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  1. 1. EDUCATION SERVICE CENTER REGION 2 Teaching Vocabulary An Effective Use of Instructional Time Corpus Christi, TX April 6, 2009 Time—measured in just minutes—spent on vocabulary instruction correlates with growth in reading comprehension MAKING ACADEMIC ENGLISH – Stahl & Fairbanks, 1986 (a meta-analysis of vocabulary studies at varying grade levels) MORE ACCESSIBLE Susan M. Ebbers susan@readingway.com www.readingway.com Ebbers, 2009 2 Big Ideas for Developing Vocabulary Get a Grip on Learning Get a Grip on Academic Texts• Verbalize Words – enunciate, discuss Academic Words• Relate Words Morphologically – build networks Complex Words• Enjoy Words – overcome apathy, intimidation Ebbers, 2009 3 Ebbers, 2009 4 Morphologically Complex Words Academic Words Morpheme: The smallest unit of meaning in a word unlocking has 3 morphemes: un-lock-ing• Used primarily in school or other formal settings biographers has 4 morphemes: bio-graph-er-s – Students from disadvantaged backgrounds are less likely to hear this language at home Common Morphemes: • low SES word root: inspector, phonics • non-English (or non-standard English) • less exposure to those with post-secondary education base word: unlikely light house prefix: re-, un-, dis- suffix: -able, -ive, -ly } affixes Ebbers, 2009 5 Ebbers, 2009 6 1
  2. 2. derivation Unveiling •A word formed from an existing word, root, or Academic affix, having a derivational suffix English via Morphology tract (Latin root, meaning to pull) •tractor, traction, attractive, intractable, etc.morphology •The study of the structure of words as it relates to meaning. It is structural analysis. •Morphology may also include the study of word history: etymology. Ebbers, 2009 7 Ebbers, 2009 8 • Poor comprehension in middle school is frequently due to limited vocabulary, including academic words “Nearly half of incoming freshmen cannot read their textbooks fluently” (e.g., August & Shanahan, 2006; Buly & Valencia, 2003; Carlo, 2005; Stahl & Nagy, 2006; Stanovich, 1986) (Carnegie Corporation, 2002) Ebbers, 2009 9 Ebbers, 2009 10 Butler et al. (2004) Describe Academic Words Developmental Progression in 5th Grade Math, Science, and Social Studies Inflection, Compound, Derivation base words boy, farm, cold• Low frequency words, rare words <11 exposures per million words (Zeno et al., 1995) boys, farmed, farming, colder, coldest inflections• Words with ≥ 3 syllables• Derivations—a linguistics-morphology term compound words boyfriend, farmhouse, coldhearted• Nominalizations derivations boyish, boyishly, boyhood, farmer, Farmington (Anglin, 1993; Berko, 1958; Tyler & Nagy, 1989; Wysocki & Jenkins, 1987) Ebbers, 2009 11 Ebbers, 2009 12 2
  3. 3. Derivational Suffixes That Mean “one who” Derivational Suffixes Academic, Abstract, and Challenging Derivational suffixes can change the part of speech -ist --or --ian --er --eer • words ending with –ion (-sion, -tion) are often nouns (station, distraction, consideration)scientist governor librarian teacher engineer • words ending with –ive are often adjectives pianist mayor dietician painter mountaineer (creative, aggressive, sensitive) • words ending with –ity are often nounscartoonist senator politician leader pioneer (simplicity, purity, inferiority) • words ending with –ment are often nouns (inducement, enrollment, impediment) Ebbers, 2009 13 Ebbers, 2009 14 Inflection or Derivation? Morphological Development (The base word is act.) Morphology studies demonstrate that English-speaking children generally understand inflections and compounds before they actor acts acted understand derivations. For diverse learners, derivational morphology continues to be an obstacle through high school. action activate acting deactivation activity actress (Anglin, 1993; Berko, 1958; Carlisle, 1995; Carlisle & Fleming, 2003; Derwing, 1976; Derwing & Baker, 1979, 1986; Freyd & Baron, 1982; Selby, 1972; Tyler & Nagy, 1989; Wysocki & Jenkins, 1987) Ebbers, 2009 15 Ebbers, 2009 16 Prior Studies: The “Wug Test” Prior Studies: Anglin, 1993 Fifth-Grader (p. 100) Jean Berko-Gleason, 1958 What does the word treelet mean? Boston OK. Maybe it means like a tree and maybe like for This is a wug. Christmas you can put lights on it… 12 adults, 86 children Can you tell me anything more about treelet? preschool and 1st grade Is it [spelled] –let or –lit? Actually, it’s l-e-t. Now there is another one. I’m not sure about this, but it might mean a baby tree… There are two of them. There are two ____. Ebbers, 2009 17 Ebbers, 2009 18 3
