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Euthanasia Slide Presentation ..

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For our English presentation this semester, we (2nd year medical students) decided to do a research on euthanasia and its acceptance in different parts of the world.

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Euthanasia Slide Presentation ..

  1. 1. euthanasia
  2. 2. Contents • Definition of euthanasia • Types of euthanasia • Law on euthanasia • Acceptance of euthanasia in Malaysia • Islamic Perspective
  3. 3. INTRODUCTION DEFINITION & TYPES
  4. 4. What is euthanasia ? εὐθανασία ( euthanatos ) εὐ/eu : good or well Θανασία : death Euthanasia or mercy killing is the practice of intentionally ending a life in order to relieve pain and suffering. or Assisted suicide Francis Bacon ( 17th Century ) – easy, painless and happy death
  5. 5. Types of euthanasia • Active – involve the use of lethal substances or forces, such as administering a lethal injection • Passive – involve the withholding or withdrawing treatment that is necessary to maintain life. Involuntary Non - voluntary Voluntary
  6. 6. World War II Germany • October, 1939- Adolf Hitler enacted the Action T4 program. • Euthanize incurably ill, physically or mentally disabled, emotionally distraught, and elderly people. • Gas chambers • Starved to death
  7. 7. LAWS OF EUTHANASIA
  8. 8. Canada
  9. 9. Canada Euthanasia is not yet legal in Canada but it will be by June 2016.
  10. 10. Netherlands
  11. 11. originally Dutch law banned euthanasia 2002 Termination of Life on Request and Assisted Suicide Act • Makes euthanasia and assisted suicide legal under certain conditions 1973 Postma case • Postma’s wife, Truus, performed euthanasia on his mother by injecting 200 mg morphine. • She had suffered a brain haemorrhage, was deaf, had difficulty speaking, and had to be tied to her chair in her nursing home to avoid her falling. She repeatedly begged her daughter-in-law to end her life. • Given symbolic punishment : one week suspended prison sentence and 12 months' probation Dutch Voluntary Euthanasia Society was launched Timeline….
  12. 12. Termination of Life on Request and Assisted Suicide Act Euthanasia is included in the Criminal Code of a special ground for exemption from criminal liability : doctors who terminate life on request or assist in a patient’s suicide can no longer be prosecuted if they fulfil these conditions: • Be satisfied that the patient’s request is voluntary and well-considered • Be satisfied that the patient’s suffering is unbearable and that there is no prospect of improvement • Inform the patient of his or her situation and further prognosis • Discuss the situation with the patient and come to the joint conclusion that there is no other reasonable solution • Consult at least one other physician with no connection to the case, who must then see the patient and state in writing that the attending physician has satisfied the due care criteria listed in the four points above
  13. 13. Gronigen Protocol • Text created in September 2004 by a committee of physicians and others leading by Eduard Verhagen, the medical director of the Department of Pediatrics at the University Medical Center Groningen (UMCG) • The protocol has been approved by the Dutch National Association of Pediatricians. • It contains directives with criteria under which physicians can perform "active ending of life on infants" (child euthanasia) without fear of legal prosecution • In the Gronigen Protocol, the termination of a child's life (under age 12) is acceptable if these 4 requirements were properly fulfilled: 1. The presence of hopeless and unbearable suffering 2. The consent of the parents to termination of life 3. Medical consultation having taken place 4. Careful execution of the termination
  14. 14. Practice of Euthanasia in Netherlands 1st March 2012 Netherlands Euthanasia Lobby (NVVE) launched six Mobile Euthanasia Teams as part of a euthanasia clinic to cause an estimated 1000 euthanasia deaths to people who were either turned down by their doctor, or who are disabled or frail elderly and lacking mobility. Report from Dutch News on 24th September 2013, it is stated that there were 4188 reported requests for euthanasia in 2012 which is double the number in 2006
