Design thinking for social change. guadalupe de la mata


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Design thinking for social change. guadalupe de la mata

  1. 1. Howto use designthinkingfor Social InnovationProjects TheHumanCenteredDesignToolkit Developedby IDEO Guadalupe de la Mata
  2. 2. Do youwantto?Bring innovation to the base of the pyramid?Enter a new region?Adapt a technology to your region?Understand the needs of constituents better?Find new methods for monitoring and evaluation? Guadalupe de la Mata 2
  3. 3. HumanCenteredDesignHuman-Centered Through 3 Solutions include Design (HCD) lenses:• is a process and • Products, • Desirability a set of • Services, • Feasibility techniques • Environments, • Viability used to create lenses. • Organizations, new solutions for the world. • Modes of interaction. Guadalupe de la Mata 3
  4. 4. 3 lensesWhat do peopledesire?The process begins by examiningthe needs, dreams & behaviorsof the people we want toaffect with our solutions.We seek to listen to and Desirabilityunderstand what they want. Feasibility Viability What is technicallyWhat can be financially viable? and organizationally feasible? Guadalupe de la Mata 4
  5. 5. Theprocess The process will move your The process team• starts with a specific • from concrete Design Challenge and observations about• goes through three main people, phases: • to abstract thinking as you • Hear, uncover insights and • Create, and themes, • Deliver. • then back to the concrete with tangible solutions. Guadalupe de la Mata 5
  6. 6. Theprocess concrete concrete observations tangible aboutsolutions. people, abstract thinking as you uncover insights and themes, Guadalupe de la Mata 6
  7. 7. Phases HearDeliver Create Guadalupe de la Mata 7
  8. 8. Theprocess • collect stories and inspiration from people. • prepare for and conduct field research. HEAR • work together in a workshop format to translate what you heard from people into frameworks, opportunities, solutions, and prototypes. • move together from concrete to more abstract thinking in identifying themes andCREATE opportunities, and then back to the concrete with solutions and prototypes. • begin to realize your solutions through rapid revenue and cost modeling, capability assessment, and implementation planning.DELIVER • this will help you launch new solutions into the world. Guadalupe de la Mata 8
  9. 9. Theprocess Guadalupe de la Mata
  10. 10. Gettingready Multidisciplinary teams Finite DedicatedTimeframes Spaces Guadalupe de la Mata 10
  11. 11. Multidisciplinary teamsYou will have a higher likelihood to solve complex problems by Different disciplinary and intentionally assembling the educational backgrounds, right team of people you will have a better chance of a core group of 3-8 coming up with unexpected individuals, one of whom is the solutions when these people facilitator approach problems from different points of view. Guadalupe de la Mata 11
  12. 12. Dedicated Spaces Having a separate project space allows the team: to be constantly able to track the inspired by immersed in their progress of theimagery from the post-it notes, and project. field, Guadalupe de la Mata 12
  13. 13. FiniteTimeframes Finite Timeframes Likewise, an innovationMany people notice that project with a beginning, they work best with middle, and end is moredeadlines and concrete likely to keep the team timelines. motivated and focused on moving forward. Guadalupe de la Mata 13
  14. 14. 4 potentialscenarios Scenario 4: Scenario 3:Scenario 1: the Scenario 2: the Complementing Activatingweek-long Deep several-month existing already-existing Dive Deep Dive long-term knowledge Activities
  15. 15. Scenario 1: theweek-longDeepDive This format is good for early- One week timeline phase learning and for spurring new thinking. use when you:• forces the design team to work • » Need to learn about a new quickly to gather and analyze area or challenge quickly. data, then moves rapidly to • » Need to kick-start thinking solutions, prototypes and about a long-standing plans. intractable problem.• long enough to gain good • » Want to refresh the thinking understanding, yet short of the staff. enough to allow to put limited resources against a challenge. Guadalupe de la Mata 15
  16. 16. Scenario 2: the several-month Deep Dive A longer time frame, Use when you: Pull out and use:• enables a deeper, more • » Need to design robust • » All sections of the nuanced understanding and solutions because the funds Toolkit, allowing the nature theorization of a complex for implementation are of the Challenge to dictate challenge or problem. available. the appropriate timeframes• more locations can be • » Have the resources to for each Phase. examined and allocate on thinking through• more stakeholders in the a multi-faceted challenge. value chain can become • » Need to engage many participants in the process. actors in the process, such as partners, value chain stakeholders, funders, etc. Guadalupe de la Mata 16
