Design Thinking for Social Innovation RossNetImpact_Oct2011


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This was the presentation I gave at the Ross Net Impact 2011 conference at the Ross School of Business at the University of Michigan on the topic of Design Thinking for Social Innovation.

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Design Thinking for Social Innovation RossNetImpact_Oct2011

  1. Talk: Strategic Philanthropy through DesignDesign Thinking for Social InnovationSandhya S. PillalamarriPurpose Driven Profits: Ross Net Impact Conference(session chairs Brian Moss and Elizabeth Matzen)Stephen M. Ross School of BusinessUniversity of MichiganAnn Arbor, MIOct. 14, 2011
  2. The wider context Understanding the drivers that influence design thinking2
  3. Chulha, healthyindoor cooking
  4. “ Total world deaths from indoor air pollution due toburning solid fuels are estimated at 1,619,000 eachyear.India alone accounts for 25% of such deaths: almost500,000 of the victims are women and children”Source: WHO 2009
  5. People‐focused research and designUnderstanding our users in their context & environment8 Pearson Interoperability Framework | Sandhya S. Pillalamarri 8
  6. Current issuesIt soon became clear from the results of the research that thekey local design requirements called for a cooking solution ableto fulfill the following physical and socio-cultural conditions:- Adaptability to different biomass fuels (from wood to cow dung),available in different seasons and locations- Adaptability to people’s cooking needs when cooking ‘chappati’(bread), steaming rice, boiling water- Adaptability to the use of different, non-standard cooking vessels- Adaptability to various logistic constraints12 Design Thinking for Social Innovation | Sandhya S. Pillalamarri
  7. Testingand userfeedback
  8. - Adaptability of use (different cookingfunctions) and appealing design format- Flexibility of use (biomass / wood) andburn efficiency- Easy transportation and cleaning of thestove and the chimney (modularity)- material improvements and easiermanufacturing
  9. 20 Design Thinking for Social Innovation | Sandhya S. Pillalamarri
  10. Benefits of Chulha‐ Bypass duct for efficient draft‐ Soot collector for cleaner air‐ Chimney connector for easy maintenance and‐ Easy to Use and Install Modular Design‐ New entrepreneurs‐ NGOs support21 Design Thinking for Social Innovation | Sandhya S. Pillalamarri
  11. Challenges and achievements ‐ Building community trust ‐ Collaborating with stakeholders with various interests ‐ Beyond ‘deep listen’ to ‘community engagement’ ‐Communicating value and benefits ‐ We had to learn to speak a ‘language’ able to ‐ Create convergence of different (political, social and economic) interests ‐ Give a ‘voice’ to ‘vulnerable’ end‐users ‐ Such a ‘language’ could be developed only through a long and patient process of  intensive listening and engagement.22 Design Thinking for Social Innovation | Sandhya S. Pillalamarri
  12. What now and where to? ‐ Saral and Sampoorna are recorded in sketches and technical  drawings. Massive communication and training packages prepared ‐ How to produce, distribute, install, and maintain the stoves ‐ Decentralized model ‐ Trained entrepreneur invests in a mould, makes 50‐60 Chulhas,  sells and installs them within homes ‐ Aim is to shift to a semi‐decentralized model  ‐ Where localization takes place at district level: with this  scalability, the entrepreneur can serve up to 30‐40 villages, with  200‐250 households each ‐ Publicity23 Design Thinking for Social Innovation | Sandhya S. Pillalamarri
  13. 24 Design Thinking for Social Innovation | Sandhya S. Pillalamarri
  14. How does it work? | People-focused • User Research • NPI / Opportunities • Measure usability CTQs • Develop UX concepts • Test Usability CTQs • Test Usability • Environment • User Prioritized Problems List • Usability Risk Retirement in prototype CTQs in product • Roles & Responsibilities • User & FunctionalUX Process • Task & Workflow Requirements Business Decision Concepts Usability Design Opportunities UI Design Usability Functional UI Release Visualization, Reviews Research Analysis NP Launch Development Test Development Early UI Business Design Requirements Iterative Design Framework 1 Framework 2 Framework 3 Observational Research Ideation Iterative UI Design & Development Focus Groups Wireframes (low-fi) Iterative Usability Testing (summative) User Profile Use Cases Usability CTQ Scorecard Personas Use Scenarios UX Metrics Environment Description Usability CTQs Continued UX Support Competitive Analysis Usability Testing (formative) (benchmarks, competitive reviews, Task & WF Analysis Rapid Prototyping sales & marketing) Participatory Design Accessibility Checks Opportunities Analysis Design, Heuristic, Cognitive Reviews Innovation Workshops 25 Design Thinking for Social Innovation | Sandhya S. Pillalamarri 25
