Police Workforce Planning                                   in a Dynamic Environment                                      ...
Agenda            • Staffing supply and demand            • Turnover and retention            • Recruitment and selection ...
Agenda            • Staffing supply and demand            • Turnover and retention            • Recruitment and selection ...
The Police Role is Expanding© 2012 Michigan State University                                  Wilson- 4
The Police Role is Expanding© 2012 Michigan State University                                  Wilson- 5
The Police Role is Expanding© 2012 Michigan State University                                  Wilson- 6
The Staffing Challenge is Dynamic© 2012 Michigan State University                            Wilson- 7
Three Steps to Meeting Workforce Needs          • Determine the staffing level            needed to complete the task     ...
A Bucket Approach to Framing the Police                    Staffing Challenge                                   Need/Deman...
There’s a Widening Hole in the Bucket               Baby-Boom               Retirements                Changing           ...
The Faucet (Supply) is Tightening          Decrease in                                                   Expanded Skill   ...
The Demand is Expanding                                                        Homeland                                   ...
So What About the Recession?             • Citing application booms and budget shortfalls, some                  claim it ...
It’s Not Quite So Simple…             • Those overwhelmed by applications struggle with                  selection and que...
Developing Evidence-Based Personnel                        Planning Lessons            • A 2008 national staffing survey o...
Many Departments Suffer From Too Many                    Junior Officers              80                   10 or less YOS ...
Many Departments Suffer From Too Few                       Junior Officers              70                   10 or less YO...
Departments Live With the Legacy of Past                Personnel Decisions (1)               %                           ...
Departments Live With the Legacy of Past                Personnel Decisions (2)               %                           ...
Healthy and Unhealthy Patterns Exist                                   10 or less YOS                                   11...
Why Do These Personnel Patterns Matter?      • Cohorts progress through the organization over time      • Unhealthy patter...
Even More Reason to Consider the Existing        Cohort Structure When Making Major                Personnel Decisions    ...
Even More Reason to Consider the Existing        Cohort Structure When Making Major                Personnel Decisions    ...
Managing Police Workforces                                      is a Delicate Process            • It is important to dist...
Data Capacities Must be Improved to             Facilitate Personnel Planning       • Significant data limitations exist  ...
Agenda            • Staffing supply and demand            • Turnover and retention            • Recruitment and selection ...
What is Turnover?            • Turnover occurs when an employee leaves an                 organization            • Two ma...
How Can We Measure Turnover?               Type of                                   Formula               Turnover       ...
How Can We Measure Turnover?               Type of                                   Formula               Turnover       ...
Who Leaves?     • Half the officers leaving large agencies are retirees, but          only 20% leaving smaller agencies ar...
Turnover is Multidimensional  • Retention of employees has been described as the most       pressing leadership challenge ...
Addressing Turnover  • Police agencies often fail to offer the sort of (even low       cost) strategies shown to combat tu...
Looking at Turnover Differently        • Turnover can be both a positive and negative metric        • How this activity is...
Potential Positive Effects of Turnover…  • Some turnover may be desirable: low performers,       troublemakers, those aver...
…And Potential Negative Effects• Organizational stagnation due to high rates of turnover          – Cohort effect is accen...
What Are the             Costs of            Turnover?© 2012 Michigan State University   Wilson- 36
Cost Category   Cost Example                                   Recruitment     Advertising                                ...
Why Do People Leave, Even Now?            • Are newer generations of workers prone to frequent                 career chan...
Theoretical Explanations     • Job dissatisfaction               – Those who are dissatisfied voluntarily resign     • Bur...
Factors Affecting Dropout  • Women and minority officers are more likely to resign      from their positions due to a conf...
Five Influences            • The pull of other opportunities elsewhere            • A gap in actual or potential compensat...
“The 7 Hidden Reasons Employees Leave” (1) • 1. The job or workplace was not what I expected           – Expectations cons...
“The 7 Hidden Reasons Employees Leave” (2) • 4. Limited opportunities for advancement           – This is crucial for youn...
Are these “7 reasons” exclusive?            • Unmotivated employees            • Lack of skill-building supervision and me...
“Quitting bosses”  • One of the main reasons people leave is due to ineffective       leadership, or perceived incompetent...
Strategies that Combat Turnover (1)           • Conduct ―exit‖/―stay‖ interviews to learn and be             proactive    ...
Strategies that Combat Turnover (2)      • Perks                – Housing assistance in rural and urban areas             ...
Strategies that Combat Turnover (3)      • Employee recognition                – Meetings, rituals, events, but make them ...
Embracing Multidirectional Career Paths            • What do these solutions mean for the organization?                   ...
Agenda            • Staffing supply and demand            • Turnover and retention            • Recruitment and selection ...
Why is Recruitment Important to You?            • Meet staff demand            • Improve performance            • Reduce l...
Who Seeks Police Employment?            • Those inherently interested in the position            • Those who aren’t partic...
Motivations for the Profession            • Job security            • Opportunity to help—―make a difference‖            •...
Who Do You Seek?            • Mentally and physically fit            • Clean criminal and substance use record            ...
Selection Criteria            • Standards                      – Qualifiers                      – Disqualifiers          ...
Minimum Education Requirements in Large               Police Departments                                     Education req...
Minimum Qualifications in                                     Large Police Departments                                    ...
Disqualifiers in Large Police Departments                                                    Disqualification (n=107)     ...
Groups Targeted by Large Police Departments                                             Recruitment target (n=105)       P...
Methods of Recruitment in Large Police        Departments—Advertising and Interaction                                     ...
Compensation, Population, and Crime                  Influence the Supply of Applicants                                   ...
…But Little Evidence That                                   Police Strategies Mattered            • Modeling illustrated t...
Recruit Rank-Order of Motivations                               for their Application                                     ...
Methods of Recruitment in Large Police                   Departments—Incentives                                           ...
Reflecting the Community      • General consensus is police should reflect community                – President’s Commissi...
Why Should the Police Reflect the                                 Community?            • There are circumstances where ra...
Why Should the Police Reflect the                                 Community?            • There are circumstances where ra...
According to the 2000 Census© 2012 Michigan State University                                  Wilson- 68
How Well Do the Police Reflect the                                  Community?            • Historically, police largely c...
Race/Ethnicity Representation Varies by                       Community Size                                              ...
Gender Representation Varies by                                  Community Size                                           ...
Recruitment “Messaging”            • Motivations for the profession                      – Service, variety, excitement, b...
Compare Recruiting Strategies Online            • LAPD, LVMPD, Tacoma, Orlando, NJSP & your own            • What is your ...
