Introduction to IR by:Hadaitullah baqri Yugo Baltistan
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Introduction to IR by:Hadaitullah baqri Yugo Baltistan



it will be helful for all political science studends to know the terms which are using now adays in the field of social science.

it will be helful for all political science studends to know the terms which are using now adays in the field of social science.



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Introduction to IR by:Hadaitullah baqri Yugo Baltistan Document Transcript

  • 1. Chapter OneWhat is international relations, it is the relationship of many factors, variableswhich come together to give us meaning to event and situation in internationalpolitics. International relations involves, human rights, diplomatic relations amongstates, humanitarian assistance, bilateral relations, war, conflict resolution, peacetalk, peacekeeping, sport competition among countries and many more that showshow countries interact.International relations basically tell about geopolitics and geo-economics.Geopolitics is how geography influences politics and politics affects geography. Itsometimes involves dispute over territory which might result into conflict or war. Italso involve territorial expansion, human rights, arms races, drug smuggling,refugees and ideological conflict like the problem between the Hindu and Muslimsthat resulted to the partition of the India into the states of India and Pakistan.Geo-economics is how geography influences economics and economics affectsgeography. It sometimes involves dispute over trade, intellectual property right,economic development, Multinational Corporation, industrial policy. It also involveseconomic relations that are not always resolve with violence or war. Realism equals to power politicsRealism is the theory that wants to maintain the status quo. It believes in the statesystem, and sees the state as unitary actor in international politics. The realistbelieves every state is always looking for its survival; therefore every state wouldwant power for its survival. The urge for survival leads to struggle, competition,fear, insecurity and combat among states, hence a state of anarchy arises. Accordingto the realist, an anarchical situation is when there is no central government toforcefully maintain order among states in the international system. Hegemonicpower is believe to be the only solution to the state of anarchy. Therefore hegemonyis the capability of a state to influence other states to follow certain rules. This couldbe diplomatic, political, economic or cultural power.Realist see in every state national interest as their primary interest that is theprotection of their sovereignty that is the protection of the state from insecurity,being influenced and dictated to by another state. The process of protecting andavoiding insecurity threat leads state to maximization of power. Idealism equals to Alternative to power politicsIdealism can simply be understood from three points of view (three schools ofthought) actually, idealism is based on morality as a theory of international politics.
  • 2. The first school of thought believes that states are like individual. Thisidea is based on the view of David Hume and John Locke that human being is notalways bad as the realist believes. They believe that goodness lies in man, whilecustom shapes human behaviour and orientation. Hence, it can be said that humanbeing is the prisoner of his society, because he lives by the norms, rules andregulations (social construct) of his societyThe second school of thought believes that states are not as bad, strugglingto get power or troublesome as hold by the realist, rather failed state are the onesthat portray bad behaviours. Autocratic states are always bad and wanting to go towar. This is why they say democratic states will do not always go to war, althoughthat statement is debateableThe third school of thought believes that states could share certain valueamong themselves; there could be cooperation, goal and aspiration, interactionamong state which could result into international institution. This is one of thereasons why idealism is called an institutional theory. It is as a result of this 3rdschool of thought that such institutions like (League of Nations, United NationOrganization and other regional organization such as SARC, EU, AU, and ASEAN)came to being. Marxist Critical theoryThis theory speaks about how the Marxists view international politics. They believethat the present world order is a world of the capitalist, which has created the haveand have-not, and a structure based on market-value affairs (commodity)It is the belief of the Marxists that capitalism wanted to control the market andmaximise on the potential of the masses for their own benefits. That is capitalists arealways looking for opportunity to exploit the masses. They also see internationalpolitics as the creation of the capitalist, such that the state system has been formedin order to exploit peoples’ raw material at low cost and sell at high price, which iscan be termed as imperialism. So what they are saying is that the concept of nation-state is the product of capitalism. This capitalism system according to the Marxistfurther brought about the structure of dependency. Dependency theory is blamedon capitalist imperialism, which divided the world into three world system. Thesestructures is known as Core or the advance industrial countries of Western Europeand America exploiting the semi-periphery known as the developing countries(partially industrialised countries) and the periphery countries which are known asthe underdeveloped countries with little or no industrialization.Welfare state concept is a bridge between the capitalist and the workers. Socialistas well as Marxist believes that such a state (welfare state) will break down the classsystem which was created by capitalism. In the welfare state everyone will be almost
  • 3. equal, as resources of the state will be evenly distributed and there will be littledifference between the rich and the poor.Feminism is the theory that tries to express the subjugation of women’s role ininternational politics. It basically wants to show that women have also playedsignificant role in the making of international politics. It is wrong to put in thebackground role of women, since there are female prime ministers, president, queenand decision makers. It believes that the whole interpretation of internationalrelation or world politics is masculine, meaning that it is male-centred. It is thedefinition of men only without any reference to women active participation.Postmodernism is another school of thought in international politics thatquestion the whole of international relations as the definition of the world by certainscholars according to their own view. It is believe that all views are equally invalidor incorrect. Meaning that the international relation has multiply reality, no oneshould try to define it only in certain way. There could be many meaning to aparticular thing, the whole is multi-dimensional. This theory goes along with theTraditionalist theory which believes that international relations can not simple beunderstood from graphs, history and simple facts that we table, rather theunderstanding of international politics can come through interdisciplinaryapproach, that is bringing in ideas from different disciplines, field of studies.Constructivism believes in the objectivity reality but without any law otherthan change is constant. Chapter TwoEveryone loves to claim that he is civilised and modern in his behaviour, but thequestion is what is really modern and civilised. Behaviour or attitude that appearsmodern or civilised to particular people might not be modern to many others. Theword modernity is a relative term that can be defined according to one’s view.However, modernity or modernization is a changing phenomenon in politics,economics, socio-cultural and technology. The culture of a particular peoplebecomes acceptable as civilization when such culture attains development andadvance in politics, economics and technology. This gives the reason why certaincivilizations have been adopted because they were modernised.Many nations and civilization have passed away but fell and disappear because theycould not develop as expected. The Chinese civilization, India, Ottoman Empire,Kingdoms in Africa all could not dominate the world as the modern Europeans
  • 4. were able to dominate the world simply because they lacked necessary, effective andefficient technology to subjugate the rest of the world.Europe became a modernised world due to its technological advancement, althoughthis advancement was something gained after many years of wars, conflict anddisunity. In this way one can say that development or modernity is something thatcomes gradually (Evolutionary).Europe became modernised during the age of humanity, an age that human reasonwas seen as the most important thing. Before the time, Europe was under theinfluence of religion, so they believed religion made them underdeveloped, thereforeit is better to abandon religion for rationality.The Chinese empire was a very wide empire which lasted for many years undervarious leaderships. However this empire was faced with series of problems whichmade it lack the ability to conquer the whole or large part of the world. It was facedwith domestic problem of the Mongol invaders; as a result the Chinese emperorstopped all ship from navigating further for new expedition. The emperor becameconcerned with the territorial integrity of China, therefore his power becamerestricted to China and its surrounding.In the same way, the Ottoman Empire was strong militarily, it expanded into theheart of Europe, but along the line the leadership lacked efficient rulers who canbring Ottoman leadership to the rest of the world. It military power was inefficientto subjugate the whole of the world. As a result, but empire could not rule the wholeworld as the Europeans later did.The rise of the Europeans as strong people can be linked to the series of war foughtwithin Europe. Europe became the strongest continent due to war; simply war cannot make someone strong, but during these wars scientific technology of warfarewere developed. Thus, weapons, ships, artillery, gunpowder was modernised amongthe Europeans giving them edge over others, and the capability to conquer the restof the world. One cannot forget that Europe had a very wide and strong empireknown as the Roman Empire. Roman Empire ruled a large part of the world due toits modernised way of leadership. It has great military power, good politicalstructure and sound diplomatic system. However, Roman Empire fell due to what isknown as hegemonic overstretch, meaning that Roman Empire became too wideeven for the Roman emperor to control. Along with that there was domestic disunityamong the ruling elites in Rome so tat also contributed to the fall of the empire.Feudalism, a system that organises people into rigid political, social, andeconomic classes in which land ownership and power is always with small elitewithin the society. It was this system that operates in Europe, where large majorityof people have to work on the farmland of the landlord, elite and powerful ones ofthe society with little benefit.Under this system, the society is structured into four caste or class systems, wherebythere are the nobles, merchants, priests and serfs (masses). There is no movement