  15. 15. Australia
  16. 16. • Illegal in Australia • Although the public supports legalizing Euthanasia , Australian governments continue to resist legalizing euthanasia or assisted suicide. • Opponents of legalization: “Once we take the significant step of allowing doctors to ‘kill’ patients in narrowly defined circumstances, there will be pressure to increase the range of circumstances with amending legislation. And it’s easier to amend existing legislation than enact it in the first place • Proponents of legalization: Generally respond by claiming there is no evidence of either concern being realized in places where euthanasia is lawful Who should have the access: should it be restricted to the terminally ill? Should it extend to people who have an unbearable physical condition which does not make them terminally ill? Should it even extend to people who aren’t physically ill at all, but are experiencing unbearable mental suffering?
  17. 17. North Territory • Euthanasia was legalized (Rights of the Terminally III Act 1995) • Passed by a vote of 15 to 10 but was defeated by 14 votes to 10 a year later in 1996 • Soon after, the law was voided by the Euthanasia Laws Act 1997 • However, before the Commonwealth government made this amendment, three people had already died through physician assisted suicide
  18. 18. Japan
  19. 19. • Known as anraku-shi, means “peaceful death • No acts or official laws regarding the status of euthanasia based on Japanese Penal Code in The Constitution of Japan • The Supreme Court has never ruled on the matter; two local court cases that happened back in 1962 and 1995 → frameworks and conditions for Japan’s euthanasia policy • One can legally end patient’s life as long as the conditions are fulfilled
  20. 20. • The patient must be suffering from an incurable disease • The patient must express consent to stop treatment (their consent may be determined from a pre-written document such as a living will or the testimony of the family) • The patient may be passively euthanized by stopping medical treatment Passive Euthanasia • The patient must be suffering from unbearable physical pain • The patient must give consent (living wills and family consent will not suffice) • The physician must have exhausted all other measures of pain relief Active Euthanasia
  21. 21. DEATH OF DIGNITY • Concept emerged in 1970s but become a hot topic recently • Increment in aging & childless Japanese society lead to the government starting to reflect on legalizing it; a practice meant to cut medical costs of patients in a vegetative state • Defined as : The act of letting a terminally ill or a patient in a persistent vegetative state die by withdrawing life-sustaining treatment on request in the form of a living will
  22. 22. ACCEPTANCE OF EUTHANASIA AMONG MALAYSIANS
  23. 23. Main purpose: To focus on public awareness and thoughts of euthanasia in Malaysia.
  24. 24. ACCEPTANCE OF EUTHANASIA AMONG MALAYSIANS Have you ever heard of euthanasia? Yes No 77.7% (69) 22.3% (21) o 90 responses had been submitted o Age 19-60 years old o Mostly students, some are teachers, engineers and doctors.
  25. 25. ACCEPTANCE OF EUTHANASIA AMONG MALAYSIANS HOW MUCH DO YOU AGREE ON EUTHANASIA BEING CARRIED OUT IN MALAYSIA? Arguments for euthanasia o help relieving pain o low chances to live o save cost, time and energy of doctors Arguments against euthanasia o Religious factor o Equals to suicide and murder o Against ethics
  26. 26. EUTHANASIA BASED ON ISLAMIC PERSPECTIVES
  27. 27. EUTHANASIA AND SUICIDE IN ISLAM Muslims are against euthanasia. They believe that all human life is sacred/pure because it is given by Allah and Allah chooses how long each person will live. Human beings should not interfere in this. Surah Al-Isra’ Surah Ali Imran Surah An-Nahl
  28. 28. EUTHANASIA IN ISLAM However, the Islamic Code of Medical Ethics states "it is futile to diligently keep the patient in a vegetative state by heroic means… It is the process of life that the doctor aims to maintain and not the process of dying".
  29. 29. CONCLUSION Suffering and pain are parts of our life. The lesson in endurance when patient was in pain is to be thankful in times of health and patient in times of sickness.

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