  15. Design research To Inform, Inspire, and Drive Innovation26 Pearson Interoperability Framework | Sandhya S. Pillalamarri
  16. To Create27 New Value
  17. Innovation: It’s risky business 4% The global innovation success average, across all geographies and all industries.28
  18. Viability Feasibility Understanding Business Understanding Technology Desirability Understanding People29 Mitigate Risk
  19. What methods generate user-centricinnovation?30
  20. 31 Generative
  21. 33 Evaluative
  22. 34 Quantitative
  23. 35 Qualitative
  24. What does it all look like?36 Design Thinking for Social Innovation | Sandhya S. Pillalamarri
  25. Plan &What does it all look like? Prepare Materials Pilot Iterate design & evaluations Execute Report results37 Design Thinking for Social Innovation | Sandhya S. Pillalamarri
  26. Key Success Factors • Design Research  • Ethnographic observation • Find Allies and Local Champions • Co‐Creation and Design with local NGOs • Product is only a means to an end • Local material, packaging, terminology, fuel • Iterative testing and validation • Simple and Easy to Use • Visual and Aesthetic Appeal38 Design Thinking for Social Innovation | Sandhya S. Pillalamarri
  27. Let’s try it! Implementing design thinking close to home with Ross School of Business’ Personas39
  28. Like Clock Work Gabby wakes up precisely at 5am every day to work out at the gym. Drives a sensible sedan that gets good gas mileage. She also dresses up for class daily. Extremely motivated to be seen as "with-it" by her peers. Perhaps she’ll be first in line if there was an App for saving her time or making her more efficient.“I love to be eco-conscious, tell me how. Does it take toomuch time? Should I sign up for the green club at Ross?” Too Busy to Cook! Gabby eats out a lot and is often seenGabby the ‘Gunner’ grabbing something quick out of the Ross café while running to class.Gabby is an all-rounder. An over achieving MBA student at Ross ,she doesn’t date much, but wants to (she is just too busy).Gabby participates in all the major clubs and doesn’t hesitate to Ouch!run for office positions within clubs she is passionate about. Sheis one of the board of directors at three of Ross’ clubs (only been What makes Gabby sad? If she didnt getan MBA student for 6 weeks now). that election or loosing the election! Anything that encroaches upon her timeSTATS or schedule makes Gabby really grumpy.Age: 27 Location: Ann Arbor, MI 2011, Ross NetImpact, Design Thinking Workshop
  29. A Small Town Boy Imran hails from a small village in the outskirts of Chandighar, India. Back home, trash control is a huge problem. He is used to seeing trash lying around, roadside animals sleeping in it, and little kids playing with it. He is fairly certain that that’s what caused one of his village’s little boys to die from suffocation 20 years ago.“Trying to take it all in here at Ross; grateful for the opp. I Speak Up!typically hang out with my family & friends after school” Sometimes he speaks up a lot in class,Imran the ‘International’ which tends to annoy his classmates. Lacks fully knowledge in AmericanImran is so excited to be here at Ross School of Business! This is culture nuances. Loves cricket though!a once in a lifetime opportunity for Imran and he isn’t about tolet it pass him by. Imran has his wife & small child with him in Yum!Ann Arbor and is from India originally. He has lived in the US for Imran brings lunch his wife2 years before coming to Ross but still doesnt understand many packs for him daily. Usually henuances of American culture. throws the trash away in theSTATS bins. On busy days, he mayAge: 33 Location: Ann Arbor, MI leave it on the table when he 2011, Ross NetImpact, Design Thinking Workshop is done eating.