Agenda            • Staffing supply and demand            • Turnover and retention            • Recruitment and selection ...
Public Safety                                     Consolidation:                                   Ready or Not, Here it  ...
Agenda            • Context and overview            • Public safety models            • Prevalence            • Perceived ...
Our Decentralized Law Enforcement System            • About 18,000 state and local law enforcement                 agencie...
Fragmentation is Good…            • Local control            • Community reflection            • Career choices           ...
… and Bad            • Offenders do not recognize jurisdictional                 boundaries            • Crime control str...
Why is the Provision of Public Safety So                         Challenging?     • Generally the largest portion of a com...
The Profound Effect of the Economy     • For many, standard responses—that is, cuts at the         margin—have not been en...
“Experimentation” has Taken Many Forms            • Functional Consolidation: Two or more agencies                 combine...
Functional Consolidation            • Combined Dispatch            • Regional Drug and Vehicle Theft Groups            • M...
Regional Policing            • Northern York County Regional Police Department                      –     Formed in 1972  ...
Metropolitan Police            • Nashville            • Las Vegas            • Louisville            • Indianapolis© 2012 ...
City County Consolidated            • UNI-Gov in Indianapolis            • Jacksonville - Duval County Florida            ...
Contracting            • Generally offered by sheriff            • King County Washington                      – Emphasis ...
Pros and Cons of Contracting                                      Pro                           Con              Lower cos...
Local Merger            • Winter Park/Fraser Police Colorado 2005                      – Winter Park serves as the managin...
Agenda            • Context and overview            • Public safety models            • Prevalence            • Perceived ...
There is Considerable Variation in Public                     Safety Consolidation                                   • Ful...
Highland Park, Texas                                   Est. 1977 (with roots to 1913), Pop. 9,000                         ...
Sunnyvale, California                               Est. 1950, Pop. 140,000 (230,000 daytime)                             ...
Agenda            • Context and overview            • Public safety models            • Prevalence            • Perceived ...
Consolidation Exists Throughout the US, and           Appears to be on the Rise    • Currently, we’ve identified 132 agenc...
Many have Abandoned Consolidation…Yet        Many Others are Actively Considering It       • We’ve identified several agen...
Agenda            • Context and overview            • Public safety models            • Prevalence            • Perceived ...
Consolidation May Increase Efficiency  • Responding officer can comprehensively assess and       direct response to situat...
Consolidation May Promote            Community Policing and Service Quality       • Fully, comprehensively trained profess...
Consolidation May Enhance Comprehensive     Community Safety and Homeland Security                  Preparedness          ...
Agenda            • Context and overview            • Public safety models            • Prevalence            • Perceived ...
Perceived Costs to Consolidation       • Up-front costs can be prohibitive                – Increased training and backfil...
Opposition to Consolidation      • Organized labor                – In select areas, organized labor has succeeded in     ...
Agenda            • Context and overview            • Public safety models            • Prevalence            • Perceived ...
Why Do Consolidations Fail? (1)            • Citizens value local control            • Most public safety executives and s...
Why Do Consolidations Fail? (2)            • Public perception soured over time/decline in service                 quality...
Keys to Success                                           • Focus on quality                                           • P...
Agenda            • Context and overview            • Public safety models            • Prevalence            • Perceived ...
Existing Information is Problematic                                                       Despite the                     ...
Introducing the New Research Institute on       Police Consolidation and Shared Services                       (RIPCaSS)  ...
The Goals of RIPCaSS Are Lofty But Critical            • Develop concrete, research-based lessons about                 th...
Many Field-Driven, Multi-dimensional                  Activities Are Already Underway (1)            • Creating an online ...
Many Field-Driven, Multi-dimensional                   Activities Are Already Underway (2)            • Focus group summit...
We’ll Leverage and Develop NumerousResources for Law Enforcement Stakeholders    • BOLOs    • Executive primers    • Pract...
Our Experience Thus Far…     • Consolidation is a divisive issue and stakeholders fall         along a continuum          ...
Thank you!                                   For more information, contact                                       Jeremy M....
Thank you!                                   For more information, contact                                       Jeremy M....
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  • Police workforce planning in a dynamic environment

    1. 1. Police Workforce Planning in a Dynamic Environment Jeremy M. Wilson School of Criminal Justice jwilson@msu.edu September 18, 2012© 2012 Michigan State University Wilson- 1
    2. 2. Agenda • Staffing supply and demand • Turnover and retention • Recruitment and selection • Consolidation© 2012 Michigan State University Wilson- 2
    3. 3. Agenda • Staffing supply and demand • Turnover and retention • Recruitment and selection • Consolidation© 2012 Michigan State University Wilson- 3
    4. 4. The Police Role is Expanding© 2012 Michigan State University Wilson- 4
    5. 5. The Police Role is Expanding© 2012 Michigan State University Wilson- 5
    6. 6. The Police Role is Expanding© 2012 Michigan State University Wilson- 6
    7. 7. The Staffing Challenge is Dynamic© 2012 Michigan State University Wilson- 7
    8. 8. Three Steps to Meeting Workforce Needs • Determine the staffing level needed to complete the task demands and performance objectives of a department • Determine the proper staffing structure that most cost-effectively meets the needs of a department • Selectively use recruiting and retention tools in a way that fosters the department’s goals, taking into account practical problems© 2012 Michigan State University Wilson- 8
    9. 9. A Bucket Approach to Framing the Police Staffing Challenge Need/Demand Allocation Unmet Demand Staffing Current Deficit Level© 2012 Michigan State University Wilson- 9
    10. 10. There’s a Widening Hole in the Bucket Baby-Boom Retirements Changing Military Generational Call-ups Expectations Organizational Budget Crises Characteristics© 2012 Michigan State University Wilson- 10
    11. 11. The Faucet (Supply) is Tightening Decrease in Expanded Skill Qualified Requirements Applicant Pool Changing Uncompetitive Generational Benefits Preferences Organizational Increased Characteristics Competition© 2012 Michigan State University Wilson- 11
