Police executive workshop icjia september 2012 leadership
Police Executive Workshop onLeadership and Accountability ILLINOIS CRIMINAL JUSTICE INFORMATION AUTHORITY
“The police at all times should maintain arelationship with the public that gives reality to thehistoric tradition that the police are the public and that the public are the police” Sir Robert V. Peel, c.1829 Founder, London Metro Police Dept.
LEADERSHIP“If you have positive energy, communicate the why, and possess the right attitude, ANYTHING is possible” Willie F. Carden Jr.
WATER WORKSTUNNELING UNDER THE RIVER 1896- 1899
CHARACTERISTICS OF LEADERSHIP1. People Skills2. Communication Skills3. Organization Skills4. Motivation5. Patience6. Courage7. Serenity8. Wisdom -Willie F. Carden Jr., Director CPD However, a police leader must make clear that the department is not intended tobe a microcosm of society. The bigotry, brutality, corruption, and incompetence inthe society at large are among the very facts that compel the department to liveup to higher standards (Delattre, 2002).”
LEADERSHIP“Leaders win through logistics. Vision, sure. Strategy, yes. But when you go to war, you need both toilet paper and bullets at the right place at the right time.” Tom Peters
Leadership and the Theory of Community Oriented PolicingPartnerships or Relationships? - Hurtt, 2011 For the police it is an entirely different way of life. It is a new way for the police officers to see themselves and to understand their role in society. The task facing the police chief is nothing less than to change the fundamental culture of the organization. -Malcolm Sparrow, Detective Chief Inspector, UK police service, 1989
DECISION MAKINGRight Does Not Always Equal Popular
REALLY? ARE YOU SERIOUS? I JUST GOT BACK FROMCHICAGO AND THE PERF CONFERENCE!
THE POWER OF INFLUENCE AND THE NEED TO KNOW MY PERSONAL HISTORY! Who must assume responsibility for the department? What is my role as a leader? When is the right time to make the right decision? Where should I look for guidance? Why is my oath of office important? THE NATURE OF SECOND-GUESSING! AM I REALLY A LEADER? I didn’t ask for this! Nobody told me this would happen! Why me? Where did I fail? Why not someone else?
“A person or an institution should not be preoccupied with public image. Inordinate concern for it can lead to indifference about how well we are actually doing. Public opinion may be uninformed and irrational and may be manipulated by demagogues…Cowards betray their obligations and forsake other people because they are inordinately concerned about their own survival, be it physical of occupational. They do not rise to their duties, because they fear the consequences. Failure to control fear, rather than fear itself, makes them cowards.” Delattre, 2002 Character and Cops
EFFECTS OF ECONOMIC CRISIS ON POLICING IN AMERICA? By end of 2012, US LE agencies will have: Laid off 12,000 police officers Left 20,000 positions unfilled 100,000+ officers will have been furloughed at least 4 days.Even if the economy recovered today, local economies could not support a demand to maintain the status quo! PERF 2011
EFFECTS OF ECONOMIC CRISIS ON OUR WORLD AS WE KNOW IT TODAY!Greater reliance on technologyGreater reliance on volunteersAlternative delivery of servicesRegionalization & Consolidation Bernard Melekian MCC/IACP 2011
LEADERSHIP AND THE FUTURE OF YOUR REGION Our Role as Police Officers Our Role as Ambassadors Our Role as a City Our Role as an Entire Region Our Role as a State Our Role as the United States of America“A police leader must make clear that the department is not intended to be a microcosm of society. The bigotry, brutality, corruption, and incompetence in the society at large are among the very facts that compel the department to live up to higher standards.” Delattre, 2002
RISK MANAGEMENT IN LAWENFORCEMENT Successful law enforcement organizations operate under the premise that we can: Reduce the risk of injuries to our employees and our citizens. Address errors that have a negative effect on our limited resources. Deter intentional misconduct that has a direct impact on our entire community. Change the underlying organizational causes that have allowed a cultural permissiveness to exist. ACCOUNTABILITY is a fundamental principle of a democratic society that the police should be held to account for their actions. 25
A NEW PROFESSIONALISMAcross the United States, police organizations are striving for a new professionalism. Their leaders are committing themselves to stricter Accountability - for both their effectiveness and conduct Legitimacy - in the eyes of those they police Innovation - that is continuous in police practices National Coherence - in adherence to best practices …together they provide an account of developments in policing during the last 20 years that distinguishes the policing of the present era from that of 30, 50 or 100 years ago. - Stone & Travis in NIJ, 2011
RISK MANAGEMENT IN LAW ENFORCEMENTBenefits of On-Body Recording Systems in Law Enforcement1 2 3Evidence and Training and Employee Enhanced AccountabilityDataCollection + Intervention Employee = Ultimate goal of any policeand Preservation accountability administrator Legal accountability 27
