Edm E Drive Orlando Conf Mar2009 V14b

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  • 1. EDM Resources Inc. Harmonic Drive Motor-Generator Technology A New Approach To: High Torque, Variable, Low Speed Motor Generator Technology E. Davison PhD. PEng. Orlando March, 2009
  • 2. EDM Resources Inc. © 2009 Overview / Outline 1. Introduction Overview / Outline 2. Harmonic Motor Technology Primer 3. EDM Resources Harmonic Drive Motor 4. Applications & Benefits 5. Summary 6. Q&A WARP, high torque, High Efficiency High Torque Motor, Navy, electrification, aircraft flap actuator, replace hydraulics, wheel motor, nose motor, harmonic drive motor, harmonic motor, davison, patent Harmonic Drive Motor-Generator Technology 2
  • 3. EDM Resources Inc. © 2009 1. Introduction • EDM Resources Inc. Background  Based in Moffat Ontario Canada since June 1998  Sole assignee of related patents  Contact: edmresourcesca@aol.com • E. Davison PhD, PEng  President and founder of EDM Resources  Sole inventor of related patents  Developer of innovative high torque density motor-generator technology since 1965 WARP, high torque, High Efficiency High Torque Motor, Navy, electrification, aircraft flap actuator, replace hydraulics, wheel motor, nose motor, harmonic drive motor, harmonic motor, davison, patent Harmonic Drive Motor-Generator Technology 3
  • 4. EDM Resources Inc. © 2009 2. Harmonic Motor Technology Primer • Harmonic Drive Motor-Generator Technology  Combination of harmonic gear and reluctance motor technologies  Major claimed benefits of HDMG technology:  High torque & power density  Lower cost - reduced parts count  Rugged construction, high reliability (stationary rotor)  Independent control of: torque, speed & position  Tolerant of repeated impact torque  High torque2 / low rotational inertia ratio  Four quadrant operation, plus regenerative braking (without relays) WARP, high torque, High Efficiency High Torque Motor, Navy, electrification, aircraft flap actuator, replace hydraulics, wheel motor, nose motor, harmonic drive motor, harmonic motor, davison, patent Harmonic Drive Motor-Generator Technology 4
  • 5. EDM Resources Inc. © 2009 2. Harmonic Motor Technology Primer • Harmonic Gears  Developed by C.W. Musser in 1950’s  Harmonic Gears provide unique advantages such as:  Compact & light weight  High Reduction Ratio in a Single Stage (30:1 to 300:1)  High Torque Capability (up to 50% of teeth in mesh)  High resistance to repeated impact torque  Low tooth contact pressure & wear  Tooth contact is surface as opposed to line contact (no Hertzian stress)  Zero Backlash WARP, high torque, High Efficiency High Torque Motor, Navy, electrification, aircraft flap actuator, replace hydraulics, wheel motor, nose motor, harmonic drive motor, harmonic motor, davison, patent Harmonic Drive Motor-Generator Technology 5
  • 6. EDM Resources Inc. 2. Harmonic Motor Technology Primer • Harmonic Gear vs Other Gear Types Harmonic Epi- Herring Single Helical Characteristic Gear cyclic bone Worm Worm 1 Speed Ratio 100 97 96 108 100 2 Efficiency (%) 82 85 85 40 78 3 # of Gears 2 13 4 2 4 4 # of Bearings 2 17 6 6 6 5 Pitch line velocity (ft/min) 18 1,500 1,500 1,500 1,500 6 Tooth sliding velocity (ft/min) 28 2,500 2,500 1,500 2,500 7 Tooth contact pressure (psi) 605 50,000 50,000 5,000 50,000 8 Teeth in contact (%) 50 7 5 2 3 9 Safety factor 36 3 2 2 2 10 Height (in) 6 13 14 23 16 11 Length (in) 6 15 20 19 17 12 Width (in) 6 13 10 14 10 3 13 Cubic volume (in ) 216 2,500 2,800 6,100 2,700 14 Weight (lb) 30 246 280 230 205 15 Tooth contact Surface Line Line Line Line 16 Quiet operation Yes No Yes Yes Yes WARP, high torque, High Efficiency High Torque Motor, Navy, electrification, aircraft flap actuator, replace hydraulics, wheel motor, nose motor, 17 Balanced forces harmonic drive motor, harmonic motor, davison, patent Yes Yes No No No Ref “Gear Design and Application by N. Chironis, ISBN 0070107874 ” Harmonic Drive Motor-Generator Technology 6
