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    Tissues3 Tissues3 Presentation Transcript

    • Tissues!
      • Four types of tissues
        • Connective
        • Muscular
        • Epithelial
        • Nervous
    • Epithelial Tissues
      • A sheet of cells that covers a body's surface
      • Lines a body's cavity
      • The major function of epithelial tissue includes protection, secretion, absorption, and filtration.
      • Cells can be thin, flat to cubic to elongated
      Simple Stratified
    • Simple Epithelial
      • Three types of simple epithelial tissues
        • Simple squamous
        • Simple cubiodal
        • Simple columnar
      Squamous Cubiodal Stratified Columnar
    • Simple Squamous Epithelial
      • Allows passage of materials by diffusion and filtration where protection is important.
      • All Squamous cells are flat cells with an irregular flattened shape and their cytoplasm is sparse
      • Thin and permeable this epithelium is found where filtration or the exchange of substance by rapid diffusion
      • A one-cell layer of simple squamous epithelium forms the alveoli of the respiratory membrane.
      Simple Stratified
    • Simple Cubiodal Epithelial
      • Consists of a single layer of cells as tall as they are wide
      • Forms the wall of the smallest ducts of glands and many kidney tubules
      • Functions are secretion and absorption
      • Located in the kidney tubules, ducts and secretory portions of small glands
      Simple Stratified
    • Simple columnar epithelial
      • Columnar epithelial cells occur in one or more layers
      • Functions are absorption, secretion of mucus enzymes
      • Lines the digestive tract from the stomach through the rectum
      • Displays cilia on their free surfaces, which moves substance or cells through an internal passageway.
      Simple Stratified
    • Stratified Epithelial
      • Contains two or more cell layers
      • The basal cells divide and push apically to replace the older surface cells
      • More durable than simple epithelial
      • protects
      Transitional Squamous Cubiodal columnar Pseudostratified
    • Stratified Squamous Epithelial
      • Thick membrane composed if several layers
      • Protects underlying tissues in areas subjected to abrasion
      • Found in the areas subjected to wear and tear, and its surface cells are being rubbed away and replaced by division of its basal cells
      Simple Stratified
    • Pseudostratified columnar epithelium
      • Single layer of cells of differing heights, some do not reach free surface.
      • The nuclei lie at different levels above the basement membrane
      • Secretes and absorbs substances
      Simple Stratified
    • Stratified cuboidal epithelial
      • Rare
      • Found in the ducts of some of the larger glands
      • Has two layers of cubiodal cells
      • The cells function in secretion and protection
      Simple Stratified
    • Stratified columnar epithelium
      • Limited distribution in the body
      • Small amount are found in the pharynx
      • Occurs at transition areas or junctions between two other types of epithelium
      Simple Stratified
    • Transitional Epithelium
      • Forms the lining of hollow urniary organs
      • The cells of the basal layer are cubiodal or columnar
      • Stretches readily and permits distension of urniary organ by contained urine
      • Resembles both stratified squamous and stratified cubiodal
      Simple Stratified
    • Muscular Tissues
      • Highly cellular
      • Three types of muscle tissue
        • Skeletal
        • Cardiac
        • smooth
      Voluntary Involuntary
    • Voluntary muscle
      • Contractile tissue of the body
      • Derived from the mesodermal layer of embyonic germ cells
    • Skeletal muscle
      • Tissue is packed by connective tissue organs, they are called skeletal muscles
      • Attached to the bones of the skeleton
      • Form flesh of the body
      • Pull on bones or skin causing body movements
      Voluntary Involuntary
    • Involuntary muscle
      • Produce movements over which we have no control
      • Made up of bundles of fibers which are composed of elongated cells
      Smooth Cardiac
    • Cardiac Muscle
      • Found in the wall of the heart
      • Its contractions help propel blood through the blood vessels
      • Located in the walls of the heart
      Smooth Involuntary
    • Smooth muscle
      • Its cells have no visible striations
      • Spindle shaped cells with central nuclei
      • Cells arranged closely to form sheets
      • Located in the walls of hollow organs
      Cardiac Involuntary
    • Connective tissue
      • Found everywhere in the body
      • Widely distrubuted of the primary tissues
      • Four main classes of connective tissue
        • Connective tissue proper
        • Cartilage
        • Bone tissue
        • blood
      Connective tissue Proper Cartilage Blood Bone
    • Connective tissue proper
      • Wraps and cushions organs
      • Holds and conveys issue fluid
      • Located under the epithelia of body
      • Two subclasses