  • 5. from one class to the other, especially from the serf to other classes, although nobles,merchants could turn to a priest. The priesthood class is headed by the Pope.Under feudalism, the king though exist but a weak king, whose power is nothing totalk about, the feudal, landlords are stronger and powerful than the kings till the15th century. The pope and the feudal lords control the affairs of Europe, leavingbehind the kings. The lords and merchants were in-charge of trade.Western ImperialismAs it was mentioned above that war contributed to the development of Europe, andits capability to rule almost the whole of the world, this development or period inEurope was known as the age of renaissance, it was a rebirth of learning, wherebynew ideas came to life, new scientific discoveries, development in arts andtechnology was seen around Europe. This age was known as age of humanism,where human reason should be the centre of everything, human being should beable to fulfil his creative and economic potential with his own reason and abilitywithout any interference of God. It was a shift form God-centred Europe to Human-centred Europe.As a result of the new technology and knowledge of navigation European started tosearch for raw materials and resources across the world, therefore both tradeexpedition and imperialism started. Imperialism is simply the conquest of onepeople by another people through force.At the stage the Kings were very much involve in the expedition because it wasprofitable. Most of the kings want huge wealth, therefore they supportedimperialism and more importantly the kings were also involved in the wars becausewar brings wealth and occupation of more land. In this way, there was a goodrelation between the kings and the merchants. It was during that periodprivatization of colonialism started with the stamp and consent of the king.Europeans believe the rest of the world that is not ruled by Europeans belongs tothem. In this way they always say that the rest of world is “No man’s Land”. Mostimportantly, if the land is not Christian, therefore it belongs to European toChristianised. The existence of gunpowder, naval ships, and canons obviously aidedwestern imperialism. Emergence of European Sovereign Nation-StateIt has been mentioned earlier that modernisation always take step by step process,meaning that it is evolutionary. In the same way, European modernization processtook stage by stage process. During the modernization process, Europe got to aperiod known as Reformation, an attempt to reform Catholic Church in Europe,
  • 6. which brought about religious and political confusion. It was a period that saw thethirty years war between Catholics and Protestants (1618-1648). The questionshould be asked why the war. For a long time in Europe, the pope was very strongunder the Catholic Church dictating the affairs in Europe. The Catholic Churchwas in-charge of interpretation of the Bible and many other religious duties. Mostpeople believe the Catholic Church was oppressive, cheating the masses andexploiting. Hence group of people came up to contest the legality of the CatholicChurch, this contestation then resulted to 30years war. The contest was sponsoredby Martin Luther, who wanted new interpretation of the Bible and belittle thepower of the Catholic Church, in way to give religion freedom to the exploitedmasses.After the war ended in 1648, Europeans met at Westphalia to sign an agreementknown as the treaty of Westphalia. The treaty has its idea on the view of a Frenchphilosopher Jean Bodin. It is important that we know the major agreements of thetreaty and the legacy of the treaty for Europe and the rest of the world. The treatyhas four major achievements. (a) The recognition of sovereignty of each state, that isno state must interfere in the affairs of another state. (b) Every king has the right torule over his territory without any interference and can determine his own religion.(c) Every state should be considered independent from other state and must be seenas equal to all other states. (d) The end of pope’s power and the recognition of theking and the fall of feudalism.Hence, the end of the war brought in a new change in Europe, feudalism was shiftedfor absolute monarchy, that is the absolute power of the king ruling with all powersanyone to challenge the king. Hence one can see it is just a shift from one powerfulto another powerful (from feudalism to absolute monarchy). At this stage the kingshad alliance with the financiers for greater trade expedition, more so there wasdevelopment in technology which helped in warfare and imperialism. This periodalso brought about Urbanization, as many people started moving into the urbanarea since there are no more feudal, landlords to work for. People were search forwork in the urban areas to get job for wage.Political RevolutionIt is no doubt that soonest after the 30years war, Europe came under absolutemonarchy rule which only lasted for (1648-1789). It was clear that the kings were aspowerful and oppressive as the former feudal landlords. Therefore any stage cameup when political philosophers in Europe made attempt to contest the absolutepower of the king, so that there would be political freedom and equal representationof the people. This period was known as Enlightenment, a period for development ofpolitical philosophy in Europe, which emphasised on popular political participationof the people. It was a period that gave birth to democracy and openness ingovernance in Europe.The enlightenment broke the power of the king and brought about democracywhich was supported by the slogan of liberty, equality and fraternity. The political
  • 7. philosophers of then spoke against the absolute power of the kings, they wanted themasses to be given appropriate share and recognition. During this period, there washuge literacy rate in Europe so therefore many people came to know what thepolitical philosophers were saying. There was lot of printing press house acrossEurope. This period also contributed to the development of nationalism in Europe.Obvious nationalism is the by-product of urbanization as many people wereassociated themselves with their urban areas and demanded for their rights. On thewhole, there was political revolution from monarchical absolute rule to popularsovereignty, whereby power was shifted from monarch to the people, which can betermed as democracy.Economic RevolutionEurope’s economy changed as a result of many factors, among which was theexistence of economic thoughts that changed the direction of economic interactionand the industrial revolution. What is industrial revolution; it is the change of modeof production from subsistence to industrial production, that is the production oflarger quantities of goods whereby there is surplus and more profit is earned. It isthe start of industries in Europe, whereby Europeans constructed industries forlabour, and people had to work in the new industries. Adam Smith was a prominenteconomic philosopher who gave the idea for large production, although there wereother economists. This economic revolution can simply be said to have come in theshape of the industrial revolution. It resulted in the demand for raw materials bythe European and that also contributed to colonialism and later years imperialismcarried out by the Europeans in Africa and Asia. The industrial revolution startedin Britain, but the question is that why it commenced in Britain and not other partof Europe. The reasons for that are not far fetched. (1) Britain has a systemicagricultural practice, whereby landlords were able to engage in large-scaleproduction, in this way, the production was in surplus able to feed the population aswell as supply the factories. (2) Britain before the industrial revolution has had atrade revolution, such that the British had good trade network both nationally andinternationally. Before the industrial revolution, British merchants and ships havesucceeded in creating trade network around the world, and the influence of Britishmerchant cannot be denied. In this way, Britain was able to sell its industrialproduct around the world. (3) The British had taking the lead in bring togetherscientific knowledge and trade together, hence during the industrial revolution thegovernment helped it scientists to develop and facilitate the industries so thatBritain could maintain leadership among the Europeans.The economic/industrial revolution brought about new life in Europe, it resulted topopulation explosion as many people were moved from the rural areas into theurban towns and cities, therefore there was overcrowded in the towns and cities.
