Curriculum Development


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Educational Preview of Curriculum

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Curriculum Development

  1. 1. RECOMMENDED CURRICULUM  Proposed by scholars and professional organizations.  May come from DepEd, CHED, DOST or any organization who has a take on education.
  2. 2. WRITTEN CURRICULUM  Appears in state and locally produced documents such as state standards, district curriculum guides, course of study or syllabi handed down to schools for implementation.  Mostly made by curriculum experts with the participations of teachers.  Ex: Basic Education Curriculum (BEC), written lesson plan
  3. 3. TAUGHT CURRICULUM  What the teachers implement or deliver in the classrooms.  Refers to the different planned activities which are put into action in the classroom.  Varies according to the learning styles of students and teaching styles of teachers.
  4. 4. SUPPORTED CURRICULUM  Refers to resources that support or help in the implementation of the curriculum.  Includes material resources such as textbooks, computers, audio-visual materials, laboratory equipment, playground, zoos and other facilities.
  5. 5. ASSESSED CURRICULUM  Refers to a tested or evaluated curriculum.  Series of evaluation are being done by teachers to determine the extent of teaching or if the students are progressing.  Ex. Pencil-and paper test, state test, district tests
  6. 6. LEARNED CURRICULUM  Is the bottom-line curriculum – the curriculum that students actually learn.  Refers to the learning outcomes achieved by the students.  Indicated by the results of the tests and changes in behavior – cognitive, affective, psychomotor.
  7. 7. HIDDEN CURRICULUM  Is the unintended curriculum.  Is not deliberately planned but may modify behavior or influence learning outcomes.  Factors: school environment, physical condition, peer influence, teacher- learner interaction, mood of teachers, etc.
  8. 8. Major Foundations of Curriculum  The most commonly accepted foundations of curriculum include:  1. Philosophical  2. Historical  3. Psychological  4. Social
  9. 9. Major Foundations of Curriculum  Philosophical Foundations of Curriculum Philosophy provides educators, teachers, and curriculum makers with framework for planning, implementing, and evaluating curriculum in schools. It helps in answering what schools are for, what subjects are important, how students should learn and what materials and methods should be used. In decision making, philosophy provides the starting point and will be used for the succeeding decision making.
  10. 10.  Tyler’s View of Philosophy in Relation to School Purposes School Purposes Suggestions from Subject Specialists Studies of Learners Studies of Contemporary Life Use of Philosophy Use of Psychology of Learning
  11. 11. Major Foundations of Curriculum  Historical Foundations of Curriculum Curriculum is not an old field. Majority of scholars would place its beginning In 1918 with the publication of Franklin Bobbit’s book The Curriculum. Philippine education came about from various foreign influences. Of all foreign educational systems, the American educational system has the greatest influence on our educational system.
  12. 12. Major Foundations of Curriculum  Curriculum theorists and how they view curriculum from a historical perspective.  1. Franklin Bobbit (1876–1956) - he presented curriculum as a science that emphasizes on student’s need. Curriculum prepares students for adult life. To Bobbit, objectives with corresponding activities should be grouped and sequenced. This can only be done if instructional objectives are clarified.
  13. 13. Major Foundations of Curriculum  2. Werret Charters (1875-1952) – to him, curriculum is a science. It gives emphasis on student’s needs. The listing of objectives and matching these with corresponding activities ensures that the content or subject matter is related to objectives.  The subject matter and the activities are planned by the teacher.
  14. 14. Major Foundations of Curriculum  3. William Kilpatrick (1871-1965) – Curricula are purposeful activities which are child centered. The purpose of curriculum is child development and growth. He introduced the project method where teacher and student plan the activities  4. Harold Rugg (1886-1960) –to him, curriculum should develop the whole child. It is child-centered and should produce outcomes. He also emphasized social studies and the teacher plans curriculum in advance.