    12. 12. The Demand is Expanding Homeland Security Community Policing Emerging Crimes© 2012 Michigan State University Wilson- 12
    13. 13. So What About the Recession? • Citing application booms and budget shortfalls, some claim it has solved the staffing crisis Level Applicants Resources Time since economic downturn Wilson- 13© 2012 Michigan State University
    14. 14. It’s Not Quite So Simple… • Those overwhelmed by applications struggle with selection and question the long-term commitment of applicants • Some agencies still report drops in applications and staffing shortages • Systemic trends transcend shorter-term fluctuations in the economy • Scarce resources necessitate decisionmakers learn how to most cost-effectively build, maintain, and allocate quality forces • Balance must be struck between recruitment and retention to ensure a proper staffing distribution among the ranks and through the experience continuum© 2012 Michigan State University Wilson- 14
    15. 15. Developing Evidence-Based Personnel Planning Lessons • A 2008 national staffing survey of police agencies with 300 or more officers (N=146) – Nearly 10 months in the field – Extensive follow-up and technical assistance • In all, 107 agencies responded, resulting in a 73 percent response rate • The response was favorable given the complexity of the survey, but nonresponse was problematic for some substantive areas© 2012 Michigan State University Wilson- 15
    16. 16. Many Departments Suffer From Too Many Junior Officers 80 10 or less YOS 11 to 20 YOS 70 21 or more YOS 60 50 % 40 30 20 10 0 Department© 2012 Michigan State University Wilson- 16
    17. 17. Many Departments Suffer From Too Few Junior Officers 70 10 or less YOS 11 to 20 YOS 60 21 or more YOS 50 % 40 30 20 10 0 Department© 2012 Michigan State University Wilson- 17
    18. 18. Departments Live With the Legacy of Past Personnel Decisions (1) % Years of Service On average, departments appear “healthy”© 2012 Michigan State University Wilson- 18
    19. 19. Departments Live With the Legacy of Past Personnel Decisions (2) % Years of Service …But individually, many exhibit chaotic patterns© 2012 Michigan State University Wilson- 19
    20. 20. Healthy and Unhealthy Patterns Exist 10 or less YOS 11 to 20 YOS 80 21 or more YOS 70 60 % 50 40 30 20 10 0 Average A B C D E© 2012 Michigan State University Wilson- 20
    21. 21. Why Do These Personnel Patterns Matter? • Cohorts progress through the organization over time • Unhealthy patterns can cause various administrative challenges that can undermine police effectiveness – Recruit and field training – Promotion assessment, frequency, and competitiveness and motivation for career progression – Budget consumption as cohort matures – Mass loss of staff and experience as cohort retires • Cohorts that differ from mean can start to oscillate – Year-to-year fluctuations can be difficult to control with new recruits and recruitment and retention tools© 2012 Michigan State University Wilson- 21
    22. 22. Even More Reason to Consider the Existing Cohort Structure When Making Major Personnel Decisions Personnel action Junior heavy Substantially better, reduces Hiring freeze junior cohort Substantially better, reduces Academy cancellation junior cohort Not employing recruits Substantially better, reduces completing academy junior cohort Substantially better, assuming Layoff least senior targeted Substantially worse, further Mandatory retirement reduces senior cohort Substantially worse, assuming Buy-out most senior targeted Moderately worse, maintains Furlough imbalance Substantially worse, assuming Unfilled attrition greater attrition among senior cohort© 2012 Michigan State University Wilson- 22
    23. 23. Even More Reason to Consider the Existing Cohort Structure When Making Major Personnel Decisions Personnel action Junior heavy Senior heavy Efficient Substantially better, reduces Substantially worse, Moderately worse, Hiring freeze junior cohort reduces junior cohort reduces junior cohort Substantially better, reduces Substantially worse, Moderately worse, Academy cancellation junior cohort reduces junior cohort reduces junior cohort Not employing recruits Substantially better, reduces Substantially worse, Moderately worse, completing academy junior cohort reduces junior cohort reduces junior cohort Substantially worse, Moderately worse, Substantially better, assuming Layoff assuming least senior assuming least senior least senior targeted targeted targeted Substantially worse, further Substantially better, Moderately worse, Mandatory retirement reduces senior cohort reduces senior cohort reduces senior cohort Substantially better, Moderately worse, Substantially worse, assuming Buy-out assuming most senior assuming most senior most senior targeted targeted targeted Moderately worse, maintains Moderately worse, Substantially better, Furlough imbalance maintains imbalance maintains balance Substantially worse, assuming Substantially better, Moderately worse, Unfilled attrition greater attrition among senior assuming greater attrition assuming greater attrition cohort among senior cohort among senior cohort© 2012 Michigan State University Wilson- 23
    24. 24. Managing Police Workforces is a Delicate Process • It is important to distinguish workforce structures from staffing levels • Goals for both workforce levels and structures must be set • The factors that challenge the ability to meet workforce goals are multi-dimensional, systemic, and local • Recruitment and retention tools are used to meet and maintain these goals (not just staffing levels) • Many recruitment strategies have little measurable • This underscores the importance of maintaining proper workforce balances that do not increase the oscillation of workforce structures© 2012 Michigan State University Wilson- 24
    25. 25. Data Capacities Must be Improved to Facilitate Personnel Planning • Significant data limitations exist • Collection • Consistency • Data shortcomings hamper the development and application of basic, evidence-based tenets of personnel management – Serious implications for hiring, training, budgeting, promotion, and maintaining workforce structures • Investment in data and analysis is required to advance a ―police planning science‖ that can improve decision- making and efficiency© 2012 Michigan State University Wilson- 25
    26. 26. Agenda • Staffing supply and demand • Turnover and retention • Recruitment and selection • Consolidation© 2012 Michigan State University Wilson- 26
    27. 27. What is Turnover? • Turnover occurs when an employee leaves an organization • Two major types – Voluntary—employee terminates relationship • AKA: unplanned, undesired, dysfunctional, and avoidable – Involuntary—employer terminates relationship • AKA: planned, desired, functional, and unavoidable© 2012 Michigan State University Wilson- 27
    28. 28. How Can We Measure Turnover? Type of Formula Turnover Number of separations  number of Overall employees (Number of separations – unavoidable • Traditional measurement  number of employees Avoidable separations) (Number of separations – turnover • What is the difficulty in using general voluntary rate as an Involuntary separations)  number of employees exclusive measurement of employee retention? Number of separations of employees with Recent hire <2 years of experience  number of • Should choose appropriate numeratorsexperience employees with <2 years of and denominators and otherof new hires this month  number Number contextual information (e.g., Cohort peers) of new hires still on the job in 6 months© 2012 Michigan State University Wilson- 28
