Lesson 3 talking about teaching language to young learners
Talking about Teaching Language to Young Learners Lesson 3
OVERVIEW• Start to look more closely at the practical side of teaching young language learners• Think about ways to approach teaching vocabulary, grammar and pronunciation• Look at how to create a supportive environment that encourages young learners to learn about and reflect on their learning• Consider the use of topic and activity-based teaching• Think about planning activities across topic areas
Capture the YL’s Monitor the learninginterest & that may, or may not,motivate them be taking place &with appropriate provide scaffoldingand engaging Planning and guidance for allactivities activities aspects of their for YL language learningShow them how tolearn to learn, helpingthem become more Encourage them toaware of what they take a more reflectiveare doing in class approach to learningactivities the language
When Introducing Vocabulary to Young Learners…. When Introducing Vocabulary to Young Learners….…the meaning of the words…the meaning of the words ….a lot of vocabulary is learned ….a lot of vocabulary is learned has to be made clear & has to be made clear & in chunks and phrases in chunks and phrasesbe supported by flashcards, be supported by flashcards, E.g., Can I/have aa...? E.g., Can I/have ...?pictures, gestures or realia. pictures, gestures or realia. (Can IIhave a...?) (Can have a...?) ….by uttering only one or two words, ….by uttering only one or two words, there can be aasentence full of meaning there can be sentence full of meaning expressed if the child is supported expressed if the child is supported and encouraged to use communicative and encouraged to use communicative intonation and gestures E.g., Repeat, please. intonation and gestures E.g., Repeat, please.
1. Picture & flashcards 1. Picture & flashcards shown to children as shown to children as they hear words they hear words 2. Stories with new 2. Stories with new The The contextualized contextualizedVocabulary meaning of meaning of TheVocabulary The language languageneeds to be the words the words contextneeds to be should be context 3. Games, where the taught in taught in should be could be could be 3. Games, where the context clear to the clear to the given need to use the words, need to use the words, context young given chunks or phrases is young through: through: chunks or phrases is learner learner linked to the linked to the motivation motivation 4. Songs, where the new 4. Songs, where the new language is repeated language is repeated in aafun way in fun way
TEACHING PRONUNCIATION Students need to hear lots of target language from to likedifferent speakers -- different speakers hear the music of the songs, chants, songs, chants,their teacher, their teacher, target language and stories, role-plays stories, role-playsvoices from video voices from video imitate the sound of and games that and games thatand audio and audio English through the encourage them to encourage them torecordings, or any recordings, or any words they are interact with the interact with theguest to the class guest to the class learning. language by language bythat speaks English that speaks English listening to and listening to andwith them. with them. using it. using it.
Considerations to be taken into account when Teaching Pronunciation• If children learn a foreign or second language early in their lives, they can attain near native- like pronunciation, but only if the models they hear are near native-like, too.• Just like adults, children may have trouble pronouncing certain English-language sounds, often they do not know how to form their lips and mouths to correctly articulate some sounds.
Considerations to be taken into account when Teaching Grammar • For younger children, due to their • YLs under the age of 8 or 9 level of cognitive development, it benefit from many repetitions is not conceptually appropriate of a grammar point in to present grammar as a set of different, meaningful contexts explicit rules and forms to be analyzed. • For more older children with more developed powers of • YLs benefit from “noticing” and analysis, grammar should paying attention to features of continue to be presented in grammar presented as “chunks” meaningful contexts and may of language in familiar contexts include brief details about the such as songs, dialogues, grammar points for students stories, and other contexts. to notice and think about. • Few YLs benefit from memorizing rules and analyzing forms.The balance between fluency and accuracy in activities is what helps children acquire the grammar of English.
Teaching Grammar to Very YLs (listen & identify) Teacher Talk: (Wave your hand over the page.) “Look! I see a park. I see boys and girls. The boys and girls are in the park.” Repeat. “The boys and girls are in the park.”1. Teacher: (Point 3. Children’sto the slide. Ask Response:children to listen, (Listen, point,point, and repeat) and repeat.)This is a slide. This is a slide.2. Teacher: (Point 4. Children’sto the swings. Ask Response:children to listen, (Listen, point,point, and repeat.) and repeat.) These are These areswings. swings.
Teaching Grammar to YLs (Present Simple) Helping Grammar 2. Listen, Point and say. Repetitions of Hands in context a grammar 1. My father is a coach. point, using it He teaches soccer. as chunks.1.Read, Listen and sing. 2. My sister is a secretary. Helpers She types letters.There are many helpinghands in my family. 3. Point, Ask and Answer 4.We like to help each What does He’s a coach.other and our community. Oral & your father do? writtenTeachers help us learn a productionlot, and TV reporters, too.My mother is a teacher.What does your mother 5. Look and write.do?. 1. What does she do? She’s a police officer. 2. What does he do? He’s a __________.
Making the English Classroom a Supportive Language Environment 1. Encourage 2. Develop an 3. Supportlearners to speak learning environment of through theout (without fear trust of making organization of mistakes) the classroom 4. Use a variety 5. Provide lots of of materials and comprehensible models to and present the contextualized language language
Encourage learners to speak out (without fear of making mistakes) 1. What did 1. What did 2. IIgoed 2. goed 1.What 1.What 2. IIgoed 2. goed you do to the did you do you do to the did you do to the to the yesterday? park. yesterday? yesterday? park. yesterday? park. park. 3. Oh, 3. Oh, 3. Oh, 3. Oh, you went you went that’s not that’s not to the to the good. It’s good. It’s park! park! wrong to wrong to say I I say “goed”. “goed”.••The boy is hypothesizing the The boy is hypothesizing the The same situation but this time, the The same situation but this time, theregular past tense of the verb “go”. regular past tense of the verb “go”. modeled example given by the modeled example given by the••The teacher’s correction could teacher would allow the child to teacher would allow the child to The teacher’s correction coulddemotivate the learner discouraging continue on the hypothesis circle and continue on the hypothesis circle and demotivate the learner discouraginghim from trying to hypothesize in realize from this feedback that he realize from this feedback that he him from trying to hypothesize inEnglish again. needed to adjust what he had said. needed to adjust what he had said. English again.