  15. 15. Major Foundations of Curriculum  5. Hollis Caswell (1901-1989) – he sees curriculum as organized around social functions of themes, organized knowledge and learner’s interest. He believes that curriculum is a set of experiences. Subject matter is developed around social functions and learner’s interests.
  16. 16. Major Foundations of Curriculum  6. Ralph Tyler (1902-1994) – he believes that curriculum is a science and an extension of school’s philosophy. It is based on student’s needs and interest. To him, curriculum is always related to instruction. Subject matter is organized in terms of knowledge, skills and values. The process emphasizes problem solving. The curriculum aims to educate generalists and not specialists.
  17. 17. Major Foundations of Curriculum – Psychological Foundations of Curriculum)  Psychology provides a basis for the teaching and learning process.  1. Behaviorist Psychology  a. connectionism – Edward Thorndike (which influenced Tyler and Taba, the well known curricularists)  b. classical conditioning – Ivan Pavlov  c. operant conditioning – B. F. Skinner
  18. 18. Major Foundations of Curriculum  d. modeling and observation theory – (Bandura)  e. hierarchical learning – Robert Gagne  To the behaviorists, learning should be organized in order that students can experience success in the process of mastering the subject matter.
  19. 19. Major Foundations of Curriculum  2. Cognitive Psychology  a. cognitive development stages – Jean Piaget  b. social constructivism – Lev Vgotsky  c. multiple intelligences – Howard Gardner  d. learning styles – Felder and Silverman  e. emotional intelligences – Daniel Goleman
  20. 20. Major Foundations of Curriculum  To the cognitive theorists, learning:  - constitutes a logical method for organizing and interpreting learning.  - it is rooted in the tradition of subject matter and is similar to the cognitive development theory.
  21. 21. Major Foundations of Curriculum  3. Humanistic Psychology Humanist psychologist are concerned with how learners can develop their human potential.  a. Gestalt theory  b. theory of human needs and for self actualizing persons - Maslow  c. Carl Roger’s non directive lives
  22. 22. Major Foundations of Curriculum  Social Foundations of Education Schools exist within the social context. In considering the social foundations of curriculum, we must recognize that schools are the only one of the many institutions that educate society. The home, the family, community likewise educate the people in the society. But schools are formal institutions that address more complex and interrelated societies and the world.
  23. 23. Curriculum Development in the Philippines
  24. 24. Curriculum Development in the Philippines • Curriculum development in the Philippines touched on the religion, political, economic, and social influences and events that took place in the country. • Colonial rule in the Philippines tailored the curriculum to serve colonial goals and objectives.
  25. 25. Curriculum Development in the Philippines • The Pre-Spanish Curriculum • The Spanish-devised Curriculum • The American-devised Curriculum • The Curriculum During the Commonwealth • The Japanese-devised Curriculum
  26. 26. Curriculum Development in the Philippines • The Curriculum During the Liberation Period • The Curriculum During the Philippine Republic • Curriculum in The New Society Education
  27. 27. The Pre-Spanish Curriculum • The Filipino possessed a culture of their own. • They had contacts with other foreign peoples from Arabia, India, China, Indo- China and Borneo. • “The inhabitants were a civilized people, possessing their systems of writing, laws and moral standards in a well-organized system of government.
  28. 28. The Pre-Spanish Curriculum • As shown in the rule of the barangay, their code of laws-the Code of Kalantiao and Maragtas-their belief in the Bathala, and the solidarity of the family were obedience and respect had been practiced.
  29. 29. The Spanish-devised Curriculum • The Spanish missionaries aim to control of the Filipinos, body and soul. • The curriculum then consisted of the three R’s-reading, writing and religion to attain goals were the acceptance of Catholicism and the acceptance of Spanish rule.
  30. 30. The Spanish-devised Curriculum • The schools were parochial or convent schools. • The main reading materials were the cartilla, the caton and the catecismo. • The method of instructions was mainly individual memorization.
