Modal auxiliary verbs


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This presentation describes the use and pattern of the Modal Auxiliary Verbs.

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Modal auxiliary verbs

  1. 1. MODALS & AUXILIARIES<br />The ‘Modal Auxiliary verbs’ or ‘Modal Verbs’ are also known as ‘Helping Verbs’.<br />As the last name suggests, they help the main verb of the sentence.<br />3/18/2011<br />Presented by Prof. Harbhadrasinh Sarvaiya<br />1<br />
  2. 2. MODALS & AUXILIARIES<br />The Auxiliary verbs and Modals help the main verb of the sentence.<br />These are further divided into:<br />Basic Auxiliaries<br />Modals<br />3/18/2011<br />Presented by Prof. Harbhadrasinh Sarvaiya<br />2<br />
  3. 3. MODALS & AUXILIARIES<br />Basic Auxiliaries:<br />Be <br />Have <br />Do <br />Am<br />Is <br />Was<br />Were <br />Has <br />Had<br />Does <br />Did <br />3/18/2011<br />Presented by Prof. Harbhadrasinh Sarvaiya<br />3<br />
  4. 4. MODALS & AUXILIARIES<br />Let us take a few examples:<br />Rajesh can sing.<br />They may attend the party tonight.<br />May I use your telephone please?<br />Sheila says she will help me.<br />You haven’t eaten all day. You must be hungry.<br />3/18/2011<br />Presented by Prof. Harbhadrasinh Sarvaiya<br />4<br />
  5. 5. MODALS & AUXILIARIES<br />Before we begin our discussion on Modals & Auxiliaries, we must keep in mind the following points:<br />Modal verbs take the same form in all persons. There is no –s ending in the third person singular. <br /> For example:<br /> NOT<br />Rajesh can sing.<br />Rajesh cans sing.<br />3/18/2011<br />Presented by Prof. Harbhadrasinh Sarvaiya<br />5<br />
  6. 6. MODALS & AUXILIARIES<br />2. The affirmative is formed by putting the modal verb between the subject and the main verb.<br />For example:<br />3. The negative is formed by putting n’t/not after the main verb. For example:<br />You should visit your grandmother.<br />Rajesh can’t sing.<br />3/18/2011<br />Presented by Prof. Harbhadrasinh Sarvaiya<br />6<br />
  7. 7. MODALS & AUXILIARIES<br />4. Questions can be formed by inverting the subject and the modal verb.<br />For example:<br /> Note:<br />We do not use ‘do’ in questions and negatives.<br />Rajesh can sing.<br />Can Rajesh sing?<br />3/18/2011<br />Presented by Prof. Harbhadrasinh Sarvaiya<br />7<br />
  8. 8. MODALS & AUXILIARIES<br />For example: <br />We cannot say,<br />OR<br />Does Rajesh can sing?<br />Rajesh doesn’t can sing.<br />3/18/2011<br />Presented by Prof. Harbhadrasinh Sarvaiya<br />8<br />
  9. 9. MODALS & AUXILIARIES<br />5. We can use the structure:<br />modal verb + be + … -ing.<br />For example:<br />Its getting dark. You should be leaving now.<br />I might be going to Washington next week.<br />3/18/2011<br />Presented by Prof. Harbhadrasinh Sarvaiya<br />9<br />
  10. 10. MODALS & AUXILIARIES<br />Modal Verbs for Ability: Can, could, be able to<br />We use can to talk about ability, or to say that something is possible.<br /> Its negative is can’t or cannot.<br />For example:<br />Shilpa can drive.<br />Can you swim?<br />They can’t attend the meeting.<br />3/18/2011<br />Presented by Prof. Harbhadrasinh Sarvaiya<br />10<br />
  11. 11. MODALS & AUXILIARIES<br />Note: <br />Sometimes we can also use be able to instead of can, but the use of can is more common for our daily conversations.<br />For example:<br />Shilpa is able to drive a car.<br />3/18/2011<br />Presented by Prof. Harbhadrasinh Sarvaiya<br />11<br />
  12. 12. MODALS & AUXILIARIES<br />2. We use could to say that someone had the ability to do something in a general sense, in the past.<br />For example:<br />We can also use was/were able to in the sentences given above.<br />I could talk when I was two years old.<br />My grandfather could play football in his youth.<br />I was able to talk when I was two years old.<br />3/18/2011<br />Presented by Prof. Harbhadrasinh Sarvaiya<br />12<br />
  13. 13. MODALS & AUXILIARIES<br />3. When we talk about a specific situation of the past, in which someone had the ability to perform an action, then we use was/were able to. <br /> In such particular situations of the past, displaying ability, could is not possible.<br />Even though the ship was hit by an iceberg, the captain was able to bring the ship to land.<br />The Principal was very busy, but still the students were able to meet him.<br />3/18/2011<br />Presented by Prof. Harbhadrasinh Sarvaiya<br />13<br />
  14. 14. MODALS & AUXILIARIES<br />Note: In the situations that we just saw, it is also possible to use managed to or succeeded in instead of was/were able to.<br />But with succeeded in, the –ing form will be added to the main verb.<br />3/18/2011<br />Presented by Prof. Harbhadrasinh Sarvaiya<br />14<br />
  15. 15. MODALS & AUXILIARIES<br />For example:<br />The Principal was very busy, but still the students managed to meet him.<br />The Principal was very busy, but still the students succeeded in meeting him.<br />3/18/2011<br />Presented by Prof. Harbhadrasinh Sarvaiya<br />15<br />