  • 8. Secondly, the economic revolution put away people from their homes, before therevolution many worked as farmers beside their homes but the industries demandpeople to leave their homes for the factories and industries. Thirdly, it broughtabout the situation whereby people have to leave closer to their factories, thus newaccommodations came up and network of trains were made to convey people fromlong distance to their factories.It was this economic revolution that further resulted to more scientific discoverieswithin Europe and made Europe for head and giving the power to maintain thateconomic influence over the rest of the world till today.Western Imperialism’s Second WaveThe second wave of western imperialism was no different from the first only that itwas carried out by same and different powers. It was an aggressive scramble andpartition for land outside Europe. This period was different to the first periodbecause Europeans had became powerful and more industrialised so manyEuropean countries found themselves in Africa and Asia fighting over land andresources. One thing should be clear they this wave of imperialism was seen as therule of the superior over the inferior known as social Darwinism. Europeansbelieved they have to Christianized the people of Africa and Asia and also makethem civilised, however they major intention was the exploitation of thesecontinents.The World WarsThe power and technological advancement of the Europeans coupled with theircolonial expedition triggered two wars in Europe and across their colonies. The 1stwar happened because of geopolitical reason and the assassination of dukeFerdinand of Austria-Hungary. After the war which had caused lost of lives andproperties the Europeans went to a treaty in Versailles known as the Versaillestreaty where fourteen points of Windrow Wilson was tabled and the creation of theleague of nations came to life. The Americans were not part of the 1 st war and didnot join the League of Nations because the US senate refused. The League ofNations was created to maintain peace but that could not be realised, hence the 2ndWorld War came to being. It was the display of Germany, Japan and Italy on oneside and other powers like Britain, France, USA, Russia and China on one part. Thewar ended with the defeat of the Germany, Japan and Italy and the treaty ofPotsdam which brought about the new international organisation commonly knownas United Nations. The war ended with the fall of European powers like France andBritain and the new power of USA and Russia, and the a new destructive weaponknown as nuclear weapon which was firstly used on the Japanese by the USAduring the 2nd WW.
  • 9. Totalitarianism and Fascism, these are authoritarian system of government that isstate-centred that is the state is in charge of the state affair. It monitors both privateand public lives of the people. It is also leadership-centred as the people have to seethe leader like a demi-god. Such a state if repressive as the people do not havefreedom of religion, speech, association and the media is always governmentcensored. It is also a nationalistic system of government where the people are madeto love their country so much that they must not dislike the country or hate theleaders. The state is fully powerful and can do whatever it like with the citizens.Germany under Adolf Hitler and Italy under Benito Mussolini were prominentcountries that practice these systems known as Nazism for Germany and Fascismfor Italy. Another face of such system is communism established in Russia by V.ILenin and later modified by Joseph Stalin. Chapter ThreeWe are always faced with three different words but always used to mean the samething, which in reality have different meanings. Culture, tradition, and civilizationseem to mean the same thing, but in practical terms one should not see them as thesame.Tradition is a sort of knowledge which is gained from one generation to other.Tradition can simply mean norms, values which are agreed upon by certain peoplewithin certain period and later transferred to coming generation. In this way onecan say that tradition which the inherited values we often get from our predecessors.Culture is a broad term which carries with it, human history, tradition, language,social, political and economic behaviour of certain people. Culture is the big picturethat describes people and makes them different and distinctive from others. Therecould be Pantan, Punjabi, Baloch and Sindh culture, and at the same time therecould be culture which carries the way of life of the whole sub-continent. However,you can see that there are differences between Pantan, Punjabi, Baloch and Sindhcultural life, this meant that they share different tradition because they have liveddifferently for several years.The development of culture into a well defined system is what could be calledcivilization. Civilization is the modernization which is reflected in a certain culture,that is when certain people develops their political, socio-cultural, economic, andtechnological behaviour such that it catches the admiration of others and more
  • 10. importantly having ability to influence others people way of life. Then such acultural development is what is known as civilization. The Arabian culture became acivilization simply became they were able to modernise it and it had influence onother, so does the western culture which later developed into a world civilizationknown as the western civilization. But we have to know that before a culture couldturn into a civilization it passes through various stages, it is evolutionary from onestage to the other.Ideology could be creed, doctrine and belief which have be planted in our mind inorder to maintain certain structure or system. In Islam, the belief in one God andother aspects of five pillars is an ideology that is geared to sustain our belief andbeing a Muslim. Ideology is an instrument often used to maintain the continuity ofcertain system, without an ideology system cannot survive. Every system you mighthave thought of such as capitalism, socialism, communism, Islam, Christianity,Judaism, Hinduism, Buddhism, and many other have the ideology driving them.This simply means set of belief that adherent of the system must hold and live with.Nation is a political term which is used for classification of people within certainboundary. Simply a nation has be defined as a unique term used for people sharingcommon tradition, heritage, culture, history, language, living in certain territory forseveral years and believes they are part of a certain ideology. For instance one cansee a lot of nations within the geographical boundary called Pakistan. There arePantans, Punjabi, Baloch and Sindh all believe they are nations. Before the comingof colonial ruling in various parts of Africa and Asia, people were fragmented asnations or ethnic groups, but these colonial rulers merged many of these nationstogether in what are today countries. However, this merge have serious causedproblem because these fragmented nations coming together believed they are notthe same, hence that resulted in conflict seen all over the world.State is a political entity having a territorial boundary in a certain geographicallocation, with considerable people (population), governmental structure, beingeconomically viable to cater for the welfare of the people and having the status ofsovereignty which keeps the state from external influence, that is the state isindependent to determine its own administration and no external government candictate for it. The concept of state is a modern term which had its origin from theWestphalia treaty after the 30years war in Europe between the Catholic Churchand Protestants. If you could remember that the treaty brought about sovereignty ofstate in the shape of the king and its territory. It should be noted that many a timestate and government are interchangeably used as the same. The state cannotfunction without a government and there would be no government without a state.Nation-state is the outshoot of the Westphalia treaty which gave sovereignty tostate. It is a modern term which was transported from Europe to other parts of theworld during and after colonial period. One can say that nation-state is the result ofthe merge we discussed above. This is a situation whereby many nations within a
  • 11. geographical location were brought together as one, so that they can share onestate feature. The mean that a nation-state could be one or many nations comingtogether as a single state, leaving behind their differences for a common goal. Theformation of Pakistan as a country is a lucid example of how different nations ofPantan, Punjabi, Baloch and Sindh and Bengal came together to form a countryknown as Pakistan. On the whole a nation state is a sovereign state whosesovereignty is recognised by other nation-states. Socialization is the process of making a person part of thesociety. It is a process whereby newcomers be it foreigners or adolescents are taught the norms, values, tradition and regulation of the society thereby making them fit for the society. It is a way of making a citizen politically conscious of his society, economically and culturally aware of the demand of the society. Socialization does not happen byitself but follows certain processes and manner, in this way there agents of socialization.The family or home is the 1st agent of socialization at home children learnpolitical lesson such as being respectful to elders, leadership and follower-ship,parent show their children leaders and political figures on the TV a way ofintimating them with politics. The home socialises the children on what the societydemand of them, hence making them fit for the society.Peer group is another agency where socialization takes place. Age-mates meet,discuss, exchange views and share ideas among themselves. During this interactionsocialization takes place as different people come with knowledge learnt from theirvarious homes. In this way, one can learn from his age-mate or peers, however itcould either be positive or negative.The school is another agent of socialization that tries to shape the orientation ofpeople towards the demand of the society, that is being socialized. The school is anavenue where lots of things are taught and learnt. It touches all aspect of humanlives; it could be seen as a continuity of what is taught at home or among the peers.The school is a formalise agent of socialization, most especially theoreticalsocialization is taught in the school, hence the recipient put in to practice at home,among peers and during interaction with the larger society.