  4. 4. Research with Compounds and Related Words Build Compound Words Build, Invent, Describe Word cards Real word Invented word At-risk second-grade readers failed to understand the meanings of green drop doghouse horsedog compound words and did not recognize related word (e.g., quick, light night quickly, quicksand, quicken) fly horse (Nagy, Berninger, Abbott, Vaughan, & Vermeulen, 2003) dog flash rain fire What would you call grass where bees like to hide? house coat beegrass or grassbee? Ebbers, 2009 19 Ebbers, 2009 20White, Sowell, and Yanagihara (1989) found that 20 Most Frequent Prefixes in School Textsthird-graders who were given training on the nine 1. unable 11. preheatmost common prefixes and a strategy for 2. review 12. interviewdecomposing words into roots and suffixesoutperformed a control group on several measures 3. inedible (immobile, 13. forewarn illegal, irresponsible)of word meaning. 14. derail 4. distrustThey concluded that teaching at least the top nine 15. transfer 5. enlighten (empower)prefixes (if not all twenty) to middle school 16. supersonicstudents would pay dividends in increased 6. nonsense 17. semicirclevocabulary learning. 7. inside (implant) 18. antifreeze 8. overload 19. midterm 9. misguide 20. underfed 10. submarine Ebbers, 2009 21 American Heritage Dictionary Ebbers, 2009 22 Peel Away the Affixes Will the Real Prefix Please Stand Up? multifaceted prefix re- not prefix re- reheat many red return reheat red read rebuild The diamond was multifaceted; rewind it had many faces or sides. rest rescue Ebbers, 2009 23 Ebbers, 2009 24 4
  5. 5. Word Play Develops Morphological Awareness Morphological AwarenessMorphemic Analysis, Context Clues, and Cognates Are these real words? What might they mean?The greatest benefit from instructional time spent on ugsomeword study can be gained from exploring roots,prefixes, suffixes, and networks of related words. malductive vincibleHenry,1997 subjacent triskaidekaphobia Ebbers, 2009 25 Ebbers, 2009 26 Frindle by Andrew Clements “…vocabulary instruction needs to be more 5th grade chapter book explicitly metalinguistic—that is, word One boy’s determination consciousness is an obligatory, not an to express free speech through optional, component” word invention Nagy, 2007, p. 54 etymology Johnson’s Dictionary Ebbers, 2009 27 Ebbers, 2009 28 A Morphemic Word Wall Spanish: A Latinate Language Speak it, Change it Significant Gains for Both ELL and EO in Fifth Grade A challenging curriculum: un = not, opposite •teaching about words I am… kind predictable unpredictable unkind •teaching academic wordsI act… kindly predictably unkindly unpredictably •creating awareness of polysemy •strategies for inferring word meaning from contextI show… kindness predictability unpredictability unkindness •morphological and cross-linguistic tools Carlo, August, McLaughlin, Snow, Dressler, C., et al., 2004 Ebbers, 2009 29 Ebbers, 2009 30 5
  6. 6. When students are aware of Spanish-English cognates,they resolve vocabulary tasks more effectively. Pictures and English-Spanish CognatesNagy, Garcia, Durgunoglu, & Hancin-Bhatt, 1993 corrosion rodent erosion Uncover and Discuss False CognatesExamples:insect/insecto, observe/observarMost Spanish words that end in -ción can be translatedinto English by changing the suffix to "-tion" –constitución means "constitution" –nación means "nation" corrosión roedor erosión Ebbers, 2009 31 Ebbers, 2009 32 Some Common Spanish Words Correspond to an Academic English Word (Bravo, Hiebert, & Pearson, 2007) Latin CommonSpa Common root Scholarly English nish English arbor árbol arbor, arboretum tree avis ave avian, aviary, aviation primus primero prime, primary, primer luna luna lunar, lunacy, lunatic Teachers and students benefit from resources for necessitas necesitar necessity, necessary accessing the cognate (e.g., Spanish) Ebbers, 2009 33 Ebbers, 2009 34 Academic Texts are Filled with Students skilled in morphemic Morphologically Complex Words and contextual analysis have the potential to increase their vocabulary breadth and depth About 60% of the word meanings in printed school English in grades 3-9 might be inferred through substantially. knowledge of their morphemes, in context (Edwards, Font, Baumann, & Boland (2004) in Baumann & Kame ’enui, p. 161) (Nagy & Anderson, 1984) Efficacy inconclusive, if promising, for severe reading disability (Deacon, Parilla, & Kirby, in press; Reed, 2008) Ebbers, 2009 35 Ebbers, 2009 36 6