Develop an environment of trustDevelop an environment of trust••the language classroom needs to be aaplace where the young learner does the language classroom needs to be place where the young learner does not feel threatened or frightened not feel threatened or frightened••the teacher needs to be patient as students trial things, and by modeling the teacher needs to be patient as students trial things, and by modeling back any changes they need to make in their language back any changes they need to make in their language••creating and posting English classroom rules that all the YLs have discussed creating and posting English classroom rules that all the YLs have discussed and agreed to. E.g.: We will listen to each other patiently. and agreed to. E.g.: We will listen to each other patiently. We will help each other say things in English. We will help each other say things in English.Support learning through the organization of the classroom Support learning through the organization of the classroom The English classroom should support the students learning by having: The English classroom should support the students learning by having:••examples of students work on the walls examples of students work on the walls••picture dictionaries and storybooks available to be used picture dictionaries and storybooks available to be used••lists of different types of words on the wall, such as describing words, lists of different types of words on the wall, such as describing words, action words, joining words, question words, and so on action words, joining words, question words, and so on••songs and chants (written on chart paper) available to review songs and chants (written on chart paper) available to review••labels on classroom items in English (door, window, desk) to help prepare labels on classroom items in English (door, window, desk) to help prepare beginner students for the written language by introducing models of it beginner students for the written language by introducing models of it
Use aavariety of materials and models to present the languageUse variety of materials and models to present the language Use aavariety of means to expose YLs to different language models. E.g. Use variety of means to expose YLs to different language models. E.g.••CDs with aarange of different speakers CDs with range of different speakers••videos and DVDs that allow children to see the faces and mouths of those videos and DVDs that allow children to see the faces and mouths of those speaking English speaking English••A variety of written models to stimulate the visual learning of the language A variety of written models to stimulate the visual learning of the language including books, posters, examples of children’s work, pictures with captions, including books, posters, examples of children’s work, pictures with captions, and labeled objects and labeled objects Provide lots of comprehensible and contextualized language Provide lots of comprehensible and contextualized language••Teachers must also remember the need to introduce lots of comprehensible Teachers must also remember the need to introduce lots of comprehensible and contextualized language in the English class within meaningful and and contextualized language in the English class within meaningful and purposeful activities purposeful activities••Classroom instructions (used repeatedly and with gestures) enable Classroom instructions (used repeatedly and with gestures) enable students to respond to and use the language. (Johnny, please come here. students to respond to and use the language. (Johnny, please come here. Hand out the notebooks to the students.) Hand out the notebooks to the students.)
Topic and activity-based teaching is based on topics (like food, pets, house, colors, and so on) within activities which allow the language to be introduced, practiced, recycled, consolidated and acquired by YLs• Many teachers and specialists in the EYL world believe that topic and activity-based teaching is the most suitable way for children to learn and use the target language.• This is because of how children learn, develop and change during these early years.• Many English textbooks for young learners are designed around this approach.• A topic and activity-based approach to learning has children linking language to interactive experiences where children talk about what they are doing, what they are seeing and what they are experiencing.• As teachers, we can encourage this interaction and natural way of language learning by planning suitable activities and selecting topics that are especially interesting and relevant to our students.
These three activities present the topic of food, but are aimed at different age groups considering their cognitive stages and learning abilities
Topic - FoodFunction-Talkingabout likesand dislikes ••Teachers can teach the same topics to the same group of Teachers can teach the same topics to the same group of children over a number of years (and recycle the language), children over a number of years (and recycle the language), but as the children grow in age, linguistic ability and maturity, but as the children grow in age, linguistic ability and maturity, we will be looking at different aspects of these topics, so the we will be looking at different aspects of these topics, so the input never has to be the same. input never has to be the same.
Stage 1: Select the TopicWhen planning lessons around a specific topic , the teacher should consider five stages:1. Brainstorming is one of the best ways to plan a topic and the lessons that are linked to it. Put the topic title in the center of a page.
Stage 2: Think of appropriate activities linked to the topicBrainstorm thevariety ofactivities thatare suitable forthe age groupyou are thinkingabout and arelinked to thistopic.A lesson for 8to 10 year-old-student
Stage 3: Consider the language for each activityThink about what language (vocabulary and structures) will be used in each activity.
Stage 4: Plan the focus/approach for each activity Look at each of these activities and briefly consider the focus for each activity as well as the type of approach to take. Consider the class survey, and develop it as you would all the other activities in your brainstorm. Activity: Carry out a class survey of favorite food Language focus for this activity: • What is your favorite food? • Food vocabulary chicken • It’s (chicken). • My favorite food is (chicken).Resources needed for the Outcome of activity:activity: Timing of the • A list of favorite activity:• Children need paper and foods of children pencils / pens. 10-15 minutes • A result from survey• Teacher needs a board orflipchart to gather results
Stage 5: Consider the order of activitiesLook at how the activities flow together, considering vocabulary andstructures and the challenges required in completing each activity. If youlook at the brainstorm chart below, you will see that the activities havebeen ordered by how the language is introduced and developed. ••After determining After determining the desired the desired outcome of each outcome of each activity, the activity, the teacher will put teacher will put together more together more detailed lesson detailed lesson plans that look plans that look more closely at the more closely at the steps required to steps required to achieve the achieve the proposed goals. proposed goals.