  17. 17. Scenario 3: Activatingalready- existingknowledgeOften organizations have a great deal of research and already-existing informationbut are unable to translate all that information into actionable solutions.In this case, the processes outlined in Create and Deliver can help your team transformwhat you know into things you can start doing. Use when you: Pull out and use: • » Have a lot of data and you don’t • » Create quite know what to do with it. • » Deliver • » Have been hearing interesting stories from the field staff and want to see if those stories can yield new opportunities or solutions. • » Have a robust research methodology that you like better than the one in this toolkit. Guadalupe de la Mata 17
  18. 18. Scenario 4: Complementingexisting long-termActivities Use when you: Pull out and use:• » Want a new technique to • » Any pieces of your add to your work routines. choosing.• » See a method in this toolkit that you find applicable to the daily challenges you face.• » Can’t set aside the resources for an HCD project, but want to infuse the spirit of Human-Centered Design in your everyday work. Guadalupe de la Mata 18
  19. 19. HEAR Phase: Goals& Outputs &How Goal Outputs HOW?• Designing • » Peoples’ stories • We use meaningful and • » Observations of methodologies innovative Constituents’ and tips for solutions that reality engaging people serve your • » Deeper in their own constituents understanding of contexts in order begins with needs, barriers, & to understand the understanding constraints issues at a deep their needs, hopes level. and aspirations for the future Guadalupe de la Mata 19
  20. 20. HEAR PHASE: 6 steps 1. Identify the design challenge 2. Identify 6. Develop existing your mindset knowledge 5. Design an 3. Identify inteview people to talk approach to 4. Choose research method Guadalupe de la Mata 20
  21. 21. CREATE PHASE To move from research to real-world solutions• you will go through a process of synthesis and interpretation.• narrowing and culling information and• translating insights about the reality of today into a set of opportunities for the future.• the concrete needs of individuals are transformed into high-level insights about the larger population and system frameworks that the team creates.• the team will shift into a generative mindset to brainstorm hundreds of solutions and rapidly make a few of them tangible through prototyping.• During this phase, solutions are created with only the customer Desirability filter in mind. Guadalupe de la Mata 21
  22. 22. CreatePhase: GoalsCreating solutionsMaking sense of dataIdentifying patternsDefining opportunities Guadalupe de la Mata 22
  23. 23. Createphase: 4 keyactivitiesSynthesisBrainstormingPrototypingFeedback Guadalupe de la Mata 23
  24. 24. Createphase: 7 STEPS STEP 1: develop the approach STEP 7: Gather STEP 2: share feedback stories STEP 3:STEP 6: Make Identify ideas real patterns STEP 5: STEP 4: Create Brainstorm opportunity new solutions areas Guadalupe de la Mata 24
  25. 25. DELIVER HearDeliver Create
  26. 26. DELIVER PHASE• Once the design team has created many desirable solutions, it is time to consider how to make these feasible and viable.• The Deliver phase will move your top ideas toward implementation.• The activities offered here are meant to complement your organization’s existing implementation processes and may prompt adaptations to the way solutions are typicallyrolledout. Guadalupe de la Mata 26
  27. 27. DeliverPhase Your team will: Identify Create a model DEVELOP an Plan pilots & required for financial innovation measure Impactcapabilities sustainability pipeline Guadalupe de la Mata 27
  28. 28. DeliverPhase OBJECTIVE: build the capabilities and financial models that will create a plan for on-going ensure that the solutions are learning and iteration.implemented well and can besustained over the long term. Guadalupe de la Mata 28
  29. 29. DeliverPhase: 6 steps 1: Sustainable revenue model 2: Identify 6: Create a Capabilities learning Plan required 5: Plan mini- 3: Pipeline of pilots & solutions iteration 4: Create an implementation timeline Guadalupe de la Mata 29
  30. 30. The 3 phases in practice Hear Deliver Create
  31. 31. The HEAR PHASE HearDeliver Create