    29. 29. How Can We Measure Turnover? Type of Formula Turnover Number of separations  number of Overall employees (Number of separations – unavoidable Avoidable separations)  number of employees (Number of separations – voluntary Involuntary separations)  number of employees Number of separations of employees with Recent hire <2 years of experience  number of employees with <2 years of experience Number of new hires this month  number Cohort of new hires still on the job in 6 months© 2012 Michigan State University Wilson- 29
    30. 30. Who Leaves? • Half the officers leaving large agencies are retirees, but only 20% leaving smaller agencies are retirees • 67% of departing officers in small agencies, and 33% of officers in large agencies, leave within 5 years or less • Nearly half of departing officers from small agencies, and about 25% from larger agencies, go on to other law enforcement work elsewhere Sources: Copeland, 2009; Lynch & Tuckey, 2004; Mitchell et al., 2001; Orrick, 2008© 2012 Michigan State University Wilson- 30
    31. 31. Turnover is Multidimensional • Retention of employees has been described as the most pressing leadership challenge in policing (Copeland, 2009) • Does this hold true in the Great Recession? – Understanding factors that contribute to turnover – Consider the myriad costs of perpetually recruiting and retraining new employees (not just monetary) • Turnover occurs for reasons that may be singular (a specific incident) or cumulative (a culture or progression) • Communication is a crucial element in resolving problems before they occur© 2012 Michigan State University Wilson- 31
    32. 32. Addressing Turnover • Police agencies often fail to offer the sort of (even low cost) strategies shown to combat turnover and increase employee engagement over the career course • What makes police agencies slow to address turnover? – Lack of understanding of the root causes • Has the Great Recession put police managers in denial? • What does turnover communicate about the department?© 2012 Michigan State University Wilson- 32
    33. 33. Looking at Turnover Differently • Turnover can be both a positive and negative metric • How this activity is seen depends on the context of the event itself • How does the organization view the issue of staff mobility? Is it encouraged, or dreaded? • Practical issues arise – Costs of replacement and training – Negative impressions of organization – Potential positive opportunities presented© 2012 Michigan State University Wilson- 33
    34. 34. Potential Positive Effects of Turnover… • Some turnover may be desirable: low performers, troublemakers, those averse to change, and others • Reinvigoration of the organization’s knowledge base – New employees’ ideas stimulate older employees • Reinvigoration of the organization’s employee profile – More diversity, ―fresh faces‖, addition by subtraction • Low turnover may indicate that employees are unskilled and undesirable, and high turnover may indicate success – Consider a successful sports franchise when coaches are routinely ―poached‖ – what does that say?© 2012 Michigan State University Wilson- 34
    35. 35. …And Potential Negative Effects• Organizational stagnation due to high rates of turnover – Cohort effect is accentuated – Lack of experienced leadership• ―When good (or great) people leave‖ – what this does – Those with critical skills and knowledge – Leaders and innovators – Professional development is stunted• Turnover may stifle internal advancement opportunities, causing dissatisfaction and more turnover© 2012 Michigan State University Wilson- 35
    36. 36. What Are the Costs of Turnover?© 2012 Michigan State University Wilson- 36
    37. 37. Cost Category Cost Example Recruitment Advertising Recruiters’ salaries Bonuses Selection Tests What Are the Review-board salaries Investigator salaries Costs of New employee Medical, psychological, and drug screening Payroll and computer personnel Turnover? Training New uniforms and equipment Orientation and field training Recruit salaries and benefits Field-trainer salaries Supervision In-service training Operating Overtime to cover vacancies Loss of productivity as employee departs Increased further turnover Peer disruption Disruption of department operations Missed deadlines Increased further turnover Intangible Loss of knowledge and experience Disruption or loss of community relationships Lower morale© 2012 Michigan State University Wilson- 37
    38. 38. Why Do People Leave, Even Now? • Are newer generations of workers prone to frequent career changes? • What is the relationship of salary and benefits to turnover? How about employee engagement? • In an age of reduced external training opportunities and hiring, how can agencies keep career pathways robust and appealing to new officers? • Haarr (2005): Four historical theories • Lynch & Tuckey (2004): Five influences • Branham’s (2005): 7 reasons why employees leave© 2012 Michigan State University Wilson- 38
    39. 39. Theoretical Explanations • Job dissatisfaction – Those who are dissatisfied voluntarily resign • Burnout theory – Burnout occurs gradually; stress is cumulative • Confluency theory – Specific events trigger turnover when the employee realizes the organization is unsupportive • Cognitive dissonance – Turnover begins in the early stages of an officer’s career through maladjustment and socialization© 2012 Michigan State University Wilson- 39
    40. 40. Factors Affecting Dropout • Women and minority officers are more likely to resign from their positions due to a conflict between the ―idealized‖ impressions of police work they held prior to employment, and the ―realities‖ of their job and the socialization process • Female officers mention gender discrimination as pivotal • Small number of interviewees (n=34), but the sample follows recruits for over a year through training and probationary period; crucial findings for theoretical development and policy© 2012 Michigan State University Wilson- 40
    41. 41. Five Influences • The pull of other opportunities elsewhere • A gap in actual or potential compensation • Personal or demographic characteristics • Negative organizational health or culture • Differential or changing employee needs • Both overall job satisfaction and agency strategy/policy are involved here: a 2-way street© 2012 Michigan State University Wilson- 41
    42. 42. “The 7 Hidden Reasons Employees Leave” (1) • 1. The job or workplace was not what I expected – Expectations constitute a ―psychological contract‖ – Creating realistic job expectations can alleviate this • 2. Job and person are mismatched – Workers are disengaged from their duties because the work itself feels ―beneath‖ the worker’s perceived value – The worker may feel unrewarded and underappreciated • 3. Too little coaching, mentoring, & performance feedback – There is no ―big picture‖ to the employee’s role, the direction the organization is going, and how the employee is performing within a broader context© 2012 Michigan State University Wilson- 42