  7. 7. Outside-In Strategy Outside- Outside-In Strategy Outside- pneumonoultramicroscopicsilicovolcanoconiosis 1. Look outside the word at context clues. 1. Look outside the word at context clues, visuals The coal miners, coughing and wheezing, suffered from 2. Look inside the word for meaningful word parts. pneumonoultramicroscopicsilicovolcanoconiosis. 3. Combine the clues. Use the analogy strategy. 2. Look inside the word for known word parts: pneumono ultra microscopic silico volcano coni osis (For more details, see Baumann et al., 2002; Ebbers & Denton, 2008) 3. Use the analogy strategy: “I don’t know this sickness, but I know pneumonia and I know volcano, so by analogy, this sickness might have something to do with lungs and heat—maybe they are inflamed.” Ebbers, 2009 37 Ebbers, 2009 38 Context Clues and Morpheme Clues Point Out Context Clues • A formal definition inset into the text, usually offset• Some middle school students did not make use of by commas or a dashed line context clues or morpheme clues • A synonym or a rephrasing• Those who could utilize both types of clues did not necessarily use them both in tandem • An antonym• Those who did access context clues tended to look only in the proximal sentence, and only for synonyms • Common signal words: which is, in other words, also – (Wysocki & Jenkins, 1987) known as, also called, that is, or, for example, such as Ebbers, 2009 39 Ebbers, 2009 40 Point Out Punctuation Clues When is a Text Incomprehensible? Readers must understand at least 90% of the wordsCommas to minimally comprehend a text (Nation, 1994) We must find the terminus, or the end, of this circuit. 98% 100% 93%Dashes 90% --frustration reading level accessible with instruction easy, perhaps interesting Can photons—small particles of light energy – travel 80% --instructional reading level faster than sound? --independent reading level 60%Parentheses frustrating text Percent of His lorikeets (parrots) wakened the household at dawn. words known 40% 20% 0% Ebbers, 2009 41 Ebbers, 2009 42 Text A Text B Text C 7
  8. 8. Some Words to Teach WHAT TO DO ABOUT POOR COMPREHENSION OF ACADEMIC TEXTS? www.victoria.ac.nz/lals/staff/averil-coxhead/awl/ Build Background Knowledge Build Academic Word Knowledge Develop Derivational Morphology Ebbers, 2009 43 Ebbers, 2009 44 Use Academic Language Freely Expose Young Children to Academic Words as Appropriate Commonly Unknown Academic Known Word Word • Word knowledge is the BEST predictor of reading find a pencil locate a pencil comprehension. First grade vocabulary predicts 11th grade reading comprehension. help a friend assist a friend get a ruler obtain a ruler (Cunningham & Stanovich, 1997) near the door near the entranceNote: Beginning English Language Learners may not already knowthe common English words shown above. Ebbers, 2009 45 Ebbers, 2009 46 Optimize Oral Language Use Academic Language in Discussions • Sentence starters or stems• Provide adolescents with instruction that includes • Our principal has decided on school uniforms. One discussion of text and concepts (Torgesen et al., disadvantage confronting students might be… 2007) . • I concur with ____ because • I take exception to ______’s idea because….• Oral discussion of content and content vocabulary is a common component of many successful reading interventions (Nagy, 2007) Ebbers, 2009 47 Ebbers, 2009 48 8
