Police Executive Leadership Workshop      Police Resource Allocation
2   What This Module is All About• Police executives make lots of decisions, few  are more critical than staffing.  – How ...
3Deciding how many officers we need.• Four widely-used approaches  – Authorized Strength  – Population Rate  – Minimum Sta...
4          Authorized Strength• Many departments compare their actual staff  with their authorized strength.• This is the ...
5            Population Rate• Many communities rely heavily on comparison  by rate (number of officers per population).• D...
6PELW 2012
7     What’s Wrong With Rates?• Says little about the nature of the community  being served or of the organization• Instit...
8      Rates and Minimum Together•   "Our current staffing as it relates to sworn personnel is not    where it could be or...
9          Minimum Staffing• Most police departments, particularly small  ones, use this approach.• Increasingly popular w...
10             Problem Areas• Incremental• Institutionalized• Becomes the optimal staffing level• Often times the levels a...
11           Some solutions• Street Strength• Minimum during overlap times• Reduce the hire-back time• Using workload-base...
12            Using Workload• We will partition these activities into two  groups: community-generated and  discretionary....
13Workload Based Allocation           PELW 2012
14Allocation of Time  Ratio is Community-Based            PELW 2012
15   What is Citizen Generated?• Delaware Ohio Police  Department :”The City prides itself  on being one of the safest, an...
16                  Not likely!• CAD systems often record all kinds of activities as  calls for service.• In Delaware they...
17            CAD Data Example•   LOSTP 3D 13•   LOSTP 1C 1•   LOSTP 3B 1•   LOSTPR 3D 16•   LU 3D 17771•   MEETB 4 616•  ...
18         Calls for Service (CFS)• Best Indicator of Citizen Generated Activity• What is included  – Travel time  – On-sc...
Example of CFS Computation                      Travel      6 min.   10.min.• Domestic  Disturbance (Two-   On-Scene    24...
20        CFS as Obligated Time• Once we have this CFS time we can begin the  process of estimating the number of officers...
21               Shift example• Total CFS for one year for swing shift (3-11pm)  is 30,000 hours.• If an officer worked ev...
22        Calculating Relief Factor• Relief Factor = Tells us the number of officers  that we have to assign to a shift in...
23          Relief Factor Example   Regular days off           104   Vacation                   15   Holidays          ...
24               Relief Factor• 365/365-150• 365/ 215 or 1.7• This means that to staff on position you need  1.7 employees...
25           Using Relief Factor• Our RF was 1.7.• We need 10.27 officers to handle CFS.• Thus the total staffing required...
26 But officers do more than handle CFS• Based on what we have done thus far our 17.5  officers would spend all day answer...
27         Performance Objectives• Let’s say we want our officers to spend 50% of their  time on CFS and 50% on other acti...
28     Performance Objectives (2)• Your assumptions are important.• You may not have enough staff to meet a  performance o...
29PELW 2012
30PELW 2012
31PELW 2012
32            Work Schedules• Work Schedules are an important component  of resource allocation.• Tendency to separate the...
33  What is a good work schedule-depends              where you sit!• Management Objectives  – Maintain staffing levels  –...
34Why are work schedules problematic?• Appear to be complex and difficult to analyze!• Work schedules are viewed as “tradi...
35             Scheduling Issues•   Length of work periods•   Shift Rotation•   Time-off Periods•   Staffing levels•   Hol...
36                Shift Analysis• Duty Cycle: Repeating of On and Off days.• Four Properties  – Duty cycle length  – Numbe...
Analysis 5-2 with uniform staffing  M T W T F S S                                          • Number of days off in1 X X   ...
6 on / 3 off repeated 7 times over a 9 week period        M      T      W         T      F    S     S1                    ...
10 Hour Shift (Equal staffing by day of week)     M      T      W        T       F    S      S1    X      X      X2       ...
10 Hour Shift: Holland Michigan      M    T    W        T       F    S    S1     X    X    X2                             ...
10 hours unequal by day of week       M    T    W        T       F    S    S1           X    X        X2                X ...
424/11 Plan•Two Teams                       M         T    W    T    F    S    S•Several Start Times and   1     X        ...
12 Hour Schedule    M      T    W        T       F    S    S1   D      D    X        X       D    D    D2   X      X    D ...
8 vs. 10 vs. 12               12             10      8Work days      182            218     273Days Off       182         ...
45              How about staffing.• 10 hour shifts result in overlaps in 24 hour coverage.  You are providing 30 hours of...