  32. 32. HEAR• Designing meaningful and innovative solutions that serve your constituents begins with understanding their needs, hopes and aspirations for the future.• Methodologies and tips for: – engaging people in their own contexts in order – to understand the issues at a deep level.• Hear GOALS – » Whototalkto – » How to gain empathy – » How to cap ture stories Guadalupe de la Mata 32
  33. 33. Output of the HEAR PHASE Outputs of the Hear Phase are Deeper Observations of understanding ofPeoples’ stories Constituents’ reality needs, barriers, & constraints Guadalupe de la Mata 33
  34. 34. Qualitativemethods• Whatmethods do? – Qualitative methods can uncover deeply held needs, desires, and aspirations. – It is particularly useful in early-stage research to test assumptions about the world, and when we cannot assume that the researchers already know the entire universe of possible answers, beliefs, and ideas of the participants. – Qualitativemethods can helpunveilpeople’s social, political, economic, and cultural opportunities and barriers in their own words. Guadalupe de la Mata 34
  35. 35. HEAR PHASE STEP 1: Identify a Design Challenge STEP 6. STEP 2: Develop Recognise your the existing mindset knowledge STEP 5. STEP 3.Develop an Identify interview people to approach speak to STEP 4. Select research method Guadalupe de la Mata 35
  36. 36. STEP 1: Identify a DESIGN CHALLENGE• The foundation of HCD is a concise Design Challenge.• This challenge will guide the questions you will ask in the field research and the opportunities and solutions you will develop later in the process.• A Design Challenge is phrased in a human- centered way with a sense of possibility. For example: “Create savings and investment products that are appropriate for people living in rural areas.” Guadalupe de la Mata 36
  37. 37. STEP 2. Recognise the existing knowledge• Conducting a “What Do We Know?” session helps call forth existing knowledge related to the Design Challenge.• Once documented, you can freely focus on discovering what you don’t yet know. Guadalupe de la Mata 37
  38. 38. STEP 3. Identify people to speak to• Recruiting appropriate and inspirational participants is critical. Attention to gender, ethnicity, and class balance is crucial for research.• For research meant to inspire new opportunities, it is useful to find people who represent “extremes.”• Including this full range will be important in the later phases, especially in constructing good frameworks and providing inspiration for brainstorming. Guadalupe de la Mata 38
  39. 39. STEP 4. Select research method• Design research is useful to not only understand individuals but also frame individual behaviors in the context and community that surrounds them.• Therefore, it will be important to employ many methods of research.• Five methods described here are: • » Individual Interview • » Group Interview • » In Context Immersion • » Self-Documentation • » Community-Driven Discovery • » Expert Interviews • » Seeking Inspiration • in New Places Guadalupe de la Mata 39
  40. 40. STEP 5: Interviewing is an art that balances thedual needs of:• getting relevant information from the customer and• engaging with them as a curious and empathetic friend.• Intentionally developing your strategy for interviewing is key to managing this balance.• 3 interview methods: Sacrificial Concepts Interview Interview Guide Techniques Three interview methods Guadalupe de la Mata 40
  41. 41. 6. Develop your mindset• It is often difficult, but very important, for experts and professionals to put aside what they know when they conduct research.• Keeping an open mind takes practice. The three exercises here can provide you with this practice before you go into the field: • » Beginner’s Mind • » Observe vs. Interpret Guadalupe de la Mata 41
  42. 42. CREATE PHASE HearDeliver Create
  43. 43. CREATE GOALS• To move from research to real-world solutions, you will go through a process of synthesis and interpretation.• This requires a mode of narrowing and culling information and translating insights about the reality of today into a set of opportunities for the future.• This is the most abstract part of the process, when the concrete needs of individuals are transformed into high-level insights about the larger population and system frameworks that the team creates.• With defined opportunities, the team will shift into a generativemindsettobrainstormhundreds of solutionsand rapidly make a few of them tangible through prototyping. During this phase, solutions are created with only the customer Desirability filter in mind. Guadalupe de la Mata 43
  44. 44. CREAT PHASE: GOALS Goals of the Create Phase:Making sense Identifying Defining Creating of data patterns opportunities solutions Guadalupe de la Mata 44