  • 12. The religious institutions are also part of the socialization agents thatobviously put into practice lessons of socialization. Religious leaders and home givespractical knowledge especially political aspect of socialization.Governmental institutions and the mass media are other agents ofsocialization where both visual and audio aspect of socialization comes to us. Theimportance of these agents cannot be underestimated. Government institution givesdirect political, economic and socio-cultural lessons which are like compulsory forall government workers to comply with. Likewise, the mass media plays significantrole in socialization from various angles, socialising the general public at everymoments of the day throughout the year.Subculture is a representation of smaller cultures within the bigger society thatis the existence of certain cultures which are part of the society. For instance theUnited States of America might be a nation of English, yet there are various othersubcultures such as the Latinos, Hispanic, African-Americans, Koreans, Chinese,and Asians. Actually the bigger culture in the USA is the English culture, but thecomposition of certain groups of different races or ethnic groups coming intoAmerica with their own culture makes America a multicultural society. Yet lookingfrom the bigger English culture, the existence of those foreigners and their culture istermed as subcultures within the USA.Supranational culture this is the opposite of the subculture as it is thebigger culture which brings together certain people. For instance, Western culture,Asian culture and African culture are supranational cultures in which manynationalities can claim linkage. Even though, Koreans, Chinese and Japanese mightbe different yet them share same Asian culture, so does people from Africa residingin USA or UK might come from different part of Africa yet they share certaincommon African value.Nation building the process by which a government attempts to build anddevelop the economy, political system, and common identity of a nation-state. Ithink it should be clear at this moment that the coming together of many nations toform a nation-state often cause problem and disturb as mentioned above. Hence,most government after gaining independence tried to build the country into oneentity where people of different ethnic group will see themselves as one. Such thatPantans, Punjabi, Baloch and Sindh would call themselves Pakistani then sayingthey are Pantan, Punjabi, Balochi and Sindhi. Nation building demand governmentto make the people see themselves as brothers and make them understand that theirunity is necessary for the oneness of the country. In the same government would tryto evenly distribute the national wealth among the people with discrimination.Multinationalism is the existence of two or more distinct nations, each with alarge population, existing within one nation-state. Before 1971, the west and eats
  • 13. Pakistan were leaving together as Pakistan. Actually both regions are of differentnations (Bengali, Pantans, Punjabi, Baloch and Sindh) all having considerablepopulation within their locations. Hence their existence before 1971 makes it amultinational country. However, the distinction of language and other factorsresulted to the breakaway of East Pakistan into the formation of Bangladesh. Yetthe existence of Pantans, Punjabi, Baloch and Sindh as Pakistan makes itmultinational country. Nationalism and InternationalismThe concept of nationalism is a feeling which we have, or claim to belong to certainnation. It is the identity which we claim so that we can be seen different from others.It is the love of one’s country, whereby we would want the progress of our countryover other countries and our national interest becomes our greatest desire. In theworld system, states obviously relates among themselves which of course bringsabout interdependence. Interdependence is the situation whereby states relies othereach other for progress. State (A) gets something from state (B) and (C) gets from(A and B) since a state cannot have all the resources or materials needed for itgrowth hence it need the help and support of others. This sort of system orrelationship could be termed as internationalism, the cooperation of countries in theinternational system. However due to national interest countries seem to sometimesprefer nationalism to internationalism. Internationalism is seen by smaller state asadvantage for bigger state, because they benefit more from the system. Chapter Four
  • 14. Power and the wealth of NationsThe question we must ask ourselves, is there any relationship between power andwealth, such answer could be answered as our studies goes forth.Power, if we are asked what power is, it is very simple that we always give theanswer as strength, military forces, economic strength and many more. Although allthese are elements of power of in international relations Power is refer to as theability to influence others to do what they would not like to do and it is thecapability to enforce one’s will on other. In this way influence could be madethrough military, political, economic strength and any other ways of influencingothers against their will.Politics is s relative term that could mean different thing to many people.However on a simple term, it is the process of distribution power among interestgroup. It is also the ability to manage, organise both human and natural resourcesin a particular political community. There is a great deal of relation between powerand politics. Since we have said that to influence others against their will is power,then the process of influencing others is politics. In today’s world, states play politicsamong themselves in order to satisfy their national interest. National interestis the primary aim and objective of every country that would like to achieve andwould not allow anything to stop the achievement of these objectives. The morepower a country can use always show its influential status, and the more power acountry has will tell how its politics will be played.Power AssertionThere are certain ways in which countries uses power and show their influenceamong other countries. In international politics, countries show their power throughdiplomacy. Diplomacy is the ability to bargain well with another state such thatone’s state interest is not fully affected. Diplomacy is a give and take process; it is aprocess of compromise. There could be political, economic, socio-culturaldiplomacy.State also shows it power through threat. The more powerful a state is, the moreits ability to give threat. Threat is the situation of insecurity, it is the ability of astate to make another state feel fear and to refuse other state from doing its will,desire and intention. Threat can come in three different ways. (a) Threat could beby compelling another state to do certain things. (b) Threat can also be throughdeterrence that is telling a state that if you continue to carry on with your desirethen you should expect certain consequence. (c) If the state after been compelled
  • 15. and deterred, yet the state still wants to carry on with its desire then defence comesup. Meaning that the powerful state defends itself against the other state.Another way state shows it power is through logic and bribe which isparty of diplomacy. Such that a country might be promised by a powerful countrythat if it dances to a particular tune then certain amount of money will be given to itor the powerful state will help the other state to achieve certain international status.We have to know that before a threat can be considered as threat it must have threebasic elements that is communication, credibility and capability (3c) It isinternational tradition that state must communicate to other state directly orindirectly about it security concern. Communication can come in the form ofshowing military weapons, telling other states that you have certain weapon such asNorth Korea tested nuclear weapon and Iran making military exercise.Credibility is to make other state see the threat as credible. Before a country’sthreat could be considered as threat it is when other states considered it crediblethat is believable, trustworthy and undisputed. However the communication andcredibility of the threat will mean nothing is the country does not havecapability of making threat. Therefore no state will considered a threat exceptwhen they know that the state is capable to making threat and causing harm.Military Alliance, because state feel insecurity and feels threatened, suchsituation makes state to seek for protection. One of the ways state considers ismilitary alliance. Small states go in alliance with big power, such as the alliance ofPakistan with the USA, India with Russia. At the beginning of the cold war,Western Europe went into alliance with the USA under the treaty of North AllianceTreaty Organization (NATO) to curtail the spread of communism. Russia alsoformed military alliance with Eastern Europe known as Warsaw Pact. Militaryalliances have certain advantages such as it ensures security, it relieves militaryburdens, it makes state get military technologies and it gives prestige. In the sameway, it gives certain disadvantages such as losing part of state’s sovereignty, militaryburden and hatred from other states. One thing should be clear that state considerstheir national interest before going into alliance.On a final note, threat can be avoided through many ways such as through militaryalliance, being isolated from world affairs and through self-help that is helpingoneself, because not all time other states will give help.Nature of Power:Power could come in various forms as mentioned above, it be come through politics,economic, socio-cultural and technological strength. Through all these forms