PELW 2012   46
Minimum Staffing and Ten Hour Shifts• Of particular concern is the combination  of ten hour shifts and minimum staffing.• ...
48               From 8 to 10 Hours• There are three squads-each with seven officers.• Minimum staffing is four per shift•...
49PELW 2012
50RPD Overtime Costs 2004-2009            PELW 2012
51       Attributes of 12 hour shifts•   Average work week is 42 hours•   Longest workweek 48 hours•   Fewer shift changes...
52         Schedules and Fatigue• Lots of concern about fatigue among shift  workers and others• Fatigue can lead to offic...
53            Here is what we know!•   Officers on 10 and 12 hour shifts report less fatigue.•   Fatigue is worse for olde...
54       What does this all mean?• Fatigue is more related to what officers do on  their off-duty time than their work sch...
55           Police Foundation Study– Compared 8, 10, and 12 hour shifts– No difference in performance– No impact on healt...
56     Some Concluding Thoughts• Policing is a labor-intensive activity• Budget cuts will almost always result in fewer  p...
57                    Contact• Alexander Weiss  – alexanderweiss@ymail.com  – 847-332-1160  – 847-644-3930 (mobile)       ...
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Police Executive Leadership Workshop Police Resource Allocation 2012

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Police Executive Leadership Workshop Police Resource Allocation 2012

  1. 1. Police Executive Leadership Workshop Police Resource Allocation
  2. 2. 2 What This Module is All About• Police executives make lots of decisions, few are more critical than staffing. – How many officers do we need? – How should I assign and schedule these officers to maximize performance? – How can we do this efficiently? That is, getting the most output for our investment. PELW 2012
  3. 3. 3Deciding how many officers we need.• Four widely-used approaches – Authorized Strength – Population Rate – Minimum Staffing – Workload-based PELW 2012
  4. 4. 4 Authorized Strength• Many departments compare their actual staff with their authorized strength.• This is the level of staffing that has been approved-typically as part of the budget process. – Largely incremental – May not reflect actual needs (High or Low) – Will typically be below authorized because of separations, recruitment, training. PELW 2012
  5. 5. 5 Population Rate• Many communities rely heavily on comparison by rate (number of officers per population).• Driven in the past by the FBI that often suggested appropriate levels.• These rates can be a good planning tool but are not well suited for critical allocation decisions. PELW 2012
  6. 6. 6PELW 2012
  7. 7. 7 What’s Wrong With Rates?• Says little about the nature of the community being served or of the organization• Institutionalizes inefficiency• Sends a message to the organization that “we do not have enough officers”. PELW 2012
  8. 8. 8 Rates and Minimum Together• "Our current staffing as it relates to sworn personnel is not where it could be or should be for a city this size," Police Chief Art Acevedo said the additional officers are needed to maintain a ratio of two officers per 1,000 residents. That ratio is a kind of benchmark among many departments across the country to determine staffing; having two officers per 1,000 is considered ideal and is also city policy. The city has 2.08 officers per 1,000 residents, according to the study by the Police Executive Research Forum .But Assistant Police Chief David Carter said that is only the ratio if the department is at its full authorized strength of 1,740 officers, which it is not because of vacancies, attrition and cadets waiting to become full-fledged officers." Weve never been effectively ever at 2.0,” PELW 2012
  9. 9. 9 Minimum Staffing• Most police departments, particularly small ones, use this approach.• Increasingly popular with medium and large agencies.• Often tied to number of beats-but can be very arbitrary.• The real problem is the overtime cost associated with filling vacant positions. PELW 2012
  10. 10. 10 Problem Areas• Incremental• Institutionalized• Becomes the optimal staffing level• Often times the levels are set so high that it is likely that a vacancy will occur. PELW 2012
  11. 11. 11 Some solutions• Street Strength• Minimum during overlap times• Reduce the hire-back time• Using workload-based models to identify staffing requirements• Shared services PELW 2012