  45. 45. CREATE OUTPUTS At the end of the Create • Opportunities phase, the • Solutionsteam will have • Prototypes generated : Guadalupe de la Mata 45
  46. 46. CREATE PHASE: Activitiessynthesis brainstorming prototyping feedback Guadalupe de la Mata 46
  47. 47. SYNTHESISis about making sense takes us from enables us to establish of what we’ve seen inspiration to a new perspective and and heard during the ideas, from stories to identify opportunities observations. strategic directions. for innovation. (By aggregating, editing and condensing what we’ve learned) Guadalupe de la Mata 47
  48. 48. BRAINSTORMING It may require generating Generate truly Makes us think 100 ideas (many of which impractical solutions toexpansively and without are mediocre) in order to spark ideas that are constraints. come up with three truly relevant and reasonable. inspirational solutions. Guadalupe de la Mata 48
  49. 49. PROTOTYPING Proven technique for Methodology for making quickly learning how tosolutions tangible in a rapid design an offering right and and low-investment way. for accelerating the process of rolling out solutions Guadalupe de la Mata 49
  50. 50. FEEDBACK inspires further It brings the Create different iterations to make constituents directly prototypes of your solutions more back into the design product: compelling for process. constituents. prevents the teamenables people to give from getting attached honest feedback to an idea prematurely. Guadalupe de la Mata 50
  52. 52. STEP 1. DEVELOP THE APPROACH• Creation is about developing deeper understanding and translating that understanding into new innovations.• There are many ways to do this, but the two most common are: – participatory approaches and – empathic approaches. Guadalupe de la Mata 52
  53. 53. A. Method: Participatory Co-DesignHaving the team co-design solutions with peoplefrom the community and local value chain actors to:• leverage local knowledge.• lead to innovations that may be better adapted to the context and be more likely to be adopted, since local people have invested resources in their creation. Guadalupe de la Mata 53
  54. 54. A. Method: Participatory Co-DesignConsider using participatory co-design when:• » you need a lot of local expertise and knowledge• » solutions from the “outside” will not be easily adopted• » the politics of a community require it Guadalupe de la Mata 54
  55. 55. B. Method: EmpathicDesign Creating solutions through empathy is a way for the design team to blend their expertise with the on-the-ground needs of people. Consider using empathic design Empathic design: when:• means deep understanding of the • » the design team has specific realities of the people you are skills required to develop solutions designing for • » the solutions you are seeking are• Means not just to understand the “new to the world” problem mentally, but also to start • » community politics make it creating solutions from a difficult to select a few individuals connection to deep thoughts and to work with feelings• can lead to both appropriate and more breakthrough solutions. Guadalupe de la Mata 55
  56. 56. STEP 2: SHARE STORIES As a group One team while the rest It’s best to you should be member of the team share stories thinking:should tell the takes notes on soon after “What does story of the post-its (no research so this newperson(s) they longer than a that details information met, sentence) are not lost. mean for the project?” Guadalupe de la Mata 56
  57. 57. Some tips on storytellingBe specific Be descriptive Follow reporting rules • Talk about • Use your • Cover the what actually physical following happened. It senses to give topics: who, helps to begin texture to what, when, stories with your where, why, “One time…” description. and how. or “After such and such happened…” Guadalupe de la Mata 57
  58. 58. STEP 2: SHARE STORIES (II) Story sharing turns the information that lives in a team member’s head into shared knowledge that can be translated into opportunities and solutions. Guadalupe de la Mata 58
  59. 59. STEP 2: SHARE STORIES (III) Some techniques for effective sharing include:• » Gather your notes, photos, and artifacts prior to story sharing. If possible, print the photos and display them on the wall to refer to.• » Tell stories person by person, one at a time. Group meetings can be told as the story of a particular community.• » Split information into small pieces• » Use vivid details and descriptions. Guadalupe de la Mata 59