  • 16. countries power are measured. But we have to understand that power is a relativeterm as mentioned above. The scope of power differs from country to country. Whata certain country considers as power might not be power to another country. Forexample, if China considers having 30 bombs as power it might not be power to theUnited States having 100 bombs. So power differs from region to region, country tocountry, continent to continent. It is also good to know that power is not easilymeasure unless it is used. You cannot call yourself a soldier until you go to war, orcall yourself good teacher without teaching.Prerequisites of Power:Under the studies of international relations, power is seen as tangible andintangible. Tangible powers are those elements of power that we can see which arevisible. Examples of tangible powers are military power, natural resources, GrossNational Product (GNP) Geographical size, population, and technology. Whileintangible powers are those elements that can also influence but could not been seen,meaning that they are abstract in existence. Examples on intangible powers arenational cohesion that is if a country is united such that the people are not dividedsimply because they are of different ethnics, they can influence other with suchnational cohesion. Political will, culture, institutions, prestige of a country, massmedia (propaganda), education, secret agencies, religious institution are all elementsof intangible power which a state can use for influencing others.The rich part of the world did not become rich just like that, but it was as a result oftheir power they were able to gain such wealth. If we can go back to history, it willbe clear that it was the power of the Europeans that made it easy for them toconquer Africa and Asia and take away their resources. These resourcescontributed to the wealth of these colonial powers. Similarly, the concentration ofpower in Europe due to many events such as reformation, renaissance, industrialrevolution all gave the Europe and North America economic and political power.Without power there could be no global wealth concentration in certain place.Ranking of PowersIt is obvious that power is relative; therefore power is ranked in accordance tocertain parameter in international politics. Since we have known that certainprerequisites must be present that we call power, it is in the same way, with theseprerequisites power is ranked. The ranking of power goes forth the great power,regional or middle power (Germany & Japan) and small power. Thegreat powers have nuclear and conventional power, the five superpowers; theirpower can be extended all over the world. Regional or middle power alsoconventional military power that is limited to their region. All the countries aresmall powers in their right because they often influence certain event. Consequently,one can say that the power is measured by the national military budget, political will
  • 17. for exerting power, and GDP. We always think that the most power country is thecountry that has the largest military force and power and such country can alwayswin a war. But events have shown that military power and force does not alwaysdetermine who the win will be. Example of Russia in Afghanistan showed that themighty does not always win, equally the problem faced by the United States inVietnam, Britain war with Argentina also shows that winning a war is notdetermined sometimes by military strength. This situation is so because weaponshave now become a globalised thing, there is big market for weapon all over theworld, so third world countries also have weapon and that could make them givethreat.Since power does not necessarily means military force or weapons, there are someelements of power known as Soft power that could also be used by countries towin a war or influence other states. Soft power simply means the power thatnecessarily does goes with military forces or weapons such as mass media, culture,education, and diplomacy.Smaller powers which are represented by the third world countries have managedto face the power of strong countries through various measures. Smaller powershave used the weapon of nationalism, international organisation (UNO) mass media,and modern weapon to stop any aggression of big states.Balance of Power is the distribution of power or acquisition of power by state inresponse to aggressive states. It is the configuration of power in a certain manner.(Balance of power could mean the process of having certain power in order to stopother states from threatening or causing fear, in that the state becomes save andequal in power.) Hence balance of power is a situation whereby there is equality ofpower among states. For instance balance of power can come in the form of alliance,buying weapons or gaining diplomatic strength. India was the most powerful in thesubcontinent after it tested it nuclear weapon, thereafter Pakistan also tested it ownweapon. Such a situation is called balance of power. In international politics, thereis polarity of power, a situation of power distribution to create equality amongstates. After the 2nd World War, the world operates bipolarity (power was balancedand shared between USA and Russia, Capitalism and Communism) Multi-polar isthe situation where there is more than one power and uni-polar is where there isjust one single power.The Nuclear PowerThe nuclear weapon came to existence during the 2nd WW when the USA used theweapon on Japan in order to stop the war, show the rest of the world that it is themost power and a beginning of a new warfare. The nuclear weapon wasmonopolised by the USA but later other countries got the technology and the worldbecame a nuclear world.
  • 18. The existence of the nuclear power means that state would assure themselves ofmutual destruction (Mutual Assured Destruction. MAD). The nuclear weaponobviously has it advantages and disadvantage. Since its existence the world has notgone to a large war like the world wars because it destruction is much. It has alsoleads to arm race among states. Arms race is the process whereby states compete toget considerable power for themselves so as to be saved from external aggression.An example of this was the situation between Pakistan and India.Geo-economics powerAnother source of power is the geo-economics power. The economic power of a statetells the amount of influence such state can exert. Geo-economic power was createdfrom a long time process. Europe and North America became geo-economic poweras a result of certain development in their region. Geo-economic power givesleverage over other. It also permits rich countries to gain advantage of comparativeadvantage than the poor state. Chapter FiveWhat is foreign policy and why we need itForeign policy is the systematic plan, intention, aspiration, and ideals of nay countryon how to deal with its neighbours and the world entirely. Foreign policy tells us thenature of a country, it political position, its economic intention and how a countryview others. Foreign policy is the strategy of a country which will be used as tools todeal and interact with foreign country. Foreign policy often carries the cultural,socio-political and ideological beliefs of a country.Foreign policy is needed because every organization needs a systematic plan if itmust survive and achieve its aim. In the same way a country needs foreign policy soas to organise itself for the future and the present. Foreign policy usually includeshort-terms and long-terms plans of a country. Secondly we need foreign policy soas to understand how to deal with other country. Thirdly we need foreign policy inorder to identify our immediate aspiration, aims and objective. Fourthly, foreignpolicy is needed so that a country can know ways to achieve a better position in theinternational affairs. Lastly a country needs foreign policy so that other countries
  • 19. will understand it, and know how to deal with the country without andconfrontation.What is the role of national interest in foreign policy making?Since foreign policy is a vital aspect of a country, which of tells us the kind ofgovernmental system, political culture and economic position a country has. Manycountries around the world always place the making of their foreign policy onnational interest. Hence the role of national interest in the making of foreign policyis very much important. Firstly, every country makes policy that will suit it andmake it achieve its interest most. That is every country foreign policy is set towardsachieving and protecting the sovereignty of the country. Since we have no that allcountries in the world puts their sovereignty first before any other thing. Sotherefore protection of sovereignty is part of national interest. Secondly, no statewants to discontinue itself, therefore it is part of national interest that a state mustcontinue its existence. In this way if a country wants to make foreign policy it mustbe for the survival and continuity of the country. For instance when USA requestedthe help of Pakistan on Afghanistan, it was in Pakistan national interest to supportitself and see to the continuity of Pakistan than helping its brothers in Afghanistan.Thirdly, national interest tells in foreign policy in that all countries want survivaland struggling among themselves, therefore it is only wise to do things that willfavour one’s interest than making others get over one. Fourthly, national interest inforeign policy explains the fact that a government have the interest of its citizen atheart, because most citizens want their government to make policy that will favourtheir country. Lastly, the influence of national interest can be seen in foreign policyas every country wants to be prestigious among other states and want mutualrespect, therefore when making foreign policy country will consider what is good forits national interest and its prestige and honour among other countries.What does a state want to achieve through its foreign policy?