  12. 12. 12 Using Workload• We will partition these activities into two groups: community-generated and discretionary.• If we know how much time is consumed by community generated work we can build a model that incorporates the discretionary activities. PELW 2012
  13. 13. 13Workload Based Allocation PELW 2012
  14. 14. 14Allocation of Time Ratio is Community-Based PELW 2012
  15. 15. 15 What is Citizen Generated?• Delaware Ohio Police Department :”The City prides itself on being one of the safest, and annually handles more than 60,000 calls for service”.• Can a city of 30,000 have 60,000 police calls for service? PELW 2012
  16. 16. 16 Not likely!• CAD systems often record all kinds of activities as calls for service.• In Delaware they would record a “call” every time an officer came into the station.• Actual number of citizen generated call per year is 16,000.• If the average call takes 30 minutes this represents about 8000 hours of community generated work- not 30,000! PELW 2012
  17. 17. 17 CAD Data Example• LOSTP 3D 13• LOSTP 1C 1• LOSTP 3B 1• LOSTPR 3D 16• LU 3D 17771• MEETB 4 616• MISION 4 746 PELW 2012
  18. 18. 18 Calls for Service (CFS)• Best Indicator of Citizen Generated Activity• What is included – Travel time – On-scene time – Number of officers assigned*** – Follow-up? PELW 2012
  19. 19. Example of CFS Computation Travel 6 min. 10.min.• Domestic Disturbance (Two- On-Scene 24 20 officers) Arrest 30 0 Sub 60 30 Total 90 PELW 2012 19
  20. 20. 20 CFS as Obligated Time• Once we have this CFS time we can begin the process of estimating the number of officers to handle this demand.• We can do it by shift or for the entire day.• Let’s do it first by shift. PELW 2012
  21. 21. 21 Shift example• Total CFS for one year for swing shift (3-11pm) is 30,000 hours.• If an officer worked every day in a year they would work 2920 hours a year (8 X 385).• So in order to handle 30,000 hours of CFS we would need 10.27 officers (30,000 / 2920). PELW 2012
  22. 22. 22 Calculating Relief Factor• Relief Factor = Tells us the number of officers that we have to assign to a shift in order to provide the appropriate staffing• Will be different depending on whether officers work 8, 10, or 12 hour shifts.• May differ by shift or work group. PELW 2012
  23. 23. 23 Relief Factor Example Regular days off 104 Vacation 15 Holidays 10 Training 2 Court 7 Sick 12 Total Benefit Days Off 150 PELW 2012
  24. 24. 24 Relief Factor• 365/365-150• 365/ 215 or 1.7• This means that to staff on position you need 1.7 employees. PELW 2012
  25. 25. 25 Using Relief Factor• Our RF was 1.7.• We need 10.27 officers to handle CFS.• Thus the total staffing required is 17.46 officers (1.7 X 10.27). PELW 2012
  26. 26. 26 But officers do more than handle CFS• Based on what we have done thus far our 17.5 officers would spend all day answering calls for service. Lots of other stuff to do!• The question now is how we will spend our discretionary (unobligated) time. PELW 2012
  27. 27. 27 Performance Objectives• Let’s say we want our officers to spend 50% of their time on CFS and 50% on other activities (officer initiated, patrol, community policing, administrative).• We could simply multiply the number required for CFS times 2.• Thus we would need 34.92 or 35 officers (17.46 X 2)• For 1/3 patrol, 1/3 admin, and 1/3 CFS multiply X 3 ( 52 officers). PELW 2012
  28. 28. 28 Performance Objectives (2)• Your assumptions are important.• You may not have enough staff to meet a performance objective. That does not mean you do not have enough officers! PELW 2012
  29. 29. 29PELW 2012
  30. 30. 30PELW 2012
  31. 31. 31PELW 2012
  32. 32. 32 Work Schedules• Work Schedules are an important component of resource allocation.• Tendency to separate them, but this can have serious consequences for management.• Let’s talk first about general scheduling properties. PELW 2012
  33. 33. 33 What is a good work schedule-depends where you sit!• Management Objectives – Maintain staffing levels – Proper supervision – Effective policing• Officer Objectives – Should help them do their job – Compatible with personal life – Equity PELW 2012
  34. 34. 34Why are work schedules problematic?• Appear to be complex and difficult to analyze!• Work schedules are viewed as “traditional” or at least idiosyncratic to the agency.• Change is always tough- work schedule changes can be paralyzing.• Most agencies build a work schedule around the number officers they have-not what they need! PELW 2012
  35. 35. 35 Scheduling Issues• Length of work periods• Shift Rotation• Time-off Periods• Staffing levels• Holidays and Vacation time• Overtime PELW 2012
