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Editorial Integrity Conflict of Interest COPE London March 09
 

Editorial Integrity Conflict of Interest COPE London March 09

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Editor's perspective on maintaining the integrity and scientific validity of publication. Threats to integrity, financial conflicts of interest, relationships between editor and journal owners ...

Editor's perspective on maintaining the integrity and scientific validity of publication. Threats to integrity, financial conflicts of interest, relationships between editor and journal owners (companies, professional societies)
Presented March 09, COPE, London, UK

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    Editorial Integrity Conflict of Interest COPE London March 09 Editorial Integrity Conflict of Interest COPE London March 09 Presentation Transcript

    • Mischief, Malfeasance and Incompetence: The editor’s enemies John Hoey COPE Seminar 2009 London johnhoeymd@gmail.com slideshare
    • COPE Code of Conduct General duties and responsibilities of Editors Be responsible for everything published in their journals. • Strive to meet the needs of readers and authors • constantly improve the journal • Ensure the quality of the material they publish • champion freedom of expression • Maintain the integrity of the academic record • Preclude business needs from compromising intellectual standards • always be willing to publish corrections, clarifications, retractions and apologies when needed.
    • COPE Code of Conduct General duties and responsibilities of Editors Be responsible for everything published in their journals. • Strive to meet the needs of readers and authors • constantly improve the journal • Ensure the quality of the material they publish • champion freedom of expression • Maintain the integrity of the academic record • Preclude business needs from compromising intellectual standards • always be willing to publish corrections, clarifications, retractions and apologies when needed.
    • Maintaining the Integrity of the Scientific Record.......why? • Ethics - Nuremburg Trials - Helsinki Decl. • Harm to patients and the public • Physical harm • Financial harm
    • Ethical Basis Nuremberg - Helsinki • research funding orgs • ICMJE • WAME • COPE
    • Ethical Basis “Both authors and publishers have ethical obligations. Nuremberg - Helsinki In publication of the results of research, the investigators are obliged to preserve the • research accuracy of the results. funding orgs Negative as well as positive results should be published or otherwise publicly available. • ICMJE Sources of funding, institutional afiliations • WAME and any possible conflicts of interest should be declared in the publication. • COPE Reports of experimentation not in accordance with the principles laid down in this Declaration should not be accepted for publication.”
    • Small Journals Ensure Quality/Integrity? • Relationships with journal owners • Threats to quality/integrity from authors
    • Authors Research Sponsors/ Journal Owners advertisers Readers
    • Authors Research Sponsors/ Journal Owners advertisers Ideological political self-interest .... Readers
    • Authors $£ Research Sponsors/ Journal Owners advertisers Readers
    • Authors Research Sponsors/ Journal Owners advertisers Readers
    • Authors Research Sponsors/ Journal Owners advertisers Readers
    • Authors Research Sponsors/ Journal Owners advertisers Readers
    • Authors Research Sponsors/ Journal Owners advertisers Readers
    • Authors Research Sponsors/ Journal Owners advertisers Readers
    • Authors Research Sponsors/ Journal Owners advertisers Readers
    • $ Journal Owners Revenue - Expenses = Break Even or Profit Targets
    • $ Journal Owners Revenue - Expenses = Break Even or Profit Targets Revenue -subscriptions -advertising (requires readers) -author charges -reprints -supplements -special issues etc.
    • $ Journal Owners Revenue - Expenses = Break Even or Profit Targets Expenses Revenue -editorial salary costs -subscriptions -technical editing -advertising (requires readers) -distribution -author charges -reprints -supplements -special issues etc.
    • Publisher/Editor Business needs compromise editorial standards • Explicit contract • Helsinki Declaration • WAME/ICMJE • Publisher goals • Disclosure of contract • Disclosure of editorial & publisher Conflicts of interest
    • Collaborative Open Source Software (Open Journal Systems - OJS) No author charges No pharmaceutical advertsing
    • COPE Code of Conduct General duties and responsibilities of Editors Be responsible for everything published in their journals. • Strive to meet the needs of readers and authors • constantly improve the journal • Ensure the quality of the material they publish • champion freedom of expression • Maintain the integrity of the academic record • Preclude business needs from compromising intellectual standards • always be willing to publish corrections, clarifications, retractions and apologies when needed.