  • 20. Firstly, a state would want to achieve international prestige and honour with itsforeign policy, because a state is like an individual who likes that everyone respectshim and give him honour. Secondly, foreign policy brings about achievement ofnational interest to a country. Thirdly, a state makes and maintains certain foreignpolicy in order to seek for the good relation with other countries; it might be foreconomic or political interaction. Fourthly, a state will be able to place itself amonglike minds with its foreign policy and that could lead to cooperation among states.For instance if a country has policy which shows good democratic principle thencountry with similar policy will make friend with such a state and that will furtherenhance mutual interaction and friendly atmosphere. Fifthly, a state can eithermake alliance or enemy through its foreign policy, for instance during the cold warperiod, Pakistan foreign policy was directed to the west and that made the USA tomake Pakistan a member of the SENTO and CENTO group. Sixthly throughforeign policy a country can aggressively, systematically carry out its long and shortterm plans. Lastly, a country’s foreign policy makes the country understand howothers feel about it, because very country’s foreign policy at particular point timegets reaction from the neighbouring states or the entire world.Do we need research in foreign policy?Every aspect of international relations has shown a great deal of research potential,and foreign policy is not an exemption. So therefore research is needed on foreignpolicy.One, research becomes essential because it makes us further understand the natureof state behaviour within the international system. Two, it gives us the opportunityto comprehend why state changes their intention, behaviour at every stage andbrings us to the junction of understanding state’s past, present and future. Three,with a research in foreign policy student of international relations can further graspthe up and down, reasons and importance of foreign policy. Four, a research inforeign policy can brings us to the junction of identifying the similarities anddifference among states pattern of foreign policies. Five, a research in foreign policy
  • 21. will help policy makers sharpen their understanding of the world, arguably predictthe future and allow them interpret the past to comprehend the present. Six, aresearch in foreign policy help decision makers to make the best of option whenmaking foreign policy and that will reduce the numbers of making mistakes. Moreimportantly, it helps to broaden the understanding of government institutions andsee how non-state actors often influence the making of foreign policy. Lastly, foreignpolicy research opens a wide range of opportunity to a country to understand othercountries, to be able to see lot of alternatives when making policies and behave inaccordance to international value.How foreign policy is developed?Foreign policy is not just the making of policy makers or group of people sitting inthe government office rather it is a combination of many factors. Making foreignpolicy include public opinion that is knowing the standpoint and view of thegeneral public about certain things so that the citizen would not be offended if thepolicy latter back fire. It has also be clear that a country develop its foreign policybased on the prevalent political culture of the country. This political culture isfurther enhanced through political socialization, which includes the family, peergroups, school, religious institutions, government institutions and the media. All ofthese play important role in the development and making of a country’s foreignpolicy. Secondly, foreign policy is developed on the basis on the government in acountry; the system of government in a country influences the development offoreign policy. For instance, the Central Asia region had passed through 70 years ofCommunism and that has greatly influence lives in that region, hence afterindependence they were still under the influence of their past. Thirdly, the style ofgovernment also matters, be it democratic or autocratic. Fourthly, a countrydevelops its foreign policy through prevalent ideology, the ideology (Islam) withwhich Pakistan was created has great influence on its foreign policy. So does theideology of Zionism also affect the foreign policy of Israel with its neighbouringArab countries? Fifthly, the history and tradition of a country also contributes to
  • 22. the development of foreign policy. For instance the idea of freedom and democracywhich the founding fathers of America built the country has always one of the mostimportant elements of American foreign policy. Chapter 8 Why nation goes to war or stay in peaceWar is a phenomenon that can be understood from many dimensions, simplybecause human characters and behaviours cannot be understood from just onefactor. A person can act in a certain way due to many reasons and factors. In thesame way, people or state goes to war for many reasons. People or state can go towar due to demographic reason that is because of having large population, due tocertain foreign policy adopted by a country, due to history law, religious reasons orbecause of environmental or political reason, even it might be due to economic andsocio-cultural and ideological reason.It is important to know that no country will go to war if the country does not havethe intention or feelings that it will win the war. Most of the times we tend to fightsomebody or our friend because we know we can defeat the person. War has alwaysbeen fought between neighbours and always based on interest. Many countries seewar as way to resolve issue that is with the use of violence. This is why some thinkers
  • 23. continue to ask the question if war will ever end and if man continues to makeweapon then war cannot end, because weapon is meant to be use for violence.According to Karl von Clausewitz (1780-1831) war is a continuity of diplomacywhich involves the use of force and such force does not have limit, since most timewe fight to destroy the opposite person. Historians have seen that war has been aphenomenon that has been with man since the creation of earth; hence war shouldbe understood from certain viewpoints. Political Scientists have come to explain warand why nations go to war based on three levels.Levels of Understanding War:Human Nature and Nurture: It is believed that human being by nature is mad,fearful, competitive and always struggling to get the best. Doing this would mean tostruggle with others, hence struggling or competition might result to conflict andultimately fighting (war). Therefore, we are made to believe that human being isnaturally a war animal. Hence it means that someone might love to fight due to hisinborn character. Secondly, human being becomes warring and loving to fightaccording to the environment he lives. A person that lives in a community wherefighting, trouble and problem is always the way of life would definitely have theinstinct of fighting. This means that he would adopt the system of life which he isused to. In the same way, someone might be peaceful if he lives in a peaceful home,society and grows up among peaceful friends. What this is telling us is that theenvironment with which we are used to often influence our style of doing things. Sotherefore, someone would like war and fighting if he is used to fighting in his home,or as a result of his inborn character of loving the best only for himself and wantingto struggle with others. On this basis of this understanding, social scientists believeSocial Darwinism operates in human society, meaning that one group wants todominate the other group. A particular group wants to survive at the cost of othergroup either by fighting or eliminating them.It is equally believed that due to misperception among human beings, states,and communities the end result has always been war and often an escalating. Thewhole idea behind this is that if we fail to understand each other or try toaccommodate other opinion we might find others in problem and conflict. Hencelisting to others view and trying to bridge communication gap can help to reducewar. Therefore misperception of others view, opinion and idea should be avoidedbecause that has always been part of the reason why we fight and war amongourselves.State levelSecondly, on the state level which explains why state goes to war? State as well asordinary human being goes to war and fight based on the below discussed views.