  60. 60. STEP 3: IDENTIFY PATTERNS Making sense of your research is accomplished by larger relationships between seeing the patterns, themes, and the information. Seeing the patterns and connections between the data will lead you quickly toward real-world solutions.There are several steps listed here to take you through the process for you use selectively based on the subject matter. » Extract Key Insights » Find Themes » Create Frameworks Guadalupe de la Mata 60
  61. 61. STEP 4: CREATE OPPORTUNITY AREAS What i s an opportunity Framing Opportunity When? Area? Areas• Once you have pulled • a stepping stone to • Opportunities start with out the themes and idea generation. the phrase “HOW patterns from what you • a rearticulation of MIGHT WE...?” to heard, you can start problems or needs in a suggest a mindset of creating opportunity generative, future possibility. areas. facing way.• The process of • is not a solution. Rather, translating insights into it suggests more than opportunities is about one solution. It allows moving from the the team to create current state to many solutions. envisioning future possibilities.• Opportunities are the springboard for ideas and solutions. Guadalupe de la Mata 61
  62. 62. STEP 5: BRAINSTORM NEW SOLUTIONS Brainstorming• gives permission to think expansively and without any organizational, operational, or technological constraints.• conducting a fruitful brainstorm involves a lot of discipline and a bit of preparation.• the practice of generating truly impractical solutions often sparks ideas that are relevant and reasonable.• It may require generating 100 ideas (many of which are silly or impossible) in order to come up with those three truly inspirational solutions. Guadalupe de la Mata 62
  63. 63. 7 B r a i n s to r m i n g R u l e s Defer judgment Encourage wild ideas: Build on the ideas of • It’s the wild ideas that often others: There are no bad ideas create real innovation. It is • Think in terms of ‘and’ at this point. You can always easy to bring ideas instead of ‘but.’ judge ideas later. down to earth later!Stay focused on topic: Be visual: one conversation at a• You will get better output if • Try to engage the logical and time: everyone is disciplined. the creative sides of the • Allow ideas to be heard and brain. built upon. Go for quantity: • Set a big goal for a nº of ideas & surpass it! They should flow quickly. Guadalupe de la Mata 63
  64. 64. Brainstorming warm-up. Exercise• Use this activity to get the team in an open-minded and energetic mindset for brainstorming.• Pair up with a partner. Person A will come up with lots of ideas about a potential business he or she wants to start. (Alternatively, one could plan an event such as a family vacation and pose ideas of places to go.)Round 1:• Person A comes up with one idea after another. Person B must say NO to each idea and give a reason why it wouldn’t work. Do this for 2-3 minutes.Round 2:• Now Person B comes up with business or event ideas, one after another. Person A must say YES to each idea and build on it to make it bigger. Do this for 2-3 minutes.• As a group, discuss how these two different experiences felt. The Round 2 experience is the environment the team will want to create for a successful brainstorm. Guadalupe de la Mata 64
  65. 65. STEP 6. Make Ideas Real What is Prototyping? Why prototyping?• is about building to • Prototyping allows you think. to quickly and cheaply• This means creating make ideas tangible so the solution so that it they can be tested and can be communicated evaluated by others - to others and making before you’ve had time the idea better. to fall in love with them. Guadalupe de la Mata 65
  66. 66. STEP 6. Make Ideas Real (II) Why prototype? To develop a deeper understanding of what To create an internal an idea means and to dialogue about how reveal questions the team needs to answer. Guadalupe de la Mata 66
  67. 67. WHAT ARE PROTOTYPES?BUILD TO THINK ROUGH, RAPID, RIGHT ANSWERING QUESTIONS • Prototypes are • Prototypes are not • It is essential to know disposable tools used precious. They what question a throughout the should be built as prototype is being concept quickly and cheaply used to answer, for development as possible. example about process, both to desirability, usefulnes validate ideas and to s, usability, viability, o help generate more r feasibility. ideas. • Prototypes are a powerful form of communication and force us to think in realistic terms about how someone would interact with the concept. Guadalupe de la Mata 67
  68. 68. TIP: Imagine theValueProposition For each prototype, answer these questions to start building the value of the idea:• » Who will benefit from this idea? What is the value to the end customers?• » Why and how is this idea better than alternative options?• » How much is this benefit worth to them?• » How much would they be willing to pay for this benefit”• » How might this payment be collected? Guadalupe de la Mata 68