    43. 43. “The 7 Hidden Reasons Employees Leave” (2) • 4. Limited opportunities for advancement – This is crucial for younger, Millennial applicants – Is it real, or perceived? Is there a difference? • 5. Feeling devalued and unrecognized – Does this always have to be related to job task? • 6. Work-life imbalance creates unwanted stress – The demands of police work become too demanding • 7. Loss of trust in leadership – Frequent turnover at the top, or constant messages that the organization is unstable or lacks integrity© 2012 Michigan State University Wilson- 43
    44. 44. Are these “7 reasons” exclusive? • Unmotivated employees • Lack of skill-building supervision and mentoring • Culture of turnover: ―I can get my feet wet here‖ • Ambiguous organizational expectations • Restricted external training opportunities • Lack of proactive, even symbolic recognition • Erosion of overall morale due to all of the above: a ―vicious cycle‖ Source: Sprafka & Kranda, 2008; Wilson et al, 2010© 2012 Michigan State University Wilson- 44
    45. 45. “Quitting bosses” • One of the main reasons people leave is due to ineffective leadership, or perceived incompetent leadership • This can take many forms – Feelings of being undervalued possibly tied to specific cases of mismanagement – Failure to recognize specific employee contributions and employee commitment – Breaking the psychological contract through poor employee relations • May be compounded by the perception that the situation cannot be resolved and is permanent© 2012 Michigan State University Wilson- 45
    46. 46. Strategies that Combat Turnover (1) • Conduct ―exit‖/―stay‖ interviews to learn and be proactive • Mentoring and ―colleague counsel‖ – Balancing autonomy and mentorship – Expanded FTO programs – Mentoring throughout all levels of the agency, not just patrol, to expand preview • Educational incentives and ―career ladders‖ – Tuition assistance – Increase external training opportunities – Differential pay for advancement such as FTO – Differential pay for educational attainment – Build challenges and variety into the career path© 2012 Michigan State University Wilson- 46
    47. 47. Strategies that Combat Turnover (2) • Perks – Housing assistance in rural and urban areas – Transportation subsidies and take-home vehicles – Days-off and other symbolic but helpful recognitions • Employee engagement strategies – Provide realistic & helpful feedback – Increased external training opportunities – Differential pay for advancement such as FTO – Differential pay for educational attainment – Give employees a legitimate voice and role in decision-making© 2012 Michigan State University Wilson- 47
    48. 48. Strategies that Combat Turnover (3) • Employee recognition – Meetings, rituals, events, but make them meaningful – Rewards, even monetary – High-profile meetings and visits • Scheduling and job flexibility – Flexible scheduling – Job-sharing: creating hours and positions to suit these employee needs – Work-life partnerships such as child-care scheduling Sources: Fitzgerald, 2006; Konrad & Mangel, 2000; Kowal et al., 2008; Levin- Epstein, 2006; Mitchell et al., 2001; Prince, 2003; Robinson et al., 2006© 2012 Michigan State University Wilson- 48
    49. 49. Embracing Multidirectional Career Paths • What do these solutions mean for the organization? – Rethinking police organizations role in the lives of the employees and families – Improving the way the career and expectations are communicated to employees – Necessitating transparency and equity – Eliminating unnecessary bureaucracy – Management and supervisors held accountable for implementation of solutions to overall turnover plan – A new organizational culture Source: Wilson et al., 2010© 2012 Michigan State University Wilson- 49
    50. 50. Agenda • Staffing supply and demand • Turnover and retention • Recruitment and selection • Consolidation© 2012 Michigan State University Wilson- 50
    51. 51. Why is Recruitment Important to You? • Meet staff demand • Improve performance • Reduce liability • Provide for future leadership • Costly • Time consuming • Meeting organizational goals© 2012 Michigan State University Wilson- 51
    52. 52. Who Seeks Police Employment? • Those inherently interested in the position • Those who aren’t particularly interested in the position and view it as – A general employment opportunity among others – Their only employment opportunity • Those interested in using the position as a stepping stone to another career option Why is this important?© 2012 Michigan State University Wilson- 52
    53. 53. Motivations for the Profession • Job security • Opportunity to help—―make a difference‖ • Retirement plan • Health benefits • Excitement • Advancement opportunities • Fight crime • Comraderie • Variety of work© 2012 Michigan State University Wilson- 53
    54. 54. Who Do You Seek? • Mentally and physically fit • Clean criminal and substance use record • Educated • Generate attributes • General skills • Long-term commitment What specific skills/attributes might be desired in an era of community policing, the threat of terrorism, globalization, and shrinking resources?© 2012 Michigan State University Wilson- 54
    55. 55. Selection Criteria • Standards – Qualifiers – Disqualifiers • Targets – Attributes – Skills • Selecting out vs. selecting in© 2012 Michigan State University Wilson- 55
    56. 56. Minimum Education Requirements in Large Police Departments Education requirement (n=107) Proportion Four-year college degree 0.03 Two-year college degree 0.05 46-60 credit hours 0.11 31-45 credit hours 0.02 1-30 credit hours 0.03 High school diploma or equivalent 0.77 No formal education requirement 0.00 Source: Wilson, Rostker, & Fan, 2010© 2012 Michigan State University Wilson- 56
    57. 57. Minimum Qualifications in Large Police Departments General requirement (n=107) Proportion Psychological test 0.99 Medical test 0.99 Drivers license 0.98 US citizen 0.97 Pass vision test 0.93 Physical agility test 0.91 Any age requirement 0.79 Polygraph test 0.79 No dishonorable discharge from military 0.66 Other 0.37 Local residency 0.29 Police academy graduate 0.15 Non-smoker 0.08 Weight restrictions 0.05 Height restrictions 0.00 Source: Wilson, Rostker, & Fan, 2010© 2012 Michigan State University Wilson- 57
    58. 58. Disqualifiers in Large Police Departments Disqualification (n=107) Proportion Felony conviction 0.93 Suspended drivers license 0.93 Any serious misdemeanor conviction 0.81 Excessive points on driving record 0.79 Termination from law enforcement 0.72 Felony arrest 0.65 Substance abuse conviction 0.60 Substance abuse arrest within 2 years 0.57 Poor credit score 0.47 Substance abuse arrest 0.46 Felony arrest within 2 years 0.43 Prior drug use 0.32 Any misdemeanor conviction 0.19 Other 0.31 Source: Wilson, Rostker, & Fan, 2010© 2012 Michigan State University Wilson- 58
    59. 59. Groups Targeted by Large Police Departments Recruitment target (n=105) Proportion Racial/ethnic minorities 0.80 Women 0.74 College graduates 0.67 Military veterans 0.65 Prior police experience 0.53 Foreign language speakers 0.50 None 0.12 Physically disabled 0.02 Other 0.04 Source: Wilson, Rostker, & Fan, 2010© 2012 Michigan State University Wilson- 59