  • 24. Ideology: Many states have fought due to ideological reason; Christians andMuslims fought themselves due to ideological reason. The west under the leadershipof the United State of America went to cold war with the Soviet Union (Russia) dueto ideology. Pakistan and India have continued to show hatred to each other due toideology. The Serbs in the Balkan region have tried to establish themselves overother group due to ideology. So it is simple to know that countries have went to war(Israel and Palestine) due to ideology and that explains why human being willcontinue to fight themselves if ideology still remain a something important to them.Nationalism, Separatism and irredentism: Many independent states got theirindependence through war with the colonial masters. Nationalist struggle hasalways come with force, for instance in most of the French colonies independencewas obtained through violence. Equally the division of East and West Pakistan wasnot easy with the 1971 war. Furthermore, we have seen that war happens within acountry or countries due to the feeling for separation (Pakistan and Bangladesh) area good example. It was believed that India assisted East Pakistan to gain itsindependence from West Pakistan, hence that we tell us that the hatred between(Pakistan and India) would remain, and that also speak of the issue of Kashmirwhich has been one of the major issue between Pakistan and India. Hence, to gainland (like Kashmir) or to separate from a country is part of reasons why state goesto war with its neighbours or even within itself.Civil war is another example that tells us the infighting in a certain country. Many atimes, people go for civil war for national unity, that is to bring a particular part ofthe country trying to separate back. Equally civil war is fought for nationaldisunity; this kind of civil war can be divided into two. First, civil wars wherebyrebels try to capture the government is known as (state control war) that is the rebelwants to control the state. Second, civil wars whereby certain part of the countrywants their freedom or seek independence to form their own separate country isknown as (state formation war)this kind of civil war occurs in failed state that iscountry that is not politically stable.Another reason why state goes to war is due to Economic interest groups in acertain country. In many of the developed country where they have powerfulmilitary complexes and industries that produce weapons for export such industrieswould like to sell their products (weapons) and by that they could influence thegovernment to go to war so that their products could be used because they will gainhuge money from it. The military industry in the United States is a very goodexample that has influence on the government and that explains the war in Iraqbecause it favours the industry. Secondly, there are many people (economic interestgroup) that gain from war, for this reason they would always like war because withthat they can make lot of profit.
  • 25. International LevelInternational SystemFurthermore, it is believed that the structure of the international system can alsoinfluence war. Since the international structure is known to be anarchical wherethere is no central government, whereby states can act on their own wish. Such asystem man feels could make state goes to war when they feel it is in theiradvantage. However it is has been noted that no state will go to war if it has nofeeling of winning the war.Balance of Power and Arms RaceStates can also go to war due to insecurity. If there is tension between two countrieswhereby one if fearful that the other is building store of weapons, then the fearfulwill also try to get weapon so as to balance the situation. This sort of insecurity leadsto what is known as arms race. Hence arms race and insecurity goes together andexplains why state might go to war. So war can occur if one state intends to balancethe power of the other state.Hegemony StabilityState can always go to war for hegemonic stability. This means that if a particularstate is the most powerful that does not want other states to balance or overpower it.Therefore it would like that all states comply to its wishes. So in order to stabilise ithegemony it might sometimes go to war as necessary measure. This hegemonystability is often in the strengthening of one’s economic and technological power.Alliance, Interdependence, Security communities and WarState can also go to war if they belong to certain security community or in alliancewith a powerful state. Since one is a friend to powerful people, that might influenceone to misbehave, and that also relates to states if they are in alliance with powerfulstate or belong to a security community. Alliance and security community oftenhave the rule that if a state among them is attacked, it means all other states of thealliance will stand against and fight the attacker. This is an example of collectivesecurity which many security community and alliance holds.International morality and WarOn this aspect, we are made to understand that the international system does notappreciate morality, instead it is interest that matter most to every state (Statenational interest) On this basis war has always been one of the international featuresdue to lack of morality, that is respecting others or thinking about the damage warcan cause. This leads us to the situation people see war as part of justice (just war).Some states believe that war is just and right if it is used to wash away world
  • 26. problem. For instance the war in Iraq and Afghanistan are seen as just war becauseit is used for fighting terrorism and sending away tyrant rulers.Democracy and DevelopmentLastly, since we have known why state goes to war from the three levels ofunderstanding that is human, state and international levels. Yet some people arguethat war can be reduced if certain things are practiced. For instance, if all thecountries in the world are democratic, hence there would be no war, becausedemocracy does not go for war. They believe that democratic country respect peoplelives and would rather go for dialogue, compromise and diplomacy than going towar. Secondly, it is also believed that development reduces the spirit for war. A richcountry will not want war because that will destroy its development and progress.Hence if all countries are developed war will become a thing of the past and moreimportantly the more interdependence the world is the more war will be reduced asnations have strong cooperation among themselves, friendly and do not want war. Chapter 9Cold WarConsequence of the Cold War…… (As explained in the class)
  • 27. Chapter 10Nuclear WeaponA remarkable landmark was set in the art of warfare at the tail end of the SecondWorld War 1945, when United States for the very first time set an indisputablemessage to both allies and foes that it is at the topmost of military power. Thislandmark event was portrayed in the Hiroshima and Nagasaki scenarios; it was a
  • 28. new episode and phenomenon in the theatre of warfare. It is very much apparentthat the dawn of nuclear weapon in the history of human warfare meant a totaldestruction as was the case in Japan. Secondly, the presence of nuclear power andweapon did pave the way for a massive consequence in warfare, as its use is bothconsequential and devastating.It also follows that the dawn of the weapon was geared towards achieving anultimate goal, that was to stop the Second World War from the Japanese end as theflame and strength of the war was going beyond expectation. Thus, it worthsubmitting at this juncture that the utility of the nuclear bomb was rational. Firstly,using the bomb eliminated the emotion, will, morale of the diehard Japanese knownfor their courageous and uncompromising will on battle-front. Hence, the bombsilenced their will and showed the strength and effectiveness of the bomb. Secondly,winning a war meant demoralizing the opponent and total victory; on that note, thebomb used by the US was an exhibition of military strength and new style in the artof warfare. Thirdly, it was also meant to bring about the earliest possible surrenderof the Japanese, and an end to the long and costly war. Fourthly, Japan became thetesting ground for the US to portray the level of her advanced technology and moreimportantly to sending a signal to its Soviet rival. The US bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki gave the Soviets still more reason to distrust and suspect the intentions of the United States. Each point of disagreement was magnified, each misunderstanding became a weapon, and each hostile act was positive proof of the other side’s evil intention.1The end of the Second World War opened a new chapter as the nuclear age beganwith the use of the new weapon of unprecedented destructive power, a weapon thatsignified a magnificent product of pure physics.2