  9. 9. A Student-Friendly Definition Elicit Active Responses With Examples and Non Examples in Artificial Conversations profound• rational – If people seem rational, they make sense, they are logical, • Which ones are more likely to be profound? and not highly emotional. Rational is an adjective; it describes. • With your thumbs up, say, “That’s a profound ___.”• Have students respond to the following statements by saying, “That is rational” or “That is not rational.” – a carrot an essay a menu a speech a shopping list a poem – I lock the door when I leave the house. – I am terrified of the moon. I scream whenever I see it. – My father keeps his extra money in the bank. That’s a profound – The neighbor hangs his extra money from a tree. essay, dude! Ebbers, 2009 49 Ebbers, 2009 50 Lemony Snicket, The Carnivorous Carnival Integrate Excellent Excerpts A Series of Unfortunate Events The Carnivorous Carnival by Lemony Snicket The author has intentionally made vocabulary explicit in this series—see next slide. Ebbers, 2009 51 Ebbers, 2009 52 For English Language Learners Especially: Listen: catastrophe. A catastrophe is a big (motion) problem. A catastrophe is Anchor the Meaning into Phonological Memory often a sudden bad surprise, too. Like an earthquake. That’s a catastrophe. Listen: /ku tas’ tru fee/. You say it. (signal for a response) Say the 4 parts after me (wait for each signal): / ku tas’ tru fee/• from speech to print, grounded in meaning Say the second part (tas’) the loudest, like this: /ku tas’ tru fee/. (signal)• active engagement, gestures, etc.• with vocalized articulation If I tell about a big problem, you say, “What a catastrophe!” and make a motion. – whole word Listen: Suddenly, fire spread throughout the kitchen. (signal) – syllable by syllable Listen: A sudden tornado tore up the barn and the corn field. (signal) • syllable accent Listen: Linda broke her crayon by accident. (signal) – in meaningful phrases Let’s see what this word looks like. (point) ca tas tro phe, cat a stroph ic Say each part when I point to it. (point). Now read the whole word. (signal) What is a catastrophe? (signal) Ebbers, 2009 53 Turn to a neighbor and verbalize an example of a real catastrophe. Ebbers, 2009 54 9
  10. 10. Bridge to Known Words Thus Linking the Language Bridge catastrophe to known words and examples: – a really big problem – overwhelming • like a hurricane, a shipwreck, a flood • disaster, fiasco, calamity, cataclysm, tragedy • NOT like a broken fingernail Ebbers, 2009 55 Ebbers, 2009 56Listen: pantry. A pantry is a kitchen closet.Listen: /pan’ tree/. You say it. (signal for a response) Specific Word InstructionSay each part after me: /pan’/ (signal) /tree/ (signal)Say the first part the loudest, after me: /pan’/ (signal) /tree/ (signal) No single method is effective for teaching every word,A pantry is a closet in the kitchen. We keep food and kitchen stuff in it. in part because words and phrases vary greatly inIf I say something kept in a pantry, you say, “Look in the pantry!” (point) characteristics and complexities (Nagy & Scott, 2000). Listen: a box of cereal. (signal) Listen: a television. (signal) And so do students! Listen: paper plates and napkins (signal)Let’s see what this word looks like. See the two parts: (point) pan trySay each part when I point to it. (point). Now read the whole word. (signal)What is a pantry? (signal)Turn to a neighbor and use pantry in a silly sentence. Ebbers, 2009 57 Ebbers, 2009 58 Networking or Linking the Lexicon Tools for Building Academic Language • Use Semantic Maps “There is considerable evidence that words, both spoken – various graphic organizers and written, are remembered in relation to other words and that word meanings are not stored in our memory as isolated wholes that resemble separate entries in a verbalize dictionary” Moats, 2000, p. 72 rel j oy ate en Ebbers, 2009 59 Ebbers, 2009 60 10