    60. 60. Methods of Recruitment in Large Police Departments—Advertising and Interaction Recruiting method (n=107) Proportion Career fairs 0.94 Internet 0.89 Newspapers 0.81 Community organizations 0.79 College outreach 0.75 Walk-in office 0.71 Posters 0.69 Military installations 0.65 Explorer/cadet program 0.63 Radio 0.61 High school outreach 0.52 College internships 0.52 Magazines 0.48 Television 0.45 Billboards 0.34 Mass mailings 0.32 Open house at police department 0.29 Other 0.28© 2012 Michigan State University Source: Wilson, Rostker, & Fan, 2010 Wilson- 60
    61. 61. Compensation, Population, and Crime Influence the Supply of Applicants MODEL: 2007 Police Applicants (ln) Core Econometric Model Coefficient Starting salary (ln) 0.869** Population (ln) 0.786*** Average annual community wage (ln) 0.135 Unemployment rate (ln) 0.353 Vacancies (ln) 0.001 N = 70, R-Square = .54 *p ≤.05, **p ≤.10, ***p ≤.001 Property, violent, and total crime also was positively associated with applications© 2012 Michigan State University Wilson- 61
    62. 62. …But Little Evidence That Police Strategies Mattered • Modeling illustrated that strategies are consistently unassociated with applications • Tested various samples – all, white, minority, male, and female • Tested various strategies – Number of recruiters and recruiting budget – Advertising – Incentives© 2012 Michigan State University Wilson- 62
    63. 63. Recruit Rank-Order of Motivations for their Application Top 10 Remaining 11 Friend/family who works/ worked in same agency Military installation Friend/family who works/ worked in different agency Radio ad Internet ad Explorer and/or cadets program Friend/family not in law enforcement College outreach Experience working with the agency in another capacity College internships Newspaper ad Walk-in-office Open house at police Career fair department Billboard Community organization Television ad Magazine/journal ad Posters Mass mailing High school outreach Source: Castaneda & Ridgeway, 2010© 2012 Michigan State University Wilson- 63
    64. 64. Methods of Recruitment in Large Police Departments—Incentives Recruitment incentive (n=106) Proportion Uniform allowance 0.95 Salary during training 0.82 Reimbursement for college courses 0.73 Pay rate by assignment 0.62 Salary increase for college degree 0.56 Paid academic expenses 0.45 Take-home car 0.41 Tuition 0.13 Health club membership 0.13 Signing bonus 0.09 Mortgage discount 0.09 Other cash 0.08 Academy graduation bonus 0.07 Relocations expenses 0.05 Schedule preference for taking courses 0.05 Housing stipend 0.00 Other 0.39 None 0.01© 2012 Michigan State University Source: Wilson, Rostker, & Fan, 2010 Wilson- 64
    65. 65. Reflecting the Community • General consensus is police should reflect community – President’s Commission on Law Enforcement and Administration of Justice (1967) – Kerner Commission (1968) – Commission on Accreditation for Law Enforcement Agencies (1999) • Standard 31.2.1: ―The agency has ethnic and gender composition in the sworn law enforcement ranks in approximate proportion to the makeup of the available work force in the law enforcement agency’s service community, or a recruitment plan pursuant to standard 31.2.2‖ – Nationally representative survey of Americans (Weitzer & Tuch, 2004)© 2012 Michigan State University Wilson- 65
    66. 66. Why Should the Police Reflect the Community? • There are circumstances where race/ethnicity could enhance performance (?) – NOT according to the National Research Council: ―[W]hatever influence race and gender may exert on behavior is overwhelmed by the unifying effects of occupational socialization‖ (Skogan & Frydl, 2004, p. 147)© 2012 Michigan State University Wilson- 66
    67. 67. Why Should the Police Reflect the Community? • There are circumstances where race/ethnicity could enhance performance (?) • There should be equal opportunity for all, regardless of race and gender to become officers – ―A department can show convincingly that it does not practice racial discrimination by recruiting minority-group officers, assigning them fairly to duties…, and by pursuing promotion policies that are scrupulously fair…‖ (President’s Commission, 1967, p. 261).© 2012 Michigan State University Wilson- 67
    68. 68. According to the 2000 Census© 2012 Michigan State University Wilson- 68
    69. 69. How Well Do the Police Reflect the Community? • Historically, police largely comprised of white males, but has been changing over time© 2012 Michigan State University Source: LEMAS, 2007 Wilson- 69
    70. 70. Race/Ethnicity Representation Varies by Community Size Asian/ American Black/African Hispanic/ Pacific Indian/Alaska Multi- Population served White American Latino Islander Native race All sizes 74.7% 11.9 10.3 2 0.7 0.3 1,000,000 or more 56 17.6 22.9 3.2 0.3 0 500,000 - 999,999 60.6 24.1 9.3 4.1 0.4 1.6 250,000 - 499,999 69.5 16.5 11.2 2 0.6 0.1 100,000 - 249,999 73.7 13.4 9.1 2.6 0.9 0.3 50,000 - 99,999 83.6 7 7.5 1.4 0.3 0.3 25,000 - 49,999 88.2 5 5.1 0.9 0.6 0.2 10,000 - 24,999 87.5 5.6 5.1 0.6 1 0.2 2,500 - 9,999 87.9 5.1 4.4 0.6 1.8 0.1 Under 2,500 88.3 5.8 3 0.1 2.3 0.5 Source: LEMAS, 2007© 2012 Michigan State University Wilson- 70
    71. 71. Gender Representation Varies by Community Size Male (%) Female (%) 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Source: LEMAS, 2007 What does all of this variation mean for recruitment?© 2012 Michigan State University Wilson- 71
    72. 72. Recruitment “Messaging” • Motivations for the profession – Service, variety, excitement, benefits, etc. • Incentives – Signing bonus, tuition reimbursement, etc. • Image of the department and profession – Brand and story—what makes it unique© 2012 Michigan State University Wilson- 72
    73. 73. Compare Recruiting Strategies Online • LAPD, LVMPD, Tacoma, Orlando, NJSP & your own • What is your first reaction? • How easy are they to navigate? • How comprehensive is the information? • What images are evoked? • What do you think it would be like to work there? • Which one sparks your interest most and why? • What might explain the differences?© 2012 Michigan State University Wilson- 73
    74. 74. Agenda • Staffing supply and demand • Turnover and retention • Recruitment and selection • Consolidation© 2012 Michigan State University Wilson- 74
    75. 75. Public Safety Consolidation: Ready or Not, Here it Comes…© 2012 Michigan State University Wilson- 75
    76. 76. Agenda • Context and overview • Public safety models • Prevalence • Perceived benefits • Perceived costs • Keys to success • From anecdote to evidence© 2012 Michigan State University Wilson- 76
    77. 77. Our Decentralized Law Enforcement System • About 18,000 state and local law enforcement agencies in the US – Much different from other countries: Canada 80, England 40, Japan 50 • Approximately 765,000 sworn personnel • About 49% of agencies employ less than 10 full- time officers • Two out of three officers work for agencies with 100 or more sworn officers© 2012 Michigan State University Wilson- 77
    78. 78. Fragmentation is Good… • Local control • Community reflection • Career choices • Bigger is not necessarily better© 2012 Michigan State University Wilson- 78
    79. 79. … and Bad • Offenders do not recognize jurisdictional boundaries • Crime control strategy should be more regional • Peer emulation • Duplication of administration, facilities, communications, equipment, etc. • Requires more resources/police officers© 2012 Michigan State University Wilson- 79