  69. 69. STEP 7: SOLICITE FEEDBACKAfter solutions have beengenerated… …it’s time to take them back out to participants to gather feedback. Guadalupe de la Mata 69
  70. 70. STEP 7: SOLICITE FEEDBACK How to solicit feedback? Whose feedback to solicit?• A great way to get honest feedback • Speaking to new participants in a is to take several executions out to different region from where you did people. your research is a way to explore the• When there is only one concept generalizability of a solution. available, people may be reluctant to • You may choose to speak to a mix of criticize. However, when allowed to both new people and to those you compare and contrast, people tend have spoken with before. to speak more honestly. • Try to include all stakeholders who would touch the concept; in addition to the end user, include manufacturers, installers, service providers, distributors, retailers, etc. Guadalupe de la Mata 70
  71. 71. SolicitingFeedback What questions to pursue? Keep careful notes of theFor each prototype, identify feedback 3-4 questions about & desirability new questions for the team. Guadalupe de la Mata 71
  72. 72. DELIVERY PHASE HearDeliver Create
  73. 73. DELIVERY PHASE When? Why? How?• Once the design • The Deliver phase • The activities team has created will move your top offered here are many desirable ideas toward meant to solutions, it is implementation. complement your time to consider organization’s how to make existing these feasible and implementation viable. processes and may prompt adaptations to the way solutions are typically rolled out. Guadalupe de la Mata 73
  74. 74. DELIVERY PHASE will ensure that the solutions are implemented well and build the capabilities and financial models thatDelivering solutions can be sustained overmeans you will need the long term. to : to create a plan for on-going learning and iteration. Guadalupe de la Mata 74
  75. 75. DELIVERY PHASEDelivering solutions that are new to the worldinvolves creating low-investment, low-costways of trying out your ideas in a real-worldcontext. Guadalupe de la Mata 75
  76. 76. DELIVERY PHASEThe team can design a handfulof minipilots that precede andinform the full pilot program Minipilot Minipilot 1 2 Mini-pilots might engage actors who are different Minipilot from the group of stakeholders 3 for the final implementation. Pilot Programme Guadalupe de la Mata 76
  77. 77. DELIVERY PHASE iterative processImplementation is an will likely require many prototypes, mini-pilots and pilots to perfect the solution and support system. Guadalupe de la Mata 77
  78. 78. DELIVERY PHASE Piloting an idea before it goes to market: helps you identify what itallows you to understand will take for your the solution better organization to deliver that idea to the community Guadalupe de la Mata 78
  79. 79. DELIVERY PHASE• Every organization is optimized to achieve what it currently does.• If you want to achieve different outcomes, you often need to do things differently than you know and do right now—whether it is about finding new talent, developing new skills, building new external partnerships, orcreating new processes.• TheHuman-CenteredDesignprocessdoesn’t limit the solution by the current constraints of theorganization. Guadalupe de la Mata 79
  80. 80. DELIVERY PHASE The process Integrates design The process invites you to and measurement methods work in the belief that: in a continuous learning cycle.• new things are • By encouraging on-going possible, and that measurement, evaluation,• you can evolve both the and iteration, the solutions solutions that you deliver developed stay grounded in and the way your real-world impact and organization is continue to evolve. designed, simultaneously Guadalupe de la Mata 80
  82. 82. STEP 1. Develop a sustainable revenue model • The long-term success of solutions depends upon the intentional design of a revenue stream that can sustain the offering over time.• Let the value provided to the end customer be your entry point as you design the support systems around the solution. Guadalupe de la Mata 82
  83. 83. For this Viability Assessment, answer the following questions for each solution 1. Customer Value 3. Stakeholder 2. Revenue sources Proposition incentives• » What is the value • » Is the solution a • » How does this proposition for the product, a service or solution deliver value end customer? Refer both? to each stakeholder back to prototypes • » How much do involved? and customer customers pay? • » What are the feedback, • » How do customers stakeholders’ highlighting the pay: in cash, in kind, incentives to aspects customers in labor, in other? participate? found most • What are challenges important. or disincentives?• » How much is this How might we adapt worth to the end the solution to avoid customer? these disincentives? Guadalupe de la Mata 83