  • 29. The rationale behind the nuclear age and it utility was that the bomb was meant toenhance a shock value. Evidently, the nuclear age brought in more problems forman as greater health related problems were incurred, lot of destruction humanlyand materially. The long time consequence of the war cannot be underestimated, asthe use of the weapon was questioned and tons of blame was shouldered upon theUS for bringing alive such weapon.As the world drew the curtail of the Second World War and the dawn of the nuclearage, conflicting interests crept up between the two Super Powers. Without any iotaof doubt, the United States maintains an edge over the Soviet on the premise of thenew technology of nuclear weapon. By that, both the Soviet and other Europeannations became resentful with the feeling of threat, and ultimately joined the wagonof nuclear powers. A nuclear race began which of course turned the pages of historyinto a nuclear deterrence world. Perhaps it is mentionable that the dawn of nucleardeterrence (race) sealed the door to a more devastating and destructive war, as waswitnessed in the 2nd Word War.However, prior to the attainment of new technology by the Soviet, Europeans andother latecomers, the United States did maintain and control a monopoly of this newatomic technology through secrecy and monopoly of nuclear raw materials. Thatperiod could be depicted as an era of domination by the U.S. Washington was andnot at any particular time ready to share it’s military and nuclear technology withanyone even its closest allies. That of course is a propensity of making itself superiorabove others. In order to affirm its hegemony of nuclear technology, the UnitedStates sought the establishment of an international organisation that would controlthe acquisition of new technology by other nations.Since the use of the nuclear weapon buttered the hatred and mistrust between theSuper Powers, it is no doubt that the Soviet would not accept any hegemonic postureof the US in that respect. Hence, the Soviet Union demanded that the United States
  • 30. unilaterally destroy its existing stockpile prior to the creation of any internationalauthority.3 Impact of the Nuclear weapon on international Politics1, Deterrence, the nuclear weapon create an atmosphere of deterrence that is tomake other state fear consequences of attacking. States measure the cost andbenefits of going to war since nuclear war was so powerful and could cause seriousdamage. So the nuclear weapon deter states from fighting or going to war as in thecase of Pakistan and India after both countries got nuclear weapons. No state readyto lose.2. The nuclear weapon facilitates interdependence among states, since no statewants to lose and wants war, hence they would rather have a good relations byfostering economic, socio-cultural and political interaction. We have mentioned thatindustrialised countries where development is taking place do not fight to waramong themselves.3. The nuclear weapon helps to save the world from eliminating civilization, becauseof the destructive nature of the weapon which can cause serious and unthinkabledamage. Hence by having the weapon the international system was saved ofeventual elimination of world civilization.4. The nuclear weapon as a result of its nature helps to reduce the tendency of widerworld like the 1st and 2nd World War where many lives and properties were lost. Wecannot say that seen the nuclear weapon there has been no war, but the scale ofthese wars were not as wide as the 1st and 2nd World War.5. The new weapon also brought about a new style of warfare into the internationalsystem that is strategic and tactical warfare. It is a mutual assured destruction(MAD) meaning that if war comes up with nuclear weapon in use there will bemassive destruction which is quite different from the kind of war before the nuclearweapon was invented.6. The nuclear weapon brought about institutionalization of weapons. Due to itsnature the nuclear states and other non-nuclear states came to the agreement that a
  • 31. regime should be institutionalise that will monitor the nuclear technology such asthe Non-proliferation treaty (NPT) and International Atomic energy agency (IAEA)7. The new weapon also strengthened the concept of balance of power in theinternational system.8. It also contributed to the arms race, whereby states want to get weapon to protectthemselves because they feel unsecured. Pakistan became insecure when India gother nuclear weapon so therefore Pakistan also raced to get the nuclear weapon andthat created a balance of power but also increased arms race.9. The nuclear weapon brought about discrimination in the international system,simply because some countries have the technology and some do not have, hence anuclear technology monopoly. So it is this monopoly that pushes other have-notcountries to want to acquire the weapon as Iran and North Korea are accused ofwanting nuclear weapon.
  • 32. Chapter 11The changing Nature of WarIt has been established why human being goes to war as explained by the threedifferent levels of understanding war. One has no doubt in his or her mind thatwarfare in the present age has changed remarkably. The style and tactics of today’swar is very much different from the kind of war fought in the olden days with crudeweapons. In today’s war there is more destruction which could have never beenthought of in the past. As observed above that the dawn of the nuclear age whichbrought in the nuclear technology and nuclear weapon made today’s war very muchsophisticated and destructive.Hence what is war and how could be describe war. Before going into definition wehave to understand that war can be as a result of civil strife, struggle resulting towhat is usually called civil war. It could also be a struggle against colonial rule,leading to war of independence. In the same fashion, war could be as a result ofconflict of ideology as seen in India-Pak partition in 1947. It is very much easy towitness war if there is nationalist struggle. More familiar to us is the war betweenstates often called interstate war. According to a research called out by MichiganUniversity, an estimate of 1000 persons or causalities was identified as the numberwhich would determine that a conflict has turned into war. However such anestimation is non-binding it could be differ to others understanding of war. Yet wecan still accept it as a parameter to determine a war.Hence what is war: War is an aggression involving the use of violence, weapon, andcombatants often between or among states. The development attained in warfare isprimarily as a result of technology, coupled with the availability of resources andcapital investment. Hence there would be no war, without violence, weapon,combatant, technology, resources and finance.However we have to quickly register a fact that today’s warfare has moved beyondborder, it could be intercontinental or global. It is no more war among Europeans,
  • 33. Asians or Africans. Today’s war technology can move war beyond border. Secondly,advance communication, transportation have equally enhanced today’s war.Before 1945 most of the wars had been on the European soil as well as in thecontinent of Asia and Africa. But by the end of the 2nd World War, European endedtheir war due to the destruction incurred. There was a big shift after 1945 such thatmost of wars happen to take place in the third world countries but that was sobecause after the 2nd World War most the colonies started demanding for theirindependence which often times result to war. Even after attaining independencethese independent countries find themselves in civil wars as result of the badcolonial arrangement which divided the people and make them hate themselves.Sometimes it is argued that democracy doesn’t go to war, that of course might beright yet we have seen that many democracies had gone to war. Perhaps Americawhich claims the leader of the civilised war and democracy had gone to severalwars: Lebanon (1982-84) Grenada (1983) panama (1990) Persian Gulf (1990)Somalia (1992) Haiti (1994) Bosnia (1990s) Kosovo (1999) All of these wars were toprotect American interest, that explains that regardless of the type of governmentalsystem, there could always be war if national interest is in question.Modern war in strategic studies is characterised as 3CI (communication, control,command and intelligence) all of these are essential in modern warfare. In view ofthis, today’s war has become mechanised with weapon which are hi-tech operatedand mechanical. It also involve the use of the computer as we have seen in videogame, perhaps in order to disrupt the communication system of an enemy computervirus is used.
  • 34. Chapter 12Chapter 13Chapter 14Chapter 15Chapter 16