Historical Evolution Euthanasia is derived from the Greek word meaning ‘good death’ During the time of the ancient Greek and Roman civilizations, euthanasia or ‘mercy killing’ was allowed if and only if the person concerned no longer cared for his own life.
Types of Euthanasia Classification can be of 3 types—a)Active & Passiveb)Voluntary, Non-voluntary and Involuntaryc)Assisted & Unassisted
Situation in Netherlands (1st country to legalize euthanasia) Under the Penal Code, any form of assistance to a person in ending his/her life attracts punishments However, for public policy, the courts have come up with a defence to the charge of voluntary Euthanasia.
Situation in India Landmark Case: Aruna Shanbaug As of now, only passive euthanasia is legal. The court rejected Active Euthanasia. The court also stated that this decision would become the law of the land till the Parliament enacts an act on Euthanasia.
Does Right to Life include Right to Die in India? Article 21 of the Indian Constitution grants its citizens the Right to Live but not the Right to Die. Inclusion of Right to die under Article 21 will contradict the provision of Indian Penal Code under sec. 309.
Continued…. First time it came for consideration before Bombay High Court in Maruti Shripati Dubal and struck down section 309 of Indian Penal Code, as unconstitutional. The court said that ‘Right to Life’ includes ‘Right to Die’ if one so desires
Euthanasia in Pakistan Most of the doctors did not approve of Euthanasia Euthanasia is still thought of as a taboo topic in Pakistan. Active Euthanasia is not allowed by the law in Pakistan but Passive Euthanasia does take place in Pakistan.
Euthanasia in China Case Of Xia Suwen Provincial legislature of China has -suffered from liver problem rejected calls to legalize euthanasia -Wang MingCheng-son saying such a move would be -Dr. Pu Liansheng-doctor unconstitutional for the right of -it took 5 yrs. to deliver subsistence which is protected by this judgment their Constitution. This case shows change in In large cities, especially in Beijing, attitude of people towards death. many approve of euthanasia. Chinese people are concerned about this word and avoid mentioning death due to the affection of Confucianism, so there is scarcely any open discussion of death.
Position in US Euthanasia is illegal in all states of the United States. Physician Assisted Suicide is legal in the states of Washington, Oregon and Montana. The American Political leader Robert Ingersoll had, in 1894, supported ‘assisted suicide’ in case of persons suffering from terminal illness.
Some other cases Baxter v Montana Gonzales v Oregon Washington v. Glucksberg Karen Ann case Terri Schiavo case