    • Quality threats $$ Conflict of Interest Incompetence/ Carelessness
    • What does an Editor do? Soliciting papers Peer review Editorial decisions Editing Substantive Technical On-line and print layout Etc. Etc. Etc... Photo by CAM MAN www.flickr.com/people/pcasey/
    • Letters and obituaries editor Research papers editors Deputy managing editor Sharon Davies Kristina Fister Lucy Banham email Douglas Kamerow BMJ Editorial Staff email email T:+44 (0)20 7383 6716 email T:+44 (0)20 7383 6365 Trish Groves Observations and reviews editor Editor in chief PA to editor in chief Career Focus email Technical editors Trevor Jackson Fiona Godlee Julia Burrell Edward Davies Jackie Annis email email email email Elizabeth Loder email T:+44 (0)20 7383 6677 T:+44 (0)20 7383 6102 T: + 44(0)20 7383 6102 T: + 44 (0) 20 7383 6562 email T:+44 (0)20 7383 6658 Departmental administrator Deputy editors Christopher Martyn Maggie Butler studentBMJ Roger Robinson editorial registrar Chelsey White Jane Smith email email Jessie Colquhoun Helen Macdonald email T:+44 (0)20 7383 6074 email email studenteditor@bmj.com T:+44 (0)20 7383 6109 Alison Tonks T:+44 (0)20 7383 6009 T: + 44 (0)20 7 874 7022 T: +44 (0)20 7874 7016 email Sally Carter email Senior researcher Tony Delamothe Visiting editors T:+44 (0)20 7383 6659 Primary care editor Sara Schroter email Jennifer Leaning (USA) Benchpress database manager Domhnall MacAuley email T: +44 (0) 20 7383 6006 Ray Moynihan (USA) Gary Bryan email Margaret Cooter T: +44 (0)20 7383 6744 email Joanne Roberts (USA) email Trish Groves T:+44 (0)20 7383 6304 Charlie Wilson (USA) T:+44 (0)20 7383 6657 Patient editor News editors email Peter Lapsley Annabel Ferriman T:+44 (0)20 7383 6018 Benchpress administrator Editorial advisers email email Greg Cotton Sue Minns Steven Reid T: 44 (0)20 7383 6035 email email Magazine editor Ian Maconochie T:+44 (0)20 7383 6685 Web team T:+44 (0)20 7383 6309 Trevor Jackson Editor bmj.com Peter Leman Zosia Kmietowicz email David Payne email Clare Griffith Nick Dunn Chief production editor T:+44 (0)20 7383 6677 email email Frank Sullivan John Mayor T: +44 (0)20 7383 6051 Features editors Pippa Oakeshott email Assistant editor, bmj.com Deborah Cohen bmj.com editor Aziz Sheikh T:+44 (0)20 7383 6355 Birte Twisselmann Richard Hurley email David Payne Lucy Chappell email email T: +44 (0)20 7383 6183 email Christopher Whitty Assistant production editor T: +44 (0)20 7383 6720 T: + 44 (0)20 7383 6051 T:+44 (0)20 7383 6532 Scott Murray Edwyn Mayhew Rebecca Coombes email Julia Hippisley-Cox Print journal team Elizabeth Payne email Editorials editor T:+44 (0)20 7383 6145 Josip Car Magazine editor email T: +44 (0)20 7383 6243 Giselle Jones Robin Fox Trevor Jackson T: + 44 (0)20 7383 6449 Production editor Sue Morgan email Clinical reviews editor Jett Aislabie Karl Sharrock Kirsten Patrick email Designer Statistical advisers email email T:+44 (0)20 7874 7014 Jane Walker T:+44 (0)20 7383 6658 Doug Altman email Tim Cole Practice editor Malcolm Brown (maternity cover) Barbara Squire Mabel Chew Hazel Inskip T:+44 (0)20 7874 7014 Senior art worker email email Julie Morris Adam di Chiara T:+44 (0)20 7383 6658 Deborah Ashby Illustrator email Analysis editor Jon Deek Anthea Wilkie Julia Thompson Tessa Richards email Picture editor email email T:+44 (0)1737 215143 Vanessa Fletcher T:+44 (0)20 7383 6691 T: +44 (0) 20 7383 61 email Copyright administrator email
    • EDITOR-in-CHIEF M.H Bagheri, MD DEPUTY EDITOR B Astaneh, MD EDITORIAL BOARD Editor  B Aarabi, MD  M Razeghinejad, MD  David Bevan MB  M.A Aboulghar, MD Toronto  G.H Shahcheragi, MD  A Alborzi, MD  T Tulandi, MD  M Askarian, MD  F Zand, MD  A Anand,  PhD  A Banani, MD   EDITORIAL ASSISTANTS  Z Mostafavi Pour, PhD  Z Barzin, Msc  A.R Nikseresht, MD  F Jalalat  M.R Panjehshahin, PhD  M Keshmiri, Bsc  M.E Parsanezhad, MD  Z Safa, Bsc  F Peyvandi, MD PhD  M Rabiee
    • Reporting Bias Kay Dickersin, Reporting and other biases in studies of Neurontin for migraine, psychiatric/bipolar disorders, nociceptive pain, and neuropathic pain. August, 2008 http://dida.library.ucsf.edu/pdf/oxx18r10
    • Some definitions • Positive= Study shows results favourable to the intersts of the author/sponsor. Usually statistically significant. • Negative = Study shows results unfavourable to the interest of the the author/sponsor - may or may not be statisticaly significant.
    • Reporting Biases Malfeasance or Incompetence? • Non-publication of negative or neutral results • Selective publication of results - outcome bias • Multiple publication bias • Language bias - and publishing in the grey literature • Time lag bias • Undeclared conflicts of interest • Dickersin Ghost writing