RISK MANAGEMENT IN LAW ENFORCEMENT 28Shooting in Fort Smith Arkansas
EVIDENCE IDENTIFICATION, DATA COLLECTION, AND PRESERVATIONEvidence and Data RecordingAll law enforcement agencies – and all lawenforcement officers – have an ethical,legal and moral obligation to identify,collect and preserve the best evidence ofeach encounter between an officer andany member of the public that may result insome type of police intervention.Recorded data provides the agency with specific reference pointsand an unprecedented opportunity for academic research. 29
EVIDENCE AND DATA COLLECTION AND PRESERVATIONSystematic Collection and Analysis of Data “The overall strategy of any police administrator should be to develop a fact-based picture of officer activity for the purpose of identifying recurring problems that merit corrective action. The strategy of collecting and using systematic data for purposes of organizational improvement and improving the delivery of social services is increasingly used in other professions: medicine, private enterprise, and other governmental agencies… systematic data collection embraces the principles of problem-oriented policing.” – Walker, 2005 30
EVIDENCE AND DATA COLLECTION AND PRESERVATIONWhen Memory Commits an Injustice “The biggest lie of human memory is that it feels true. Although our recollections seem like literal snapshots of the past, they’re actually deeply flawed reconstructions, a set of stories constantly undergoing rewrites. Consider our collective memories of 9/11. For the last 10 years, researchers led by William Hirst of the New School and Elizabeth Phelps of New York University have been tracking the steady decay of what people recall about the tragic event… after 1 year 37% of details had changed.” - New York Times, 2012 31
EVIDENCE AND DATA COLLECTION AND PRESERVATIONThe More You Remember an Event, the Less Reliable the Memory Becomes! Eyewitnesses are repeatedly asked to recall what they saw, but their answers are inevitably influenced by the questions being asked. The result is more confidence in increasingly less accurate testimony. According to the Innocence Project… about 75% of false convictions that are later overturned are based on faulty eyewitness testimony. - New York Times, 2012 32
TRAINING AND EMPLOYEE INTERVENTION SYSTEMSEnhanced Ability to Identify Potential Problems Command officers and supervisors can use comprehensive data about agency and officer performance to identify management problems that are likely to lead to misconduct by individual officers. “Supervisor feedback may help reduce role and performance ambiguity among employees, assisting them in correcting performance deficiencies to better meet expectations.” PERF, 2012; Komaki, 1986 34
TRAINING AND EMPLOYEEINTERVENTION SYSTEMSAn on-body recording system has the potential to assist agencies in correcting performance problems and – more importantly – to detect and reward excellent police performance. These systems can vastly improve police performance evaluations through fact-based recordings of officer performance versus the traditional subjective assessments that involve vague categories such as “works well with people or supports department rules.” 35
A Positive Impact on Department Culture Using on-body recording systems in law enforcement agencies has the potential to change the culture of a department as a whole by altering both the formal and informal norms of the organization with respect to accountability. Police discretion can be limited when this technology is combined with effective supervisory practices and policies that mandate defined police action where specific conditions warrant police intervention Employing on-body recording equipment reflects a serious effort to correct performance problems – particularly in police departments where inappropriate behavior has been pervasive and tolerated. 38
ENHANCED ACCOUNTABILITY AVERAGE QWork Force Management 2-5% 5-15% 0 Q 39
ENHANCED ACCOUNTABILITY The potential ofTrue Reform Calls for using on-bodyDay-to-Day Accountability recording systems to enhanceOne of the great failures accountability lies inof many past police reforms their capacity tois that they did not reach penetrate policedeep into the working norms operations bythat shape day-to-day capturing the behavioroperations. of officers on the street. 40
ENHANCED ACCOUNTABILITYCulture of the Organization Peers Conduct and Performance 41
ENHANCED ACCOUNTABILITYTransforming the Role of Frontline Supervision On-Body Recording systems: Creates a new standard of intensive supervision. Provides a fact-based, readily accessible database for assessing officer performance and accountability. Emphasizes proactive supervision by identifying potential problems for early intervention. 42
ENHANCED ACCOUNTABILITY“It can’t happen here!” Let me tell you a tale of two cities. 43
WHAT ABOUT THOSE GUYS IN THE TUNNEL? Still in use today! 100+ years – Whodathunkit? Recognize the potential effects of your effortsBe a great leader by convincing others that everything you do today is important?
QUESTIONS AND ANSWERSCOMMENTS? Please share your questions,QUESTIONS? comments and concerns.ANSWERS? 48