  30. Mommy’s Boy Bobby’s parents are a big influence in his life (he consults with them regularly). They help support his education as well. Bobby is a total frat guy and spends most of his free time with his buddies. He is smart though and manages to pass all his classes with good grades. He isn’t sure what he wants to do with his MBA yet. He feels very self-important while he is hanging out in the "Winter Garden" (Ross lobby area) with other MBA students. He did learn about recycling in kindergarten.“Carpe Diem right? I have a ton of friends from the MBAprogram, and I love it here. Bring it on…it’s cool!” Where did it go? Bobby knows that he owns a bike, butBobby the ‘BBA’ isn’t sure where he left it (doesn’t care,Bobby is an undergraduate MBA student at Ross. BBA students really).are a growing population here. He really doesn’t have muchopportunity to talk to the regular MBA students, but would love Sleep over anyone?to be able to connect with them. He hasn’t heard anything aboutRoss’ green programs at all. He has a girlfriend, but they might Bobby never cooks for himselfbreak up soon (he doesn’t want to, but has no clue how to and is happy to order out orinfluence the decision though). mooch off his girlfriend.STATSAge: 19 Location: Ann Arbor, MI 2011, Ross NetImpact, Design Thinking Workshop
  31. Casual and Cool Lola has a lot of good friends here at the MBA program. She loves happy hour at the brewpubs downtown and can often be seen hanging out there after school with her close buddies. She buys all the recommended books for class and tries to keep up with the assigned readings. She has a cat named Ollie. Is it me or is it cold in here?“I care about the world I live in, but can it help pay my Lola prefers to wear her sandals whenever outside temperature is anybills? I would love to give back in my own little way” above freezing. Hey, it can be done!Lola ‘Miss Granola’Lola is having a rocking time at Ross. She loves the weather atAnn Arbor and rides her bike everywhere, no matter how cold orrainy it gets. It’s complicated though with a boy back home andno time to see him. She is internally torn between her desire tohelp the world and her desire to get a good job and help pay Whole paycheck…er, foods!back her MBA loans. Lola often is seen shopping at the localSTATS health food co-op store on campus,Age: 29 Location: Ann Arbor, MI weekly. 2011, Ross NetImpact, Design Thinking Workshop
  32. Case Study Exercise: Problem Recycling and composting rates at Ross are up  28% this year.  Yet, we notice the following  overflow of trash bins full of recyclable and  compostable material in and around Ross  School of Business.  What gives?  44 Design Thinking for Social Innovation | Sandhya S. Pillalamarri
  33. Case Study Exercise: Some Data • Ross currently diverts (composts/recycles) about 25% of its total waste  stream • Recycling rate is up 28% this year over last year! • Ross does not have to pay per‐pound fees to recycle or landfill waste (the  University picks up the tab and charges each school a flat rate based on  square footage) • Composting costs the Ross Operations department $35,000 per year  (including: special bags, sorting, hauling, and a tipping fee at the local  compost facility) • 25% of all compost bags are not actually composted because they have  too much non‐compostable material inside ‐ these bags are sent to the  landfill instead48 Design Thinking for Social Innovation | Sandhya S. Pillalamarri
  34. Case Study Exercise: Stakeholder Interview• Does peer pressure work well with regard to diverting waste from the landfill?  It appears so here at Ross• New single‐stream recycling program in Ann Arbor, so Ross no longer has to sort its recyclables• This year, compost made from Ross waste is coming full circle and will be applied to our green roof (picture) • Student education programming around waste diversion has shrunk in recent years• 99.5% of all packaging materials from the Ross Cafe are compostable (saltine cracker wrappers are the only thing that isnt compostable)• Compostable trash bags cost $1/ea and have a limited shelf life (they start to compost themselves if left in a storage closet too long)• Ross is the only building in the UofM that offers composting as a waste diversion method (due to the efforts of the Facilities staff and a special agreement with a local hauler and compost facility) 
  35. Case Study Exercise: ~40 Minutes Come up with an innovative, cost‐effective,  efficient, easy to use, and sustainable design  (can be anything from an app. to a unique  trash can product (physical)) to help bring up  the rates of recycling at Ross50 Design Thinking for Social Innovation | Sandhya S. Pillalamarri
  36. Case Study Exercise: Step 1, 2-4 Min • Count off 1 to 4; divide into 4 groups • Each group gets a Ross MBA student Persona! • Post‐Its, Crayons, Markers, Tape, PlayDoh, White  board space, etc. are at your disposable.  You may  choose to use all tools or none51 Design Thinking for Social Innovation | Sandhya S. Pillalamarri
  37. Case Study Exercise: Step 2, 10 Min • Read through personas out loud to your team  understand what makes them happy, sad, what  ticks them off, their knowledge in recycling, etc. • Look at observation photos on screen • Brainstorm problem causes52 Design Thinking for Social Innovation | Sandhya S. Pillalamarri
  38. Case Study Exercise: Step 3, 15 Min • Sketch, sketch, sketch Ross trash system redesign  ideas! • Use tools to showcase your innovative designs • Build / Prototype / Sketch final designs!53 Design Thinking for Social Innovation | Sandhya S. Pillalamarri
  39. Case Study Exercise: Step 4, 10 Min • Choose one or two team members  • Present your ideas to all of us with rationale!54 Design Thinking for Social Innovation | Sandhya S. Pillalamarri