StewartStewart 6.6. Dental laboratory procedures – Rudd & MorrowDental laboratory procedures – Rudd & Morrow www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  91. 91. The history and development of the dental surveyor:The history and development of the dental surveyor: Part 1:Robert L. Engelmeir, J.P.D.2002;11;11-18.Part 1:Robert L. Engelmeir, J.P.D.2002;11;11-18. Part 2: “ J.P.D.2002;11:122-130.Part 2: “ J.P.D.2002;11:122-130. Part 3: “ J.P.D.2004;13:195-202.Part 3: “ J.P.D.2004;13:195-202. A technique for fabricating patterns for removable partialA technique for fabricating patterns for removable partial denture frameworks using digitized casts and electronicdenture frameworks using digitized casts and electronic surveyingsurveying The Journal of Prosthetic DentistryThe Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry Volume 91, Issue 1 , January 2004, Pages 85-88Volume 91, Issue 1 , January 2004, Pages 85-88 Surveying removable partial dentures: the importance of guidingSurveying removable partial dentures: the importance of guiding planes and path of insertion for stabilityplanes and path of insertion for stability The Journal of Prosthetic DentistryThe Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry Volume 78, Issue 4Volume 78, Issue 4 , October 1997, Pages 412-418, October 1997, Pages 412-418 www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  92. 92. Thank youThank you For more details please visit www.indiandentalacademy.com www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com

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