Curriculum objectives


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developing learning objectives for curriculum design

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Curriculum objectives

  1. 1. Learning Objectives <br />
  2. 2. Curriculum Goals<br />Educational outcomes or terminal objectives<br />what you want your graduate to look like or be able to do when they graduate<br />broad statements that relate back to the major concepts identified in the philosophy.<br />statement embraces teacher and learner actions and the kinds of learning outcomes anticipated. <br />goals imply preferences, values, judgements, priorities, emphases. <br />Objectives indicate what is intended to be achieved based on the goals and are measurable.<br />3/16/2011<br />2<br />Adelaide Maria Ansah Ofei<br />
  3. 3. Objective<br />an intended behavioural change that a learner is expected to exhibit after undergoing a learning experience.<br />An instructional objective is a statement that will describe what the learner will be able to do after completing the instruction (course).<br />Adelaide Maria Ansah Ofei<br />3/16/2011<br />3<br />
  4. 4. Importance of objectives<br />define the direction of educational development<br />Determine the number of levels for the program<br />Inform students of the standards and expectations of the course<br />help select content and desirable learning experiences<br />form one of the major bases for evaluation and provide the framework for clinical evaluation tool.<br />Serve as an implicit contract between instructor and students, setting up a basis for accountability.<br />Drive the curriculum planning<br />Objectives must demonstrate progression<br />3/16/2011<br />4<br />Adelaide Maria Ansah Ofei<br />
  5. 5. Types of objectives<br />General objectives<br />Broad aims of education that transmit or provide for the fullest development of the individual and an orientation to the main emphasis in educational programmes.<br />Specific objectives<br />Describe behaviours to be attained<br />3/16/2011<br />5<br />Adelaide Maria Ansah Ofei<br />
  6. 6. Learning Objectives - Rules<br />Specific<br />Measurable<br />Timed<br />Short<br />observable<br />3/16/2011<br />Adelaide Maria Ansah Ofei<br />6<br />
  7. 7. Learning Objectives-Prerequisites<br />Refined content<br />Development of an instructional strategy<br />Selection of mode of delivery<br />Student assessment and evaluation<br />Expected learning outcome<br />3/16/2011<br />Adelaide Maria Ansah Ofei<br />7<br />
  8. 8. Learning Objectives-Analysis<br />Before framing the objectives, you have to analyze;<br />The student<br />Knowledge level<br />Understanding of the subject<br />Level of competency<br />The content<br />Level of content<br />Gap analysis<br />3/16/2011<br />Adelaide Maria Ansah Ofei<br />8<br />
  9. 9. Learning Objectives-Components<br />Learning objective has three major components:<br />a description - able to do or know <br />by the end of this course, you will be able to<br />the conditions – under which the desired behaviour will be performed <br />dress wound <br />the criteria – evaluating performance<br />dress wound using the aseptic technique<br />3/16/2011<br />9<br />Adelaide Maria Ansah Ofei<br />
  10. 10. Developing learning objectives<br />Has two parts: <br />an action verb; <br />a content area.<br />Statements must be short and focused on a single outcome.<br />Learning objectives should be SMART.<br />Utilize learning objectives as a basis for course preparation.<br />3/16/2011<br />10<br />Adelaide Maria Ansah Ofei<br />
  11. 11. Developing learning objectives cont’d<br />Be aware<br />Become acquainted<br />Gain knowledge<br />Cover<br />Learn <br />realize<br />Know<br />Comprehend<br />Understand<br />Appreciate<br />Familiarize<br />Study<br />3/16/2011<br />Adelaide Maria Ansah Ofei<br />11<br /><ul><li>Avoid using verbs that are difficult to </li></ul> measure objectively<br />
  12. 12. Taxonomy of Educational objectives<br />an ordered classification system with hierarchical schemes for classifying learning objectives into various levels of complexity.<br />Instructional objectives have been categorised into three:<br />Cognitive domain <br />Affective domain<br />Psychomotor domain<br />3/16/2011<br />12<br />Adelaide Maria Ansah Ofei<br />
  13. 13. Cognitive Domain (Bloom et al., 1956)<br />.<br />Least common<br />Highest level<br />Evaluation <br />Synthesis <br />Analysis <br />Application <br />Comprehension <br />Knowledge <br />Lowest level<br />Most common<br />13<br />3/16/2011<br />Adelaide Maria Ansah Ofei<br />
  14. 14. Describes our feeling, likes, and dislikes, our experiences, as well as the resulting behaviours (reactions)<br />3/16/2011<br />Adelaide Maria Ansah Ofei<br />14<br />The Affective Domain <br />
  15. 15. The Affective Domain<br />demonstrated by behaviours indicating: <br />attitudes of awareness; <br />Interest;<br />Attention; <br />Concern;<br />Responsibility;<br />Ability to listen and respond in interactions with others; and <br />Ability to demonstrate those attitudinal characteristics of value which are <br /> appropriate to the test situation and <br /> the field of study.<br />3/16/2011<br />15<br />Adelaide Maria Ansah Ofei<br />
