Course planning and syllabus design


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Course planning and syllabus design

  1. 1. COURSE PLANNING AND SYLLABUS DESIGN Group 3 Nopriko Nanda Putra Iin Widya Lestari Anisha Djuli Adha
  2. 2. WHAT WE ARE GOING TO DISCUSS?? Developing a course rationale Preparing the scope and sequence plan Planning the course content Sequencing course content Choosing course content Describing entry and exit levels
  3. 3. THE COURSE RATIONALE There are some questions should be answered to seek course rationale: Who is this course for? What is the course about? What kind of teaching and learning will take place in the course?
  4. 4. Course Rationale questions Describing the beliefs, values and goals that underlie the course. The purpose of developing rationale : Guiding planning of the various component s of the course Emphasizing the kinds of teaching and learning the course should exemplify Providing a check on the consistency of the various components in terms of the course values and goals.
  5. 5. EXAMPLE OF A COURSE RATIONALE This course is designed for working adults who wish to improve their communication skills in English in order to improve their employment prospects . It teaches the basic communication skills needed to communicate in a variety of different work settings. The course seeks to enable participants to recognize their strengths and needs in language learning them the confidence give them confidence to use English more effectively to achieve their own goals. It also seeks to develop the participants' skills in independent learning outside of the classroom.
  6. 6. Course Planners should consider some aspects such as :  Goal of the course  The kind of teaching and learning they want the course to exemplify  The role of teachers and learners in the course  Beliefs and principles the course will reflect
  7. 7. DESCRIBING THE ENTRY AND EXIT LEVEL  Knowing students’ level is necessary before designing course. For instance elementary, intermediate and advanced level and etc.  We also can determine the level of students’ language skills from special tests such as TOEFL or IELTS.  By knowing students’ proficiency and language skills, of course it will be one of way to design certain programs and objective based on the student’s level.
  8. 8. CHOOSING COURSE CONTENT  Course Content has to be appropriate with a set of needs and to cover set of objectives.  Planners need to decide appropriate course contents to reflect about some aspects such as the nature of language, language use, language learning and etc.  For instance: in writing course content, planners perhaps can plan some contents such as : grammar, functions. Topics, skills and etc.  Besides choosing course content, planners also need to choose particular approach to the content selection based on subject matter knowledge, learner’s proficiency level and etc.
  9. 9. CHOOSING COURSE CONTENT  Additional Ideas/Sources of Content Selection from: Available literature on the topic Published material on the topic Review of similar course Review test/exam in the area Analysis of students’ problems Consultation with teachers and specialists
  12. 12. PURPOSE OF THE SCOPE AND SEQUENCE To serve as a guideline for teachers who want to integrate learning strategies instruction into their language and content curriculum
  13. 13. CRITERIA OF SEQUENCING: Simple to complex Chronology Need Prerequisite learning Whole to part or part to whole Spiral sequencing
  14. 14. WHAT IS SYLLABUS DESIGN?  Syllabus design refers selection and organization of instructional content including suggested strategy for presenting content and evaluation (Brown, 1995)  Whereas, Curriculum is a broad description of general goals by indicating an overall educational- cultural philosophy which applies across subjects together with a theoretical orientation to language and language learning.  Syllabus is a detailed and operational statement of teaching and learning elements which translates the philosophy of the curriculum into a series of planned steps leading towards more narrowly defined objectives at each level.(quoted from W.Sundyana)
  15. 15. SYLLABUS COMPONENT  In general, the components of syllabus consist of : 1. Objectives 2. Instructional contents 3. Learning experiences 4. Evaluation
  16. 16. PLANNING THE OURSE STRUCTURE Selecting a syllsbus framework Developing instructional blocks
  17. 17. In choosing a paricular syllabus framework for a course, planner are influenced by some factors Knowledge and beliefs Research and theory Common practice trenda SELECTING A SYLLABUS FRAME WORK
  18. 18. The syllabus planner seeks to solve the following problems  To select sufficient patterns to support the amout of teaching time available  To arrange items into a sequence that facilitates learning  To identify a productive range of grammatical items that will allow for the development of basic communicative skills GRAMMATICAL (OR STRUCTURAL ) SYLLABUS
  19. 19. Critiziedskills  They represent only a partial dimension of language proficiency  They do not reflect the aquisition sequences seen in naturalistic second language aquisition  They focus on the sentence rather than longer unit of discourse  The focus on form rather than meaning  They do not address communicative
  20. 20. Typical vocabulary targets for general English course  Elementary level: 1000 words  Intermediate level: an additional 2000 words  Upper intermediate level: an additional 2000 words  Advanced level: an additional 2000+ words LEXICAL SYLLABUS
  21. 21. 126 functions grouped into some categories  Imparting and seeking factual information  Expressing and finding out attitudes  Deciding on course of action  Socializing  Structuring discourse  Communication repair FUCTIONAL SYLLABUS
  22. 22. Critized  There are no clear criteria for selecting or grading functions  They represent a simplistic view of communicative competence and fail to address the process of communication  They represent an atomistic approach to language, that is, one that assumes that language ability can be broken down into dicrete components that can be taught separately  The often lead to a phrase-book approach to teaching that concentartes on teaching expressions and idioms used for different functions  Student learning from a fucntional course may have considerable gaps in their grammatical competence because some important grammatical structure may not be elicited by the function that are taight in the syllabus
  23. 23. A situation is a setting in which particular communicative acts typically occur SITUATIONAL SYLLABUS
  24. 24. Criticized  Little is known about the language used in different situation, so selection of teaching items is typically based on intuition  Language used in specific situations may not transfer to other situations  Situational syllabus often lead to a phrase-book approach  Grammer is dealt with incidentally, so a situtional syllabus may result in gaps in student’s grammatical knowledge
  25. 25. advantages  They facilitates comprehension  Content make linguistic form more meaningful  Content serves as the best basis for teaching the skill areas  They address students’ needs  They motivate learners  They allow for integration of the four skills  They allow for use of authentic materials TOPICAL OR CONTENT-BASED SYLLABUS
  26. 26. Based on a specification of the competencies learners are expected to master in relation to specific situation and activities COMPETENCY-BASED SYLLABUS
  27. 27. Organized around the different underlying abilities that are involved in using a language for purposes such reading, writing, listening or speaking SKILLS SYLLABUS Claims made in support of skills-based syllabuses •They focus on behaviour or performance •They teach skills that can transfer to many other situation •They identify teachable and learnable units
  28. 28. Claims made for a task-based syllabus  Tasks are activities that drive the second language acquisition process  Grammar teaching is not central with this approach because learners will acquire grammar as a by- product of carrying;out tasks  Tasks are motivating for learners and engage them in meaningful communication TASK-BASED SYLLABUS
  29. 29. In teaching from text-based syllabus a five-part cycle is proposed that involves  Bulding context for the text  Modeling and deconstructing the text  Joint construction of the text  Independent construction of the text  Linking related text TEXT-BASED SYLLABUS
  30. 30. Decisions about a suitable syllabus framework for a course reflect different priorities in teaching rather that absolute choices AN INTEGRATED SYLLABUS
  31. 31. DEVELOPING INSTRUCTIONAL BLOCKS module s units •Length •Development •Coherence •Pacing •outcomes