  84. 84. STEP 2. Identify Capabilities required for Delivering solutionsThe capabilities of your organization and partners will help inform the feasibility of solutions. think identify• about the experience of • the range of capabilities the end customer where required for making this and how the community real. members or end-user • many possible models will purchase or for delivery that leverage experience this solution. different partners and channels. Guadalupe de la Mata 84
  85. 85. To identify the capabilities required to make each solution feasible, answer the following questions for each solution 1. Distribution 2. Capabilities required 3. Potential Partners• » Where, when, how, and why • » What • What organizations or might the customer experience human, manufacturing, financial, individuals have capabilities that this solution? and technological capabilities we do not? What is our• » Which actors and channels will are required for creating and relationship with them touch the solution? delivering this solution? currently?• » What other channels could be • » Which of these capabilities do • How might we reach out to them used to reach customers? we have in our country location? and show the value of engaging• » What is the range of possible Which do we have in our with our organization on this ways this solution could be international location? And solution delivered? which capabilities will need to be found in partners? • » Would we need to grow any capabilities on this list? Guadalupe de la Mata 85
  86. 86. STEP 3. Plan a Pipeline of solutionsTo understand how new solutions will move and grow your organization map each solution in a MATRIX. Ask Determine Analyze identify• whether each • whether the • this information • which solutions solution is solutions extend from the context fit naturally into targeted at your or adapt an of your programs current customer existing offer, or investment already group or create a new strategy, mission, underway within whether it offer. priorities and your expands the appetite for risk. organization. group of customers you serve. Guadalupe de la Mata 86
  87. 87. STEP 4. Create an implementation timeline Map solutions to a Look at relationships timeline of Take into account of solution implementation,• with those in the • to see whether • which solutions can Incremental initiating one be explored within innovation solution will build the scope of category early in the relationships currently funded the timeline and and partners programs and Revolutionary needed for another which solutions innovations further solution. suggest the out. proposal of new grants. Guadalupe de la Mata 87
  88. 88. STEP 4. Create an implementation timeline: tips (II) Assign an individual Divide each solution Challenge the team• within your • into a series of steps • to do something organization as a that build toward toward champion for each implementing the implementing each solution to help final solution. solution in the next maintain momentum two weeks. For some and increase the solutions, a pilot can likelihood of be launched in two implementation. weeks. For others, two weeks might be the amount of time required for further study or for the first steps to connecting with partners. Guadalupe de la Mata 88
  89. 89. STEP 5. Plan mini-Pilots&iteration• For each solution in your pipeline, – it is important to identify simple, low-investment next steps to keep the ideas alive. – One way to keep iterating and learning is to plan mini- pilotsbeforelarge-scalepilotsor full- scaleimplementation.• For each mini-pilot, ask three questions: – » What resources will I need to test out this idea? – » What key questions does this mini-pilot need to answer? – » How will we measure the success of this mini-pilot? Guadalupe de la Mata 89
  90. 90. STEP 6. Create a Learning Plan• Throughout the design and implementation of new solutions, it is important to keep learning.1. DESIGN PROCESS: – you collected stories that helped develop the understanding to get you to new ideas.2. FIRST PROTOTYPES: – you gathered feedback to make those ideas better.3. IMPLEMENTATION: – the team should continue to collect stories and gather feedback from users. – Stories collected from people in the Hear phase will help the team create a baseline to track how solutions are affecting individuals’ lives. – Collecting on-going feedback will help the team iterate on the ideas in order to make them more effective, more appropriate, and more cost-effective. – In addition to stories and feedback, begin to track indicators and outcomes. This is possible after the solutions are implemented and are important to measuring the impact as well as the return on investment of solutions. Guadalupe de la Mata 90