  36. 36. 36 Shift Analysis• Duty Cycle: Repeating of On and Off days.• Four Properties – Duty cycle length – Number of on and off duty patterns in the cycle – Staffing level by day of week – Average work week PELW 2012
  37. 37. Analysis 5-2 with uniform staffing M T W T F S S • Number of days off in1 X X each weekly cycle are1 X X same1 X X • Equal staffing by day of1 X X week (71 %)1 X X • Fixed days off1 X X1 X X 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 % PELW 2012 37
  38. 38. 6 on / 3 off repeated 7 times over a 9 week period M T W T F S S1 X2 X X3 X X X4 X X X5 X X6 X7 X X X8 X X X9 X X X% 67 67 67 67 67 67 67 PELW 2012 38
  39. 39. 10 Hour Shift (Equal staffing by day of week) M T W T F S S1 X X X2 X X X3 X X X4 X X X5 X X X6 X X X7 X X XX% 57 57 57 57 57 57 57 PELW 2012 39
  40. 40. 10 Hour Shift: Holland Michigan M T W T F S S1 X X X2 X X X% 50 50 50 100 50 50 50 PELW 2012 40
  41. 41. 10 hours unequal by day of week M T W T F S S1 X X X2 X X X3 X X X4 X X X5 X X X% 60 60 60 60 60 60 40 PELW 2012 41
  42. 42. 424/11 Plan•Two Teams M T W T F S S•Several Start Times and 1 X X X XOverlap 2 X X X X•38.5 AWW 3 X X X X•Training Days 4 X X X X 5 X X X 6 X X X 7 X X X 8 X X X % 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 PELW 2012
  43. 43. 12 Hour Schedule M T W T F S S1 D D X X D D D2 X X D D X X X3 N N X X N N N4 X X N N X X X% 50** 50 50 50 50 50 50 PELW 2012 43
  44. 44. 8 vs. 10 vs. 12 12 10 8Work days 182 218 273Days Off 182 146 91Potential 26 21 13weekends off% holidays 50% 60% 75%worked PELW 2012 44
  45. 45. 45 How about staffing.• 10 hour shifts result in overlaps in 24 hour coverage. You are providing 30 hours of coverage a day! – May be inefficient – Will be costly• 8 and 12 hour shifts are nominally the same for coverage – Three shifts of 30 officer- 2/3 on each day= 60 – Two Shifts of forty five- ½ on each day 45 for 12 hours is the same 60 – Each officer works 1.5 days PELW 2012
  46. 46. PELW 2012 46
  47. 47. Minimum Staffing and Ten Hour Shifts• Of particular concern is the combination of ten hour shifts and minimum staffing.• Consider the more traditional eight hour shift. 71% of personnel are assigned to work each day. PELW 2012 47
  48. 48. 48 From 8 to 10 Hours• There are three squads-each with seven officers.• Minimum staffing is four per shift• In the 5-2 (8 hour schedule) each day 5 are assigned, so it is likely that at least 4 will be there.• The department switches to 10 hour days but maintains the same minimum staffing level.• In the 4-10 plan only 4 of the 7 are assigned each day-any absence will require a hire-back, and that may be a 10 hour hire back. PELW 2012
  49. 49. 49PELW 2012
  50. 50. 50RPD Overtime Costs 2004-2009 PELW 2012
  51. 51. 51 Attributes of 12 hour shifts• Average work week is 42 hours• Longest workweek 48 hours• Fewer shift changes• HR policies must be changed• Absence management can be tough• Fatigue PELW 2012
  52. 52. 52 Schedules and Fatigue• Lots of concern about fatigue among shift workers and others• Fatigue can lead to officer injury, accidents, and citizen complaints. It may impair judgment.• It is still hard to make strong, reliable statements about schedule and fatigue. PELW 2012
  53. 53. 53 Here is what we know!• Officers on 10 and 12 hour shifts report less fatigue.• Fatigue is worse for older officers• Officers with small children reported more fatigue• Long commutes contribute to fatigue• Officers with regular hours (limited overtime and special assignments) reported less fatigue. PELW 2012
  54. 54. 54 What does this all mean?• Fatigue is more related to what officers do on their off-duty time than their work schedule!• What to do: – Look at policy and work schedule focusing on off duty time. – Let officers participate in work schedule process – Integrate discussion of fatigue with other wellness and safety discussions. PELW 2012
  55. 55. 55 Police Foundation Study– Compared 8, 10, and 12 hour shifts– No difference in performance– No impact on health– 10 hour shift=more sleep and higher quality of life– No examination of deployment PELW 2012
  56. 56. 56 Some Concluding Thoughts• Policing is a labor-intensive activity• Budget cuts will almost always result in fewer people• Watch overtime and other structural costs• Pay attention to benefits• Don’t insist that fewer people will lead to Armageddon! PELW 2012
  57. 57. 57 Contact• Alexander Weiss – alexanderweiss@ymail.com – 847-332-1160 – 847-644-3930 (mobile) PELW 2012

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