Chapter 4 - How Singapore was governed


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Chapter 4 - How Singapore was governed

  1. 1. Chapter 4 How was Singapore governed before World War II?
  2. 2. My Expectations <ul><li>4 things I expect from my government. </li></ul><ul><li>3 things I do not wish to see in my government. </li></ul><ul><li>2 reasons why I expect my government to do all these. </li></ul>
  3. 3. British Rule <ul><li>1819 – 1963 (except Japanese occupation 1942 – 1945) </li></ul><ul><li>1826 – Penang, Melaka & Singapore formed Straits Settlement ruled by EIC. </li></ul><ul><li>1858 – EIC disbanded, Straits Settlement came under British government. </li></ul><ul><li>1867 – Straits Settlement became a Crown Colony under British Queen, Queen Victoria. </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>Colonial Office under British Government in London (Text Pg 60) </li></ul>Governor of the Straits Settlement - Could stop passing of laws (veto power) <ul><li>The Executive Council </li></ul><ul><li>High ranking British officials </li></ul><ul><li>Advised Governor in the running </li></ul><ul><li>of the Settlements </li></ul><ul><li>The Legislative Council </li></ul><ul><li>Executive Council PLUS </li></ul><ul><li>Non-official members, mainly Asian </li></ul><ul><li>and European traders </li></ul><ul><li>Helped in the making of laws </li></ul><ul><li>Examples of members are Dr. Lim Boon </li></ul><ul><li>Keng & Eunos Abdullah </li></ul>
  5. 5. What is discrimination? <ul><li>Definition & Example </li></ul><ul><li>Basis for discrimination: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Race </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Age </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gender </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Looks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Grades </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Family background </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Any experience? </li></ul><ul><li>Usually as a result of lack of understanding, and false belief that one is superior. </li></ul><ul><li>What can we do to avoid and prevent discrimination? </li></ul>
  6. 6. Problems caused by the Chinese <ul><li>Violence – secret societies were involved in fights, robberies and murders. </li></ul><ul><li>Running of opium houses, gambling dens and brothels. </li></ul><ul><li>Abuse of coolies and young girls by coolie agents. </li></ul><ul><li>Collection of protection money from street hawkers. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Measures taken by the Chinese Protectorate <ul><li>Got Chinese to settle their dispute at the Protectorate instead of turning to the SS for help. </li></ul><ul><li>Enlisted help of the Chinese leaders to maintain law and order among the Chinese. </li></ul><ul><li>Registered coolie agents and houses. </li></ul><ul><li>Inspect coolie ships to ensure there was fair treatment of the coolies. </li></ul><ul><li>Set up ‘Bao Liang Ju’ to rescue and retrain girls forced into prostitution. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Effective!  <ul><li>Managed to </li></ul><ul><li>Weaken the power of the secret society leaders. </li></ul><ul><li>Improve the living conditions of the coolies. </li></ul><ul><li>Rescue girls forced into prostitution and retrain them for other occupations. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Ineffective!  <ul><li>British has some initial success but cannot get rid of the secret societies until the mid 20 th century. </li></ul><ul><li>Fights continued to break out occasionally throughout the early 20 th century. </li></ul><ul><li>Abuse of coolies and women continued to exist. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Curbing of SS activities <ul><li>Thomas Dunman was the first police Commissioner. </li></ul><ul><li>1862 – Detective Branch was set up to look into SS activities. </li></ul><ul><li>1906 – recruited Chinese detectives. </li></ul><ul><li>Mid 1920s – law and order had improved. </li></ul><ul><li>1931 – Detective Branch renamed CID, introduced fingerprinting method. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Groupwork <ul><li>Areas to look into: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Police Force </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Secret societies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Piracy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Health </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Education </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Gather information, write and present your findings </li></ul>