  • 7. EDM Resources Inc. 2. Harmonic Motor Technology Primer • Harmonic Gears Principle of Operation  2 closely spaced concentric splined interfacing gears with the number of teeth on the inner gear being fewer in number than the outer gear  An elliptical cam wave generator causes a fraction of the teeth to mesh at 2 opposite poles with up to half of the teeth being in contact  Reduction ratio = (# flex spline teeth - # circular spline teeth) # flex spline teeth Reduction Ratio = (200 – 202) = 100:1 Circular Spline Gear 200 Flexispline Gear (Variable Between 30:1 to 300:1) Elliptical Cam Wave Generator Motor Shaft Input WARP, high torque, High Efficiency High Torque Motor, Navy, electrification, aircraft flap actuator, replace hydraulics, wheel motor, nose motor, harmonic drive motor, harmonic motor, davison, patent Image courtesy of wikipedia.org Image courtesy of Harmonic Drive LLC Harmonic Drive Motor-Generator Technology 7
  • 8. EDM Resources Inc. 2. Harmonic Motor Technology Primer • Switched Reluctance Motor Principle of Operation  SRM invented by Davidson (Scotland, 1838)  Rotation & torque achieved by energizing the stator coils sequentially  Rotor position determines which coils are energized (commutation is critical)  Field & rotor rotate in opposite directions  # of rotor poles must be different from # of stator poles to avoid starting problems  # of working strokes/rev = 24 Controller & (for 8 stator poles & 6 rotor poles) Commutator 8/6 4 phase SRM Image courtesy of Switched Reluctance Motor Drives By Ramu Krishnan WARP, high torque, High Efficiency High Torque Motor, Navy, electrification, aircraft flap actuator, replace hydraulics, wheel motor, nose motor, harmonic drive motor, harmonic motor, davison, patent Harmonic Drive Motor-Generator Technology 8
  • 9. EDM Resources Inc. © 2009 2. Harmonic Motor Technology Primer • Switched Reluctance Motor Principle of Operation  Benefits  Good stall endurance  Fault tolerant & reliable  High torque to inertia ratio (acceleration)  Lower cost due to robust construction & ease of manufacture  High torque density  Ability to withstand higher Typical SRM Torque-Speed Curve temperature environment (Harmonic Drive Motor-Generator Similar) Torque WARP, high torque, High Efficiency High Torque Motor, Navy, electrification, aircraft flap actuator, replace hydraulics, wheel motor, nose motor, harmonic drive motor, harmonic motor, davison, patent Speed Harmonic Drive Motor-Generator Technology 9
  • 10. EDM Resources Inc. © 2009 3. EDM Resources Harmonic Drive Motor • EDM Resources Harmonic Drive Motor  Covered by US (7,453,176) and WPO (WO/2004/025815) patents  Sometimes referred to as “High Efficiency High Torque WARP Motor”  Fundamental difference between EDM HDMG and other electrical motors:  Only motor technology exploiting the large radial force which is 20+ times that of the tangential torque force “For example, an 8/6 SRM with a ratio of radius to air gap equaling 100, the ratio between the radial and tangential forces is found to be 26.19; therefore, the radial force is always multiple times that of the tangential force in the SRM and the same can be said for other electrical machines.” (ref Krishnan: Switched Reluctance Motor Drives: Modeling, Simulation, Analysis, Design, and Applications ISBN 0-8493-0838-0, CRC Press 2001, p356actuator, replace hydraulics, wheel motor, nose motor, WARP, high torque, High Efficiency High Torque Motor, Navy, electrification, aircraft flap section 7.2.1.1 ) harmonic drive motor, harmonic motor, davison, patent Harmonic Drive Motor-Generator Technology 10
  • 11. EDM Resources Inc. © 2009 3. EDM Resources Harmonic Drive Motor • EDM Resources Harmonic Drive Motor  Major differences between EDM HDMG and other electric motors  High torque density  Traditional rotor is replaced by a stationary (non rotating) element  Stator windings occupy space normally occupied by traditional rotor  No rotor = no rotor inertia or windage  Unipolar DC pulse excitation – minimal flux reversal and iron losses  Independent concurrent control of: torque, speed and position Fr = 20 x Ft Ft Very High + = Torque Density WARP, high torque, High Efficiency High Torque Motor, Navy, electrification, aircraft flap actuator, replace hydraulics, wheel motor, nose motor, Very Large Radial Force Fpatent harmonic drive motor, harmonic motor, davison, r Harmonic Gearing (100:1) (replaces elliptic cam wave generator) Harmonic Drive Motor-Generator Technology 11