  91. 91. Thelearningloop Stories, feedback, indicators, and outcomes are all ways of gathering empirical data in order to learn. A project in India for clean water storage and transportation utilized all of these methods to measure the impact potential and outcomes of solutions. Stories •AssessNeeds • UnderstandContext • DevelopBaseline • Evaluate Ideas• AssessImpact • GainInspiration • PrioritizeSolutions• Evaluate ROI Outcomes Feedback • Iterate Ideas• Create New Baselines • DevelopImplementation• IdentifyNextChallenges Plan • TrackProgress Indicators • Choose Ideas • IterateSolutions • IdentifyUnintended Guadalupe de la Mata Consequences 91
  92. 92. STEP 6. Method: TrackIndicatorsIndicators help you measure the effects of your solutions The effects can bepositive or negative, intended or unintended. Guadalupe de la Mata 92
  93. 93. TYPES OF INDICATORS Leading Analogous Awareness• The impact of solutions can • Sometimes it is difficult to • When the goal involves often take some time to see direct impacts. This is people engaging or become evident, such as especially true when your adopting something months or years. In these design challenge is about new, the first step is to cases, it makes sense to trust or prevention. know whether they are track leading indicators. • In these cases, try to find an aware of the solution or• For example, if your goal is indicator that would design. to increase farmer income, logically lead you to • Measuring awareness is a a leading indicator would be conclude whether your goal good early indicator to help the number of farmers is being met. For understand how big the growing high-value crops example, on a project to impact of the solution may this season. increase trust of healthcare be. providers, the team tracked the number of questions people asked doctors and nurses. Since trust is hard to measure, the team decided to use the posing of questions as an analogous indicator of trust. Guadalupe de la Mata 93
  94. 94. TYPES OF INDICATORS Engagement Dynamic Changes• Like awareness, measuring the • When a new solution is number of people who are introduced, it is important to track engaged in a new program is often the changes over time that occur very meaningful. within the community, within• For example, if the goal is to households, and to the increase women’s incomes environment. through a program to export local • These shifts can be completely art, the number of women actively unexpected, and are sometimes seeking out and participating in positive and sometimes negative. the program is a meaningful Its crucial to look out for these indication of how much impact the changes and unintended program may have on local consequences early on in incomes. implementation. Guadalupe de la Mata 94
  95. 95. 6. Method: EvaluateOutcomes• Measuring outcomes is critical to the learning cycle.• Without a good assessment of the impact a solution has made, there is often not enough information about the direction or goals for the next round of designs.• Assessing outcomes is important for everyone – the implementer, the funder, the design team, and the community.• Outcome measurement helps people understand where to best invest their resources. It is an opportunity to assess and plan forthefuture. Guadalupe de la Mata 95
  96. 96. HOLISTIC IMPACT ASSESSMENT To assess the impact of a solution, program, or intervention, it is important to take a systemic and holistic view. Try the following exercise. Track the effects of a Iterate on the Examine the solution’sMAP the stakeholders solution solutions net value.• Create a complete • to find ways to • Use this exercise as a list with many actors • write them on the increase the positive way to continue that your solution list or map. effects and lessen learning and might touch – in • Color code the actors negative effects. challenge the team positive, negative, or that receive benefits to improve on neutral ways. from the solution solutions in order to• A mind map format and those that make the outcomes• Include stakeholders experience negative more and more that your team may effects. If possible, positive. not be focused on, quantify the value of such as: funders, the effects with a people in the same standardized community or measurement adjacent system. communities who are not receiving direct benefits, Guadalupe de la Mata 96