    • Selective publication - Outcome bias publishing the more interesting (usually positive) result Was there an hypothesis? A plan for analysis and reporting of data? In an RCT, this is the primary outcome
    • Selective publication - Outcome bias (publishing the more interesting result) 48 trials 1402 outcomes 31% - 59% incompletely reported (40% not reported at all) Chan, A.-W. et al. CMAJ 2004;171:735-740
    • Selective publication - Outcome bias (publishing the more interesting result)
    • Selective publication - Outcome bias (publishing the more interesting result)
    • Selective publication - Outcome bias (publishing the more interesting result) Interpretation: Intensive multitherapy for patients with poorly controlled type 2 diabetes is successful in helping patients meet most of the goals set by a national diabetes association. However, 6 months after intensive therapy stopped and patients returned to usual care the benefits had vanished,
    • Selective publication - Outcome bias (publishing the more interesting result) Interpretation: Intensive multitherapy for patients with poorly controlled type 2 diabetes is successful in helping patients meet most of the goals set by a national diabetes association. However, 6 months after intensive therapy stopped and patients returned to usual care the benefits had vanished, However, 6 months after intensive therapy stopped and patients returned to usual care the benefits had vanished.
    • Neurontin (gabapentin) images from Wikipedia
    • P Wessely, C Baumgartner, D Klinger, J Kreczi, N … - Cephalalgia, 1987 Bias Example Publication Final negative primary results not published, only positive preliminary results Selective outcome Outcome reported was not primary or secondary reporting outcome Selective statistical 2 nonrandomized patients assigned to neurotin analyses were include with those randomized Spin Emphasis on “positive” outcomes
    • 16 Citations P Wessely, C Baumgartner, D Klinger, J Kreczi, N … - Cephalalgia, 1987 Does it matter? General Principles of Migraine Management: The Changing Role of Prevention Practice parameter: Evidence-based E Loder, D Biondi - Headache: The Journal of Head and Face guidelines for migraine headache (an Pain, 2005 - Blackwell Synergy Preventive treatment of evidence-based review) migraine - SD Silberstein - Trends in Pharmacological Sciences, 2006 - Stephen D. Silberstein, MD, FACP, for the US Elsevier Headache Consortium* Migraine prevention Neurology 2000;55:754-762 DW Dodick, SD Silberstein - British Medical Journal, 2007 - pn.bmj.com Neuromodulators for Migraine Prevention R Kaniecki - Headache: The Journal of Head and Face Pain, 2008 - Blackwell Synergy
    • So what? “Using data on the estimated level of spending on allegedly fraudulent promotion, I am able to quantify this impact in terms of prescriptions for specific off-label uses and high-dose prescriptions. 43 million In total, I find that there were off-label prescriptions of Neurontin as a result of the ... promotional activities related to the off-label uses ... that would not have occurred absent the challenged conduct.” Meredith Rosenthal http://dida.library.ucsf.edu/pdf/oxx18r10
    • Editorial strategies? Soliciting papers Peer review Editorial decisions Editing Substantive Technical On-line and print layout Etc. Etc. Etc...
    • Science is complex
    • • Author checklists • Financial conflicts of interest • Study design and reporting requirements
    • Conflict of Interests - Is disclosure enough? Who was responsible for? • Study • design • data collection • analysis • write up • decision to publish • etc
    • 1109 Canadian clinicaltrials.gov 732 investigators 11 ideal practices to mitigate fCOI - control over design - data collection - analysis - interpretation -write up -authorship -decision to publish -etc. 6% of investigators met all ideal practices Rochon P, et al. - submitted
    • Financial Conflict of Interest Checklist Rochon P., et al - submitted recently
    • Financial Conflict of Interest Checklist Rochon P., et al - submitted recently
    • Reporting Guidelines Consort - RCTs Quorum - Systematic reviews Moose - Meta-analyses Stard - Diagnositic tests Grade - Clinical guidelines Strobe - Observational studies etc. (~160) www.equator-network.org
    • Publisher/Editor Author/Editor • Explicit contract • Aim for quality • Helsinki Declaration • Publish less • WAME/ICMJE • Author guidelines/instructions • Publisher goals • Use reporting guidelines • Disclosure of contract • Require authors use them • Disclosure of editorial & • Use checklists with publisher Conflicts of submissions interest
    • American College of Physicians (Annals Intern Med American Medical Association JAMA Mass. Medical Society New Engl J Medicine Croatian Medical Schools Croatian Medical Journal Thank you