  • 12. EDM Resources Inc. © 2009 3. EDM Resources Harmonic Drive Motor • Motor Construction (experimental prototype) Flexispline (Rotatively Fixed with internal teeth) Stator Windings (replaces elliptical cam wave generator) Output spline gear/flange Bearings (2) WARP, high torque, High Efficiency High Torque Motor, Navy, electrification, aircraft flap actuator, replace hydraulics, wheel motor, nose motor, harmonic drive motor, harmonic motor, davison, patent (with external teeth) Harmonic Drive Motor-Generator Technology 12
  • 13. EDM Resources Inc. © 2009 3. EDM Resources Harmonic Drive Motor • Motor Construction – Single Output (two alternatives) Flexispline- Teeth on inside Output gear rotation direction - opposite to field rotation Windings Bearings (2) Output gear (rotates) Flexispline- Teeth on outside WARP, high torque, High Efficiency High Torque Motor, Navy, electrification, aircraft flap actuator, replace hydraulics, wheel motor, nose motor, harmonic drive motor, harmonic motor, davison, patent Output gear rotation direction - same as field rotation Harmonic Drive Motor-Generator Technology 13
  • 14. EDM Resources Inc. © 2009 3. EDM Resources Harmonic Drive Motor • Motor Construction - Continuous Through Shaft  Applications: ship propulsion, aircraft wing flap actuators, electric power assist steering Output gear (rotates) Continuous through shaft construction or linear screw Motors coupled in series for minimized packaging with high torque density or distributed high torque WARP, high torque, High Efficiency High Torque Motor, Navy, electrification, aircraft flap actuator, replace hydraulics, wheel motor, nose motor, harmonic drive motor, harmonic motor, davison, patent Harmonic Drive Motor-Generator Technology 14
  • 15. EDM Resources Inc. © 2009 3. EDM Resources Harmonic Drive Motor • Motor Forces  Force is generated by rotating electromagnetic field  Rotational sequence: A  B  C Field Rotation A C Flexispline Gear Fixed (teeth on inside) Circular Spline Gear Rotates (teeth on WARP, high torque, High Efficiency High Torque Motor, Navy, electrification, aircraft flap actuator, replace hydraulics, wheel motor, nose motor, B harmonic drive motor, harmonic motor, davison, patent outside) Harmonic Drive Motor-Generator Technology 15
  • 16. EDM Resources Inc. © 2009 3. EDM Resources Harmonic Drive Motor • Principle of Operation – Switched Reluctance Version (4 phase – 2 pole) Flexispline  Two energized coils in series (but of opposite polarity)  8 stator coils in total  Flux flow does not rotate but is switched to next coil in sequence Stator Core  Flux return path through flexispline  # of equivalent rotor poles = # of stator poles, therefore # of working strokes / output rev = 16 x N (N = harmonic gear ratio) WARP, high torque, High Efficiency High Torque Motor, Navy, electrification, aircraft flap actuator, replace hydraulics, wheel motor, nose motor, harmonic drive motor, harmonic motor, davison, patent Harmonic Drive Motor-Generator Technology 16
  • 17. EDM Resources Inc. © 2009 3. EDM Resources Harmonic Drive Motor • Principle of Operation  Simulation of flux flow distribution  No outside back up iron ring or laminations  Thick flexispline cup  Magnetic flux is confined mainly to local flexispline quadrant (lower iron losses)  Excitation unipolar DC pulses (no flux reversal – reduced iron losses) WARP, high torque, High Efficiency High Torque Motor, Navy, electrification, aircraft flap actuator, replace hydraulics, wheel motor, nose motor, harmonic drive motor, harmonic motor, davison, patent Harmonic Drive Motor-Generator Technology 17
  • 18. EDM Resources Inc. © 2009 3. EDM Resources Harmonic Drive Motor • Harmonic Motor – Potential For Torque Production A Bg2 ½” ≈ Radial force Fr = 2 μo A = Air Gap (4 x ½ = 2in2) 4” Bg = Air Gap Flux Density Fr μo = 4 ∏ x10-7 (permeability) Fr 4 Fr = 250 lbs/in2 x A (for Bg ≈ 2.1Tesla) Fr 4 Total Radial Force Ftr = 3/2 Fr x 2 x A = 3 Fr x A = 3 x 250 x 2 Ftr ≈ 1500 lbs Meshing Gear Torque Translation Model Teeth α Fr Ftr = Total Radial Force α To Fr 4 4 To = Output Torque Fr R = Torque Radius (4”) α = Gear Tooth Angle To = Ki x N x Ftr x R 8” Example Core torque, High Efficiency High Torque Motor, Navy, electrification, aircraft flapGear Ratio 100:1wheel motor, nose x 100 x 1500 x 4 WARP, high Lamination Stack N = Harmonic actuator, replace hydraulics, = Ki motor, harmonic drive motor, harmonic motor, davison, patent Ki = Mitigating Factors (K1...Kn) = 600,000 x Ki (lbs-in) Harmonic Drive Motor-Generator Technology 18