    80. 80. Why is the Provision of Public Safety So Challenging? • Generally the largest portion of a community’s budget • Costs have risen substantially over time • Personnel costs typically represent eighty to ninety percent of a police or fire budget • Collective bargaining agreements often reduce management flexibility (e.g., minimum staffing) • Public safety employees have garnered public support for maintaining the status quo© 2012 Michigan State University Wilson- 80
    81. 81. The Profound Effect of the Economy • For many, standard responses—that is, cuts at the margin—have not been enough • Traditional reluctance to cut public safety has given way to dramatic and unprecedented decisions—all options are on the table – Hiring freezes, lay-offs, furloughs, ―org death,‖… • Considerable experimentation in the substantive delivery of public safety services© 2012 Michigan State University Wilson- 81
    82. 82. “Experimentation” has Taken Many Forms • Functional Consolidation: Two or more agencies combine functional units like communications, crime lab, or SWAT team • Regionalization: A number of agencies combine to police a geographic area • Metropolitan: Two or more agencies serving overlapping jurisdictions join together • City-County Consolidation: A city and county consolidate their entire governments • Contracting: Small and medium-sized communities contract with a larger agency for police services • Local Merger: Two separate agencies form a single, new entity© 2012 Michigan State University Wilson- 82
    83. 83. Functional Consolidation • Combined Dispatch • Regional Drug and Vehicle Theft Groups • Major Crime Task Forces – Will County, IL: 37 agencies • Major Crash Assistance Team (MCAT) • Regional SWAT Team© 2012 Michigan State University Wilson- 83
    84. 84. Regional Policing • Northern York County Regional Police Department – Formed in 1972 – 2 Boroughs, 6 Townships – 50 sworn officers – Each municipality selects a commissioner • About 30 regional agencies in PA© 2012 Michigan State University Wilson- 84
    85. 85. Metropolitan Police • Nashville • Las Vegas • Louisville • Indianapolis© 2012 Michigan State University Wilson- 85
    86. 86. City County Consolidated • UNI-Gov in Indianapolis • Jacksonville - Duval County Florida • City and County of Broomfield Colorado – City of Broomfield and portions of four counties© 2012 Michigan State University Wilson- 86
    87. 87. Contracting • Generally offered by sheriff • King County Washington – Emphasis on local control • Los Angeles County – 40 cities, 2M residents • RCMP© 2012 Michigan State University Wilson- 87
    88. 88. Pros and Cons of Contracting Pro Con Lower cost Loss of local control Specific services can be obtained Quality of service may be diminished May provide higher quality service May have to compete for resources May be better trained and equipped Costs will increase County absorbs risk Difficult to reestablish department What happens to employees?© 2012 Michigan State University Wilson- 88
    89. 89. Local Merger • Winter Park/Fraser Police Colorado 2005 – Winter Park serves as the managing partner – Winter Park is responsible for paying all bills – Winter Park is responsible for managing all employment matters, insurance, and other related matters – All personnel are employees of Winter Park – The Police Chief reports directly to the Fraser Town Manager and Winter Park Town Manager – All police officers are sworn to serve and protect both municipalities© 2012 Michigan State University Wilson- 89
    90. 90. Agenda • Context and overview • Public safety models • Prevalence • Perceived benefits • Perceived costs • From anecdote to evidence© 2012 Michigan State University Wilson- 90
    91. 91. There is Considerable Variation in Public Safety Consolidation • Full integration of police and fire services • Cross-trained public safety officers Full • Consolidated management and command • Partial integration of police and fire services • Cross-trained public safety officers exist alongside separate functional personnel Partial • Consolidation occurs within administrative ranks • Police and fire services are not integrated • Consolidation generally limited to the chief executive Nominal© 2012 Michigan State University Wilson- 91
    92. 92. Highland Park, Texas Est. 1977 (with roots to 1913), Pop. 9,000 Director of Public Safety Office of the Operations Support Services Director Bureau Bureau Community Criminal Communications Administrative Relations A Shift Investigations Training Division Division Services Division Division Division Accreditation/ Administration EMS Education B Shift Investigators Dispatch Crime Analyst Secretary Contractor Support Services C Shift Property Room Alarm Services Officer School Crossing Court Bailiff Records Clerk Guards • 222 Index crimes in 2010 (2,373 per 100,000 residents) • 38 of 54 PSO’s cross-trained police, fire, and paramedic • PSO’s work 24-hour shifts—rotating functions© 2012 Michigan State University Wilson- 92
    93. 93. Sunnyvale, California Est. 1950, Pop. 140,000 (230,000 daytime) Chief Mgmt Analyst Internal Budget Deputy Chief Deputy Chief Affairs Deputy Chief Police Fire Special Operations Personnel Services Captain Police Captain Police Captain Fire Team A Team B Team A Captain Captain Special Operations Strategic Services Police Admin Captain Fire Traffic Safety Lieutenant Team B Vehicle Abatement Communications Office of Captain Fire Emergency Recruitment Team C Services Fire Env. Neighborhood Training Services Preservation Police/Fire/EMS Investigations Grants Licenses & • 2,396 Index crimes in 2010 (1,787 per 100,000 Permits residents) Crime Prevention Records/Property/ Evidence • All 195 PSO’s cross-trained police, fire, and EMT Animal Control • Police personnel work 11-hour shifts, fire personnel work 24-hour shifts—assigned functions© 2012 Michigan State University Wilson- 93
    94. 94. Agenda • Context and overview • Public safety models • Prevalence • Perceived benefits • Perceived costs • From anecdote to evidence© 2012 Michigan State University Wilson- 94
    95. 95. Consolidation Exists Throughout the US, and Appears to be on the Rise • Currently, we’ve identified 132 agencies that have consolidated public safety at least nominally – Spread across the US • Michigan leads with 56, next most is South Carolina with 9 – Small and medium-sized agencies – Rural and urban communities – Form of implementation varies This is a living list that frequently changes© 2012 Michigan State University Wilson- 95
    96. 96. Many have Abandoned Consolidation…Yet Many Others are Actively Considering It • We’ve identified several agencies that have abandoned consolidation—there are likely more – Various reasons cited • Expanded responsibilities resulted in perceived need for greater specialization • Perceived need to increase communication and stature of each function within city government • We’ve identified several communities throughout the US considering the model—there are likely more – Consolidations are regularly occurring It’s critical to understand the contexts of both successes and failures© 2012 Michigan State University Wilson- 96
    97. 97. Agenda • Context and overview • Public safety models • Prevalence • Perceived benefits • Perceived costs • From anecdote to evidence© 2012 Michigan State University Wilson- 97