        • Loose connective tissues
          • Areolar
          • Adipose
          • reticular
        • Dense connective tissues
          • Dense regular
          • Dense irregular
          • Elastic
      Loose Dense
    • Loose Connective Tissue
      • Loose connective tissues
          • Areolar
          • Adipose
          • reticular
      Areolar Reticular Adipose
    • Dense Connective Tissue
        • Dense connective tissues
          • Dense regular
          • Dense irregular
          • Elastic
      Regular Irregular
    • Areolar connective Tissue
      • Supports and binds other tissues
      • Holds body fluids
      • Defends against infection
      • Stores nutrients as fat
      Loose Dense
    • Reticular Connective Tissue
      • A network of reticular fibers in a typical ground substance
      • Located in Lymphoid organs
      • Fibers form a soft internal skeleton that supports other cell types including white blood cells,mast cells and macrophages
      Loose Dense
    • Adipose connective tissue
      • Provides reserve food fuel
      • Insulates against heart loss
      • Supports and protects organs
      • Located under the skin and around kidneys
      • Has high metabolic activity
      Loose Dense
    • Dense regular connective tissues
      • Parallel collagen fibers
      • The major cell type is the fibroblast
      • Attaches muscles to bones or to muscles
      • Located in tendons, ligaments, aponeuroses
      Loose Dense
    • De nse Irre gular Connective Tissue
      • Irregularly arranged collagen fibers
      • Forms sheets in the body areas where tension is exerted from many different directions
      • Found in the skin as the leathery dermis, and forms joint capsules and the fibrous coverings that surround organs
      • Able to with stand tension exerted in many directions
      • Provides structural strength
      Loose Dense
    • Cartilage
      • Stands up to both tension and compression
      • Lacks nerve fibers and its avascular
      • Receives nutrients by diffusion
      • Three varieties of cartilage
        • Hyaline cartilage
        • Elastic cartilage
        • fibrocartilage
      Hyaline Elastic Fibro cartilage
    • Hyaline Cartilage
      • Supports and reinforces and resists compressive stress
      • Forms most of the embryonic skeleton,
      • Covers the ends of long bones in joint cavities
    • Elastic Cartilage
      • Identical to hyaline cartilage
      • Found where strength and stretchability is needed
      • Maintains the shape of a structure while allowing great flexibility
      • Supports the external ear
    • Fibro cartilage
      • Has tensile strength with the ability to absorb compressive shock
      • Has tensile strength with the ability to absorb compressive shock
      • Located in interverebral discs, pubic symphysis, and disc of knee joint
    • Bone (osseous tissue)‏
      • Hard calcified matrix containing many collagen fibers, lie in lacunae
      • Bone supports and protects
      • Provides levers for the muscles to act on
      • Stores calcium on other minerals and fat
    • Blood
      • Transports of respiratory gases, nutrients, wastes
      • Classified as a connective tissue because develops from mesenchyme and consists of blood cells
      • Contained with blood vessels
      • Majority if blood cells are red cells
    • Nervous Tissue
      • Highly specialized nerve cells that generate and conduct nerve impulses
      • Neurons are branching cells
      • Transmits electrical signals from sensory receptors and to effectors with control activity
      • Located in brain, spinal cord, and nerves
    • Credits
      • http://www.germes-online.com/direct/dbimage/50165020/Facial_Tissue_Box.jpg
      • http://www.buildsize.com/images/bicep.jpg
      • http://cytochemistry.net/Cell-biology/Medical/25092.JPG
      • http://micro.magnet.fsu.edu/primer/anatomy/brightfieldgallery/images/pseudostratifiedcilialarge.jpg
      • http://images.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://biology.clc.uc.edu/fankhauser/Labs/Anatomy_%26_Physiology/A%26P201/Epithelium/esophagus_400x_PA041991.JPG&imgrefurl=http://biology.clc.uc.edu/
      • http://biology.ucf.edu/~logiudice/zoo3713/Files/image015.gif
      • http://images.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://biodidac.bio .
      • http://www.mhhe.com/biosci/ap/histology_mh/smmusc.jpg
      • http://micro.magnet.fsu.edu/primer/anatomy/brightfieldgallery/images/mammalcardiacmusclesmall.jpg
      • http://images.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://www.pathguy.com/histo/052.jpg&imgrefurl=http://
      • http://www.udel.edu/biology/Wags/histopage/colorpage/cct/cctrct.GIF
      • http://www.cytochemistry.net/microanatomy/connective_tissue/00004525.jpg
      • http://washington.uwc.edu/about/faculty/schaefer_w/TISSUES/hyaline_cartilage1.jpg
      • http://virtual.yosemite.cc.ca.us/randerson/Lynn's%20Bioslides/119.jpg
      • http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/images/ency/fullsize/1679.jpg
      • http://content.answers.com/main/content/wp/en-commons/thumb/3/34/350px-Blood_smear.jpg