  • 19. EDM Resources Inc. 3. EDM Resources Harmonic Drive Motor • S.R. Motor Controls Adaptable To Harmonic Motors WARP, high torque, High Efficiency High Torque Motor, Navy, electrification, aircraft flap actuator, replace hydraulics, wheel motor, nose motor, harmonic drive motor, harmonic motor, davison, patent Harmonic Drive Motor-Generator Technology 19
  • 20. EDM Resources Inc. 3. EDM Resources Harmonic Drive Motor • S.R. Motor Controls Adaptable To Harmonic Motors WARP, high torque, High Efficiency High Torque Motor, Navy, electrification, aircraft flap actuator, replace hydraulics, wheel motor, nose motor, harmonic drive motor, harmonic motor, davison, patent Harmonic Drive Motor-Generator Technology 20
  • 21. EDM Resources Inc. © 2009 3. EDM Resources Harmonic Drive Motor • Experimental Prototype Motor Output gear rotates Windings stationary Flexispline (rotatively fixed & electromagnetically distorted to engage rotor output gear) Internal gear teeth WARP, high torque, High Efficiency High Torque Motor, Navy, electrification, aircraft flap actuator, replace hydraulics, wheel motor, nose motor, harmonic drive motor, harmonic motor, davison, patent Harmonic Drive Motor-Generator Technology 21
  • 22. EDM Resources Inc. © 2009 3. EDM Resources Harmonic Drive Motor • EDM Resources Harmonic Drive Motor  Experimental Motor Stator Windings WARP, high torque, High Efficiency High Torque Motor, Navy, electrification, aircraft flap actuator, replace hydraulics, wheel motor, nose motor, harmonic drive motor, harmonic motor, davison, patent Harmonic Drive Motor-Generator Technology 22
  • 23. EDM Resources Inc. © 2009 3. EDM Resources Harmonic Drive Motor • EDM Resources Harmonic Drive Motor  Experimental Prototype Motor gear teeth Rotor teeth not engaged – rotor free (Can be clutched & de-clutched) wheeling Rotor teeth engaged – rotor locked (Very high locking torque) WARP, high torque, High Efficiency High Torque Motor, Navy, electrification, aircraft flap actuator, replace hydraulics, wheel motor, nose motor, harmonic drive motor, harmonic motor, davison, patent Harmonic Drive Motor-Generator Technology 23
  • 24. EDM Resources Inc. © 2009 3. EDM Resources Harmonic Drive Motor • EDM Resources Harmonic Drive Motor Video Click on icon to play motor video WARP, high torque, High Efficiency High Torque Motor, Navy, electrification, aircraft flap actuator, replace hydraulics, wheel motor, nose motor, harmonic drive motor, harmonic motor, davison, patent Harmonic Drive Motor-Generator Technology 24
  • 25. EDM Resources Inc. © 2009 4. Applications • EDM Resources Harmonic Drive Motor Applications  Navy electrification – ship propulsion & electrical energy generation system  Multi-screw propulsion (with continuous through shaft motors)  Benefits: – Load diversification » Some units produce torque, some generate electrical energy, or all units produce propulsion torque, or all units generate electrical energy » Avoids peak load design for separate generator and propulsion systems » Redundant system with high reliability – Ability to use super conducting stator windings for increased efficiency – Reduces transmission gear requirements – Reduced cost, simplified maintenance & reduction in highly trained personnel  Replace hydraulic & pneumatic actuators WARP, high torque, High Efficiency High Torque Motor, Navy, electrification, aircraft flap actuator, replace hydraulics, wheel motor, nose motor, harmonic drive motor, harmonic motor, davison, patent Harmonic Drive Motor-Generator Technology 25
