What were some of the results of the Revolution?Why did Patriots divide into Federalists and Anti-Federalists?Describe com...
p.140-141 Winning the Peacep. 147 The Assumptions of Republicanismp. 147-148 The First State Constitutionsp. 149 The Confe...
I. Results of theRevolution  A. Independence – Treaty of Paris,  1783  B. Expulsion of Loyalists  C. Continued confiscatio...
II. Revolution andGovernment  A. Representation in the state  governments  B. Constitution, Bills of Rights and the  Commo...
A. Anti-Federalists                                  • 1. Revolution complete (satisfied that the goals of                ...
IV. PhiladelphiaConvention  A. Federalists outmaneuver Anti-  Federalists  B. Madison and the Virginia Plan  C. Extreme an...
• 1. Representation in A. Great Compromise –               Congresscompromise agreed to in • 2. Division of power,        ...
What were some of the results of theRevolution?Why did Patriots divide intoFederalists and Anti-Federalists?Describe compr...
Independence – Treaty of 1783 Very favorable to the United States No treaty possible until Spain and France agreed  to e...
Expulsion of Loyalists 100,000 fled the country Some fled to England (if they had the financial  means) Most went to Ca...
Continued Confiscation and closedcourts Confiscation of Loyalist land resulted in new opportunities for patriots to acqui...
Economic problems unresolved Those who were wealthy before the war were  wealthy after the war Those who had social and ...
Representation in the stategovernments Americans agreed that state governments would  be “republican” = system in which a...
Constitutions, bills of rights andCommon Law Most basic decision of all states was that their constitutions were to be wr...
Constitutions, bills of rights andCommon Law In 11 of 13 state constitutions the “upper”  chamber represented the “higher...
Articles of Confederation A national government that has the power to:   Conduct wars   Establish foreign relations   ...
Federalists outmaneuver Anti-Federalists Virginia sent delegates who were very well  prepared for constructing a complete...
Madison and the Virginia Plan Edmund Randolph proposed a national  government that consisted of a Legislative,  Executive...
Extreme and ModerateFederalists Extreme Federalists believed the Central  government should control the majority of  work...
Representation in Congress Proposal called for a legislature of two houses Lower house representation would be based on ...
federalism used to describe a system of the government in which sovereignty is constitutionally divided between a central...
Bill of Rights One of the very first pieces of business for the  new Congress They immediately began “filling in the gap...
Bill of RightsDemanded by Anti-Federalists Their demand was mainly on the behalf of small states (less representation) to...
Bill of Rights First Amendment – Establishment Clause, Free Exercise Clause;    freedom of speech, of the press, and of a...
Capital moves south Congressional meetings (first and second  continental congress and the 1st official Congress  in 1789...
Broad federal court system Congress gave Supreme Court the power to make the final decision in cases involving the consti...
Use of state courts Act gave the federal court system power to remove certain cases from the state court system to be tri...
Lesson 7: Founding the Republic
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Lesson 7: Founding the Republic

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Lesson 7: Founding the Republic