  31. 31. The American-devised Curriculum • The motive of the American was conquering the Filipinos not only physically but also intellectually. • The curriculum was based on the ideals and traditions of America and her hierarchy of values. • English was the medium of instruction.
  32. 32. The American-devised Curriculum • The primary curriculum prescribed for the Filipinos consisted of three grades which provides training in two aspects. (1) body training-physical education (2) Mental training-English, nature study, and arithmetic.
  33. 33. The Curriculum During the Commonwealth • The period of the Commonwealth (1935-1946) may be considered as the period of expansion and reform in the Philippine curriculum. • The educational leaders expanded the curriculum by introducing course in farming, domestic science, etc.
  34. 34. The Curriculum During the Commonwealth • Commonwealth Act 586, also known as Educational Act of 1940, reorganized the elementary school system. • This measured ushered the beginning of the decline of the efficiency of elementary education.
  35. 35. The Japanese-devised Curriculum • They devised the curriculum for the Filipino to suit their vested interest. • They introduced many changes in the curriculum by including Nippongo and abolishing English as a medium of instruction and as a subject.
  36. 36. The Japanese-devised Curriculum • All textbooks were censored and revised. • It cause a blackout in Philippines education and impeded the educational progress of the Filipinos.
  37. 37. The Curriculum During the Liberation Period • In 1945, during the liberation period, steps were taken to improve the curriculum existing before the war. Some steps taken were to restore Grade VII, to abolish the double-single session and most especially, to adopt the modern trends in education taken from the United States. • The school curriculum remained basically the same as before and was still subject- centered.
  38. 38. The Curriculum During the Philippine Republic • Great experiments in the community school idea and the use vernacular in the first two grades of the primary schools as the medium of instruction were some of them.
  39. 39. The Curriculum During the Philippine Republic • An experiment worth mentioning that led to a change in the Philippine educational philosophy was that of school and community collaboration pioneered by Jose V. Aguilar. • It is a source of gratification also to note that our schools are increasingly using instructional materials that are Philippine- oriented.
  40. 40. The Curriculum During the Philippine Republic • This policy been formulated by our educational leaders, the most recent example of which being Department Memorandum No. 30, 1966. • This particular memorandum sets the order of priority in the purchase of books for use in our schools as follows:
  41. 41. The Curriculum During the Philippine Republic • Books which are contributions to Philippine Literature. • Books on character education and other library materials. • Library equipment and permanent features.
  42. 42. Community in The New Society • “To guarantee that the educational system would be relevant and responsive to the challenges and requirements of national, provincial and local development.” • President Ferdinand Marcos pursuant to Proclamation No. 1081 issued last Sept. 29, 1972, Decree No. 6 known as the Educational Development Decree of 1972, to take effect immediately.
  43. 43. Community in The New Society • To advance its objectives, the Educational Development Decree has formulated a ten-year program based on a number of principle, among them: improvement of curricular programs and quality of instruction at all levels by upgrading physical facilities; adopting cost-saving instructional technology and training and retaining of teachers and administrators; upgrading of academic standards …….
  44. 44. Community in The New Society ……… standards through accreditation schemes, admissions testing and guidance counseling; and democratization of access to education by financial assistance to poor but deserving students, skills training programs for out of school youth and a continuing educational program for illiterate adults.
  45. 45. Community in The New Society • The emphasis of the New Society are on moral values, relevance, proper methods of teaching, retraining of teachers, vocational an technical education, bilingualism, national consciousness and cultural values.
  46. 46. Community in The New Society The curricular redirection of the New Society: • Should be redirected on development of moral virtues • As a means of integrating education and life • Should reflect the urgent need and problems facing the country today
  47. 47. Community in The New Society • Should be viewed in terms of learnings to be acquired • All teaching shall seek to develop comprehensive under-standing of all subjects • Co-curricular youth programs shall be restructured and enriched • Non-formal education shall be recognized