  • 26. EDM Resources Inc. 4. Applications • EDM Resources Harmonic Drive Motor Applications  Military applications  Actuators (turret, fire control)  Traction (wheel motors)  Winches  Power Steering  Benefits  High torque density  High controllability  Replaces hydraulics  High reliability (robust) Traction System  Lower weight Actuation  Low maintenance  Resistant to impact  Facilitates liquid cooling WARP, high torque, High Efficiency High Torque Motor, Navy, electrification, aircraft flap actuator, replace hydraulics, wheel motor, nose motor, harmonic drive motor, harmonic motor, davison, patent Harmonic Drive Motor-Generator Technology 26
  • 27. EDM Resources Inc. 4. Applications • EDM Resources Harmonic Drive Motor Applications  Aerospace applications  Actuators – Wing flaps, landing gear  Aircraft – In nose wheel tow motor (for reducing fuel consumption during taxiing)  Robotics  Satellites Conceptual design for applying  Benefits harmonic drive motors to aircraft  High torque density leading flap actuator to replace  High distributed torque hydraulic actuators  Lower weight & inertia Single output HDMG Multiple through-shaft  High precision (30:1 to 300:1) HDMG motors in series  Replace hydraulics  Redundant system  High reliability  Low maintenance  Fail safe operation  Resistant to impact WARP, high torque, High Efficiency High Torque Motor, Navy, electrification, aircraft flap actuator, replace hydraulics, wheel motor, nose motor,  Facilitates liquid cooling harmonic drive motor, harmonic motor, davison, patent Harmonic Drive Motor-Generator Technology 27
  • 28. EDM Resources Inc. 4. Applications • EDM Resources Harmonic Drive Motor Applications  Wind turbines  Low weight integral gear generator  Low speed propulsion drives  Air ship propulsion  Benefits  High reliability  High torque at low speeds  Low weight / reduced mounting column requirements  Low maintenance  Compact  Reduces transmission gear requirements  Rotor can free-wheel or be locked WARP, high torque, High Efficiency High Torque Motor, Navy, electrification, aircraft flap actuator, replace hydraulics, wheel motor, nose motor, harmonic drive motor, harmonic motor, davison, patent Harmonic Drive Motor-Generator Technology 28
  • 29. EDM Resources Inc. 4. Applications • EDM Resources Harmonic Drive Motor Applications  Automotive Applications - Continuous through shaft HDMG motor  Electric power assist steering (pinion, column, rack mounting)  Sliding door & lift gate actuators  Benefits  High torque density – enabler for heavy truck EPAS Column  Programmable “feel”, speed sensitive variable assist Mount  High reliability & fail safe operation  Low cost  Minimal package space  Replaces hydraulics  Low weight Continuous through shaft HDMG motor  Low maintenance Integrated into steering system Rack Mount WARP, high torque, High Efficiency High Torque Motor, Navy, electrification, aircraft flap actuator, replace hydraulics, wheel motor, nose motor, harmonic drive motor, harmonic motor, davison, patent Harmonic Drive Motor-Generator Technology 29
  • 30. EDM Resources Inc. © 2009 5. Summary • Summary  EDM Resources harmonic drive motor generator:  U.S. & WPO patents  Only known motor technology that exploits the large radial force which is 20+ times that of the tangential torque force and an integral harmonic gear  Working prototype – proof of concept  Benefits:  High torque density  Lower cost construction (SRM, fewer components count)  Multi configuration (single output shaft or continuous through shaft)  Integral harmonic gearing with high single stage reduction (30:1 to 300:1)  Independent concurrent control of: torque, speed and position  High reliability (fewer moving parts, up to 50% of gear teeth in mesh)  Enabler for:  Electrification for: military, aerospace, robotics, automotive, machine tools  Replacing hydraulic or pneumatic actuators  Cost & weight reduction vs hydraulics & other motor-gear systems WARP, high torque, High Efficiency High Torque Motor, Navy, electrification, aircraft flap actuator, replace hydraulics, wheel motor, nose motor, harmonic drive motor, harmonic motor, davison, patent Harmonic Drive Motor-Generator Technology 30
  • 31. EDM Resources Inc. 6. Questions Questions? WARP, high torque, High Efficiency High Torque Motor, Navy, electrification, aircraft flap actuator, replace hydraulics, wheel motor, nose motor, harmonic drive motor, harmonic motor, davison, patent Harmonic Drive Motor-Generator Technology 31