  1. 1. What were some of the results of the Revolution?Why did Patriots divide into Federalists and Anti-Federalists?Describe compromises that helped establish a newfederal system.
  2. 2. p.140-141 Winning the Peacep. 147 The Assumptions of Republicanismp. 147-148 The First State Constitutionsp. 149 The Confederationp. 160-168 Framing a New Governmentp. 154-155 Debts, Taxes and Daniel Shays (blackboard discussion material)
  3. 3. I. Results of theRevolution A. Independence – Treaty of Paris, 1783 B. Expulsion of Loyalists C. Continued confiscation and closed courts D. Economic problems unresolved
  4. 4. II. Revolution andGovernment A. Representation in the state governments B. Constitution, Bills of Rights and the Common Law C. Articles of Confederation • central government without customs duties revenue
  5. 5. A. Anti-Federalists • 1. Revolution complete (satisfied that the goals of 1776 have been met) • 2. Keep the Articles of Confederation • 3. Continue confiscation of closed courts • 4. Protect the interests of the majorityB. Federalists• 1. Revolution incomplete (having goals for the country beyond those of 1776)• 2. Significant revision of Articles of Confederation or replace with a new constitution• 3. End confiscation and open the courts• 4. Protect the interests of the minority (economic, not social)
  6. 6. IV. PhiladelphiaConvention A. Federalists outmaneuver Anti- Federalists B. Madison and the Virginia Plan C. Extreme and moderate Federalists
  7. 7. • 1. Representation in A. Great Compromise – Congresscompromise agreed to in • 2. Division of power, federalism (Constitution, the Philadelphia Article 1, Section 8 Convention, part of the • 3. Supremacy – see Constitution Constitution, Article VI, • 1. Demanded by the Clause Supremacy Anti-Federalists who had stalled the Constitution ratification process • 2. Federalists again outmaneuver Anti- Federalists B. Bill of Rights • 3. Compromise agreed to in state ratifying conventions; ratify the Constitution on the condition that, through Article V amendment process, a bill of rights will be added to the Constitution • 4. Madison, 1st Congress amendments proposed, to be ratified by the states – • 1. Federalists: appeals on Constitution, Bill of RightsC. Judiciary Act of 1789 federal questions of law to the Supreme Court • 2. Anti-Federalists: “keep justice close to home” • a. Broad federal court system • b. Use of state courts
  8. 8. What were some of the results of theRevolution?Why did Patriots divide intoFederalists and Anti-Federalists?Describe compromises that helpedestablish a new federal system.
  9. 9. Independence – Treaty of 1783 Very favorable to the United States No treaty possible until Spain and France agreed to end hostilities against England Clear cut recognition of independence Cession of territory:  Southern border of Canada to northern border of (spanish) Florida; Atlantic Ocean to Mississippi River
  10. 10. Expulsion of Loyalists 100,000 fled the country Some fled to England (if they had the financial means) Most went to Canada and established the first English-speaking community in Quebec Most remained outside the country but some did return to re-establish their lives after the anti-Tory resentment died down
  11. 11. Continued Confiscation and closedcourts Confiscation of Loyalist land resulted in new opportunities for patriots to acquire land and influence  “following this war, the new aristocracy will be landowners…”
  12. 12. Economic problems unresolved Those who were wealthy before the war were wealthy after the war Those who had social and political influence before, held the same influence after
  13. 13. Representation in the stategovernments Americans agreed that state governments would be “republican” = system in which all power comes from the people, not from a supreme authority. “all men are created equal” meant that individual talents would be recognized, not aristocracy of their position at birth  Some people would be wealthier than others  all people would have to earn their success  no equality of condition but rather equality of opportunity This never fully came to fruition
  14. 14. Constitutions, bills of rights andCommon Law Most basic decision of all states was that their constitutions were to be written  Unwritten constitutions were vague and produce corruption (England) All agreed that the power of the Executive must be limited  Some states limited the power of their state governor more than others  All states agreed that the governor would not hold a seat in the state legislature  Ensured separation of the two branches
  15. 15. Constitutions, bills of rights andCommon Law In 11 of 13 state constitutions the “upper” chamber represented the “higher orders” of society and did not embrace direct popular election Common Law – from British practice; monarchy is rejected but other British components injected into state constitutions  Habeus Corpus – release from detention/prison when cause cannot be given for the detention  Jury trials  Various other civil liberties  Note a certain irony here…one of the first acts of the newly independent country was to adopt the law of the foreign sovereign from whom independence had just been gained…
  16. 16. Articles of Confederation A national government that has the power to:  Conduct wars  Establish foreign relations  Issue money (print money)  CANNOT – tax the people  CANNOT – regulate trade among the states  CANNOT – draft men into the regular army  (see chart on specific powers of each branch)
  17. 17. Federalists outmaneuver Anti-Federalists Virginia sent delegates who were very well prepared for constructing a completely new government from Philadelphia They had a detailed plan and used it to control the convention
  18. 18. Madison and the Virginia Plan Edmund Randolph proposed a national government that consisted of a Legislative, Executive and Judicial branch Madison’s Virginia Plan stated the Legislative branch should be made up of two houses  The lower house representation would be based on population  The upper house representation would be based on an election by members of the lower house  No system of determining a set number of representatives in this upper house  Small states might not have any representatives in the upper house under this format
  19. 19. Extreme and ModerateFederalists Extreme Federalists believed the Central government should control the majority of workings within the country Moderate Federalists felt as if the states should retain some sovereignty
  20. 20. Representation in Congress Proposal called for a legislature of two houses Lower house representation would be based on population  Slaves would also count as 3/5 of a free person in determining population and taxation (Three-Fifths Compromise)  3/5 formula based on the belief that a slave was only 3/5 as productive as a free worker and thus contributed less to the wealth of the state Upper house representation would be equal with each state having 2 representatives (New Jersey Plan)
  21. 21. federalism used to describe a system of the government in which sovereignty is constitutionally divided between a central governing authority and constituent political units (like states or provinces). Federalism is a system based on democratic rules and institutions in which the power to govern is shared between national and provincial/state governments
  22. 22. Bill of Rights One of the very first pieces of business for the new Congress They immediately began “filling in the gaps” in the Constitution thus creating what we know and refer to today as the “living constitution”  Means it was designed to change with the changing times
  23. 23. Bill of RightsDemanded by Anti-Federalists Their demand was mainly on the behalf of small states (less representation) to protect them from Congress
  24. 24. Bill of Rights First Amendment – Establishment Clause, Free Exercise Clause; freedom of speech, of the press, and of assembly; right to petition Second Amendment – Militia (United States), Sovereign state, Right to keep and bear arms. Third Amendment – Protection from quartering of troops. Fourth Amendment – Protection from unreasonable search and seizure. Fifth Amendment – due process, double jeopardy, self-incrimination, eminent domain. Sixth Amendment – Trial by jury and rights of the accused; Confrontation Clause, speedy trial, public trial, right to counsel Seventh Amendment – Civil trial by jury. Eighth Amendment – Prohibition of excessive bail and cruel and unusual punishment. Ninth Amendment – Protection of rights not specifically enumerated in the Constitution. Tenth Amendment – Powers of States and people.
  25. 25. Capital moves south Congressional meetings (first and second continental congress and the 1st official Congress in 1789 under the Constitution) were held in New York and Philadelphia Southerners wanted to move it closer to the south A compromise was reached (Hamilton v. Jefferson)  Federal government would agree to take on state debts incurred from the war and debt that could not be met under the Articles of Confederation  Needed southern support to do this  Moving the capital to “Foggy Bottom”, owned by George Washington, was enough incentive for southerners to agree to compromise
  26. 26. Broad federal court system Congress gave Supreme Court the power to make the final decision in cases involving the constitutionality of state laws
  27. 27. Use of state courts Act gave the federal court system power to remove certain cases from the state court system to be tried in federal court system  13 district courts, one judge each  3 circuit courts of appeals, one district judge and two supreme court judges

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