  16. 16. MODALS & AUXILIARIES<br />4. When we use verbs of ‘perception’ and ‘thinking’ like see, hear, smell, taste, feel and understand, remember etc., we can use could. <br />Could is used with these verbs even if the past situation is a specific situation.<br />3/18/2011<br />Presented by Prof. Harbhadrasinh Sarvaiya<br />16<br />
  17. 17. MODALS & AUXILIARIES<br />For example:<br />We could smell the aroma of delicious food from my aunt’s kitchen.<br />Harish could hear a noise outside his window.<br />The Manager could remember the names of all the employees.<br />3/18/2011<br />Presented by Prof. Harbhadrasinh Sarvaiya<br />17<br />
  18. 18. MODALS & AUXILIARIES<br />5. For negatives, we only use couldn’t or could not for ability in both general or specific situation.<br />For example:<br />My grandmother couldn’t write.<br />The Manager couldn’t remember all the names.<br />3/18/2011<br />Presented by Prof. Harbhadrasinh Sarvaiya<br />18<br />
  19. 19. MODALS & AUXILIARIES<br />6. We use could have + past participle to indicate that someone did have the ability or opportunity to perform an action in the past, but he/she did not do it.<br />For example:<br />Meera could have helped me with the project, but she didn’t.<br />Ramesh could have told Kamala everything, but he chose not to do so.<br />3/18/2011<br />Presented by Prof. Harbhadrasinh Sarvaiya<br />19<br />
  20. 20. MODALS & AUXILIARIES<br />7. Can has no infinitive (to), -ingform or participles. Therefore, if need arises, we use be able to instead of can. <br />For example:<br />In the future, people will be able to live on Mars.<br />(Not: …people will can live on Mars.)<br />3/18/2011<br />Presented by Prof. Harbhadrasinh Sarvaiya<br />20<br />
  21. 21. MODALS & AUXILIARIES<br />Modal Verbs for Permission: Can, could, <br />may, might, be allowed to<br />Generally, we use can, could or may to ask permission.<br />For example:<br />Can I borrow your pen?<br />3/18/2011<br />Presented by Prof. Harbhadrasinh Sarvaiya<br />21<br />
  22. 22. MODALS & AUXILIARIES<br />Note: May is generally used in formal situations. <br />Could I attend your lecture?<br />May we make a suggestion?<br />3/18/2011<br />Presented by Prof. Harbhadrasinh Sarvaiya<br />22<br />
  23. 23. MODALS & AUXILIARIES<br />Note:Can is used by a more authoritative person, and could is more polite and less direct as compared to can.<br />Might is sometimes used to replace may<br /> For example:<br />Might we make a suggestion?<br />3/18/2011<br />Presented by Prof. Harbhadrasinh Sarvaiya<br />23<br />
  24. 24. MODALS & AUXILIARIES<br />2. While giving permission to some one, can and may are used, but NOTcould and might.<br />For example:<br />Ques:<br />Ans.:<br />Can I borrow your bicycle?<br />‘ Yes, of course you can.’<br />3/18/2011<br />Presented by Prof. Harbhadrasinh Sarvaiya<br />24<br />
  25. 25. MODALS & AUXILIARIES<br /> The same statement can also be written as<br />Ques:<br />Ans.:<br />You can borrow my bicycle.<br />Could I make a suggestion?<br />Yes, you may.<br />3/18/2011<br />Presented by Prof. Harbhadrasinh Sarvaiya<br />25<br />
  26. 26. MODALS & AUXILIARIES<br />3. In a conversation, when a reference is made to a law or a rule, i.e. for those things which are already permitted or not permitted, then we use the modals can’t or be (not) allowed to.<br />3/18/2011<br />Presented by Prof. Harbhadrasinh Sarvaiya<br />26<br />
  27. 27. MODALS & AUXILIARIES<br />For example:<br /> In this example, the speaker is not the one to give/not give permission, but he/she is referring to a law/rule made by a third party.<br />You can’t /aren’t allowed to drink alcohol in Gujarat.<br />3/18/2011<br />Presented by Prof. Harbhadrasinh Sarvaiya<br />27<br />
  28. 28. MODALS & AUXILIARIES<br /> For example:<br />In India girls can get married/ are allowed to get married at the age of 18.<br />The students can’t / are not allowed to park their vehicles inside the College ground.<br />3/18/2011<br />Presented by Prof. Harbhadrasinh Sarvaiya<br />28<br />
  29. 29. MODALS & AUXILIARIES<br />4. While referring to permission, which one had got in the past time, we use modals could and was/were allowed to.<br />For example:<br />When I was 10 I could go to school on my bicycle.<br />3/18/2011<br />Presented by Prof. Harbhadrasinh Sarvaiya<br />29<br />
  30. 30. MODALS & AUXILIARIES<br />Was/Were allowed to can also be used in the example that we just saw.<br />When I was10, I was allowed to go to school on my bicycle.<br />3/18/2011<br />Presented by Prof. Harbhadrasinh Sarvaiya<br />30<br />
  31. 31. MODALS & AUXILIARIES<br />Note: However, when we want to say that someone had permission to do something, and he/she did it in a particular past situation, then we must use was/ were allowed to. (couldcannot be used).<br /> We cannot say<br />The players were allowed to take rest yesterday.<br />The players could take rest yesterday.<br />3/18/2011<br />Presented by Prof. Harbhadrasinh Sarvaiya<br />31<br />
  32. 32. Thank you for watching<br /><br /><br />3/18/2011<br />Presented by Prof. Harbhadrasinh Sarvaiya<br />32<br />