  16. 16. levels taxonomy of objectives:<br />David Krathwohl (1972) proposed a five level taxonomy of objectives:<br />Receiving<br />Responding<br />Valuing<br />Organising<br />Characterizing by value<br />3/16/2011<br />Adelaide Maria Ansah Ofei<br />16<br />
  17. 17. Receiving:<br />Willingness to receive or to attend to a particular phenomena or stimuli.<br />Receiving has been divided into three sub-categories:<br />Awareness – being conscious of something<br />Willingness to receive – being willing to <br /> tolerate a given stimulus<br />Controlled or selected attention<br />3/16/2011<br />17<br />Adelaide Maria Ansah Ofei<br />
  18. 18. Responding:<br />Refers to active participation on the part of the student.<br />The student is sufficiently motivated to be actively attentive.<br />the student becomes committed to the lesson or subject.<br />Learning outcomes involve obedience or compliance or willingness.<br />3/16/2011<br />18<br />Adelaide Maria Ansah Ofei<br />
  19. 19. Valuing:<br />student sees worth or value in the activity.<br />The student is motivated not by the teacher to comply but by his underlying value guiding the behaviour.<br />Learning outcomes are concerned with behaviour that is consistent to make the value clearly identifiable.<br />3/16/2011<br />19<br />Adelaide Maria Ansah Ofei<br />
  20. 20. Organising:<br />entails bringing together complex values or possible disparate values or resolving conflicts and beginning to build an internally consistent value system.<br />The emphasis is on comparing, relating and synthesizing values.<br />Example is recognising the need for balance between freedom and responsible <br /> behaviour.<br />3/16/2011<br />20<br />Adelaide Maria Ansah Ofei<br />
  21. 21. Characterising:<br />Implies a pervasive, consistent and predictable behaviour.<br />Instructional objectives are concerned with the student’s general patterns of adjustment (personal, social, emotional)<br />Example is how he/she cooperates in groups.<br />3/16/2011<br />21<br />Adelaide Maria Ansah Ofei<br />
  22. 22. 3/16/2011<br />Adelaide Maria Ansah Ofei<br />22<br />Psychomotor Domain <br />
  23. 23. Psychomotor Domain <br />focus on motor skills and perceptual processes.<br />includes physical movements, coordination, and use of motor skills.<br />According to Seel and Glasgow (1990), Harrow’s taxonomy of the psychomotor domain is organised according to degree of coordination including involuntary responses as well as learned capabilities.<br />Simple reflexes are at the lowest level of the taxonomy while complex neuromuscular coordination makes up the highest levels.<br />3/16/2011<br />23<br />Adelaide Maria Ansah Ofei<br />
  24. 24. Six main categories of Harrow’s taxonomy:<br />Reflex movements: actions elicited without learning in response to some stimuli. <br />Basic fundamental movement: inherent movement patterns that are formed from a combination of reflex movements and are the basis of complex skilled movements.<br />3/16/2011<br />24<br />Adelaide Maria Ansah Ofei<br />
  25. 25. Six main categories of Harrow’s taxonomy:<br />Perceptual abilities: interpretation of stimuli from various modalities providing information for an individual to make adjustment to his environment.<br />Physical activities: this requires endurance, strength and vigour.<br />3/16/2011<br />25<br />Adelaide Maria Ansah Ofei<br />
  26. 26. Six main categories of Harrow’s taxonomy:<br />Skilled movements: refers to performing complex movement or task with a degree of efficiency based on inherent movement patterns.<br />Non-discursive communication: refers to communication through bodily movement ranging from facial expression through sophisticated choreographies.<br />3/16/2011<br />26<br />Adelaide Maria Ansah Ofei<br />
  27. 27. Course Goals<br />Focuses on preparing yourself, your course, and your students for a constructive learning community.<br />Goals are elaborate and detailed and specify long term achievement of the course.<br />Single goal is provided normally for every course.<br />3/16/2011<br />Adelaide Maria Ansah Ofei<br />27<br />
  28. 28. Goals and Objectives<br />3/16/2011<br />Adelaide Maria Ansah Ofei<br />28<br />Overall Goal<br />Objective 1<br />Objective 2<br />Objective 3<br />Objective 4 <br />Sub-objective<br />Sub-objective<br />Sub-objective<br />Sub-objective<br />Sub-objective<br />Sub-objective<br />
  29. 29. Goals vs Objectives<br />Goals<br />General statements of desired learning outcomes; can be found in syllabi.<br />Objectives<br />Are specific lessons targeted to specific groups of students<br />Should be observable/assessable to guide lesson planning.<br />3/16/2011<br />Adelaide Maria Ansah Ofei<br />29<br />
  30. 30. Thank You for your Attention<br />3/16/2011<br />Adelaide Maria Ansah Ofei<br />30<br />