    98. 98. Consolidation May Increase Efficiency • Responding officer can comprehensively assess and direct response to situations • Reduced total need for line staff • More staff continuously available to respond to calls • Fire industry is changing from fire suppression to EMS – From 1983-2010, fires fell by 43% while fire fighters increased 48% (and fire departments increased 7%) – From 1980-2010, medical aid increased 260% • Reduced duplication of administrative, communications, and physical infrastructure Example Traverse City employs 56 fire and police personnel, 43% more than the average public safety department in Michigan communities of a similar size© 2012 Michigan State University Wilson- 98
    99. 99. Consolidation May Promote Community Policing and Service Quality • Fully, comprehensively trained professional on scene of every incident • Increased access to staff and flexibility in its deployment • Freed up time for officers to work in the community • Expanded role of police officers to include activities generally favored by the public – Satisfaction of fire services often greater than police services, and fire profession is often the most respected • Expanded role attracts officers with a broader skill set • Through improved efficiency, consolidation may keep community policing activities from being reduced and eliminated© 2012 Michigan State University Wilson- 99
    100. 100. Consolidation May Enhance Comprehensive Community Safety and Homeland Security Preparedness • Enhanced communication • Unity of command structure • All-inclusive emergency response and planning • Comprehensive training© 2012 Michigan State University Wilson- 100
    101. 101. Agenda • Context and overview • Public safety models • Prevalence • Perceived benefits • Perceived costs • Keys to success • From anecdote to evidence© 2012 Michigan State University Wilson- 101
    102. 102. Perceived Costs to Consolidation • Up-front costs can be prohibitive – Increased training and backfilling staff during training – Branding, uniforms, equipment and vehicles – Immediate cost savings often not realized • In-service training requirements to maintain certifications • Contracts – Labor and facilities • Reorganization pain – Planning for structure, positions, and people • Perceived or actual decline in service quality • Exacerbation of existing management problems© 2012 Michigan State University Wilson- 102
    103. 103. Opposition to Consolidation • Organized labor – In select areas, organized labor has succeeded in blocking consolidation efforts by changing local and state statutes, charters and pension regulations • Citizens – Some locales have exhibited fears of a deterioration in either police or fire services, or both • Administrators – Cultural and organizational changes needed may run up against opposition – Confusion and ambiguity about administrative roles© 2012 Michigan State University Wilson- 103
    104. 104. Agenda • Context and overview • Public safety models • Prevalence • Perceived benefits • Perceived costs • Keys to success • From anecdote to evidence© 2012 Michigan State University Wilson- 104
    105. 105. Why Do Consolidations Fail? (1) • Citizens value local control • Most public safety executives and staff are content with their organizations and see no particular benefit to change—personal stake • Organizations, even small ones, tend to place great emphasis on their unique identity—culture matters • Strong opposition from employee groups • Expected cost savings are often not realized, particularly in the short-run© 2012 Michigan State University Wilson- 105
    106. 106. Why Do Consolidations Fail? (2) • Public perception soured over time/decline in service quality • Perception of need for greater specialization due to changing workload • Perception of need to elevate public safety services within city government© 2012 Michigan State University Wilson- 106
    107. 107. Keys to Success • Focus on quality • Political support • Inclusive planning • Time for implementation© 2012 Michigan State University Wilson- 107
    108. 108. Agenda • Context and overview • Public safety models • Prevalence • Perceived benefits • Perceived costs • Keys to success • From anecdote to evidence© 2012 Michigan State University Wilson- 108
    109. 109. Existing Information is Problematic Despite the tremendous need, practitioners and decision-makers have few systematic, data- driven lessons • What we know is largely anecdotal • Current knowledge is based upon scattered and dated case studies • Many questions remain about the options for and feasibility of public safety consolidation, and the factors associated with success and failure© 2012 Michigan State University Wilson- 109
    110. 110. Introducing the New Research Institute on Police Consolidation and Shared Services (RIPCaSS) • Administered by the MSU School of Criminal Justice • Staffed with seasoned, well-respected scholars© 2012 Michigan State University Wilson- 110
    111. 111. The Goals of RIPCaSS Are Lofty But Critical • Develop concrete, research-based lessons about the nature, structure, function and implementation of all forms of consolidation and shared services within local context for understanding their short and long-term costs and benefits – When do they work and when don’t they? • Promote fact-based awareness and decision- making • Serve as a resource© 2012 Michigan State University Wilson- 111
    112. 112. Many Field-Driven, Multi-dimensional Activities Are Already Underway (1) • Creating an online portal for existing resources, information and networking • Case studies of consolidated and deconsolidated public safety agencies • Developing a national public safety agency census • Residential opinion survey of public safety satisfaction • Media content analysis of public safety consolidation communication strategies© 2012 Michigan State University Wilson- 112
    113. 113. Many Field-Driven, Multi-dimensional Activities Are Already Underway (2) • Focus group summit and case studies on merging policies in consolidations • Review of facilitating labor-management consolidation discussions • Analysis of utilizing non-sworn staff • Trainings, technical assistance and outreach© 2012 Michigan State University Wilson- 113
    114. 114. We’ll Leverage and Develop NumerousResources for Law Enforcement Stakeholders • BOLOs • Executive primers • Practitioner guides • Training webinars • Professional and journal articles • Various other publication and training resources© 2012 Michigan State University Wilson- 114
    115. 115. Our Experience Thus Far… • Consolidation is a divisive issue and stakeholders fall along a continuum – Adamant opposition • Assumptions and misunderstandings are common • Positions frequently based on qualitative judgment/emotion as opposed to facts/evidence – Unaware—blissfully or frantically – Very supportive within context of practical realities • Many examples of it working • Skeptics and champions have made themselves known • A tremendous need exists for resources to inform discourse and decision-making – regular calls for help© 2012 Michigan State University Wilson- 115
    116. 116. Thank you! For more information, contact Jeremy M. Wilson School of Criminal Justice jwilson@msu.edu (517)353-9474 Wilson- 116© 2012 Michigan State University
    117. 117. Thank you! For more information, contact Jeremy M. Wilson School of Criminal Justice jwilson@msu.edu (517)353-9474 Wilson- 117© 2012 Michigan State University
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