  11. 11. Interactive Semantic Sorting English language learners benefit from instruction that shows how words can be • Use relevant vocabulary grouped together in meaningful ways, including • Sort words with a peer synonyms, antonyms, and word family – build networks of related words associations. • Verbalize it (Echevarria, Vogt, & Short, 2004; Gorgnet et al., 2000) • Defend or justify word placement • Enjoy • Not a right/wrong proposition Ebbers, 2009 61 Ebbers, 2009 62Animals Machines Semantic Feature Analysisstampede blast off Teach “How To” with Known Wordsswoop towsoar movements explodeslither spin Partners discuss answers and justify responses. Verbalize it!swarm percolategallop calculate mammal reptile bird hare Toys/Objects Nature bounce blow asp twirl rustle vulture roll flutter buzz erupt coyote tick tremble owl spin splash chameleon Lehr, Osborn, & Hiebert. A Focus on Vocabulary. PREL, 2004. Product # ES0419 Ebbers, 2009 63 Ebbers, 2009 64 Semantic Feature Analysis #2 Word Relationships speaks sings acts Partners discuss answers and justify responsespresident nearly the nearly the belong not relateddiva same opposite togetherprofessor homage-respect fealty-loyaltysoloist serf-lordmime moat-towerpastor knight-tapestryrabbi knight-nightclown crusade-crusader Ebbers, 2009 65 Ebbers, 2009 66 11
  12. 12. Frayer Model Frayer, Frederick, & Klausmeier, 1969 Action verb: to -friendly make someone -kind who is sad feel -sympathetic better• Graphic organizer console• May help the learner process information• Verbalize it -a hug -a kick in the teeth -a bunch of flowers when someone is down -a sympathy card -rubbing it in Ebbers, 2009 67 Ebbers, 2009 68 Your Own Modification Modified Frayer Model (use words from text excerpts) definition -to forgive someone -to ask for forgiveness pardon three phrases related words pardoned pardon me pardoning presidential pardon pardonable a pardonable offense unpardonable Ebbers, 2009 69 Ebbers, 2009 70 definition definition A break, a breaking away, a part.root antonym root antonym target word wordfract build, repair, heal fracture sketch sketchaffixes affixes part of speech part of speech --ure nounrelated words related wordsfraction, fractional, cognate cognatefractionalize, fractal fracturăsentence sentence Jorge fell from the tree; he has a cast on his fracture. Ebbers, 2009 71 Ebbers, 2009 72 12
  13. 13. Distributed Encounters with Words Meaning Expands One Exposure at a Time “There is a mountain of evidence suggesting that spacing study time • Readers need at least 6 exposures to learn the new word leads to better memory of the material” – Jenkins, Stein, & Wysocki, 1984 • Better results with 12 exposures – McKeown, Beck, Omanson, & Pople, 1985 Daniel Willingham, 2002 • Even better with 20 exposures – Beck & McKeown (2004) • Some of the primary-grade students still did not learn all the new words • This varies – By word and learner characteristics Ebbers, 2009 73 Ebbers, 2009 74 Promote Word Consciousness Distributed Practice or Linguistic Awareness via Books The Unbreakable Code by Sara Hoagland Hunter Ongoing review is much better than cramming (Willingham, 2002) – Student notebooks The Unbreakable Code – Word walls portrays the quiet pride of a – Flashcards Navajo code talker as he – Daily conversation explains to his grandson – Ongoing context in varied content how the Navajo language, faith, and ingenuity helped win World War II. Ebbers, 2009 75 Ebbers, 2009 76• Sunshine, Moonshine Promote a Rich Verbal Culture – by Jennifer Armstrong• Cryptomania! • The Important Book – by Edith Hope Fine – by Margaret Wise Brown• Fortunately • Miss Alaineus – by Remy Charlip – by Debra Frasier • Pig, Pigger, Piggest – by Rick Walton • Why the Banana Split – by Rick Walton • Once there was a Bull… (frog) – by Rick Walton Ebbers, 2009 77 Ebbers, 2009 78 13
  14. 14. Professional Vocabulary Guides Professional Morphology Resources • Bringing Words to Life – Beck, McKeown, & Kucan, 2002 • The Vocabulary Book – Graves, 2006 Moats, 2000 Henry, 2003 Moats, 2009 LETRS Module 4 Ebbers, 2009 79 Ebbers, 2009 80 Wrap-Up THANK YOU & BEST WISHES! • Email: susan@readingway.com, sebbers@berkeley.eduSummarize the most • Website: www.readingway.comuseful information • My Sopris West Publications:gained from this – Vocabulary Through Morphemes: Suffixes, Prefixes, and Roots forsession Intermediate Grades – Power Readers (consumable interactive decodables with pre-reading andExplain the three post-reading material)“global” ideas for – Turbo Readers (in press) advanced interactive decodable chapter booksteaching vocabulary – Daily Oral Vocabulary Exercises: A Program to Expand Academic Language Ebbers, 2009 81 Ebbers, 2009 82 14