American History I (DE) Unit 8 federalis, Republican and Democratic eras


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American History I (DE) Unit 8 federalis, Republican and Democratic eras

  1. 1. Compare theFederalist, Republican, andDemocratic Eras
  2. 2. p. 168-169 Hamilton and the Federalistsp. 169-170 Enacting the Federalist Programp.154 Indians and Western Landsp. 173-174 Jay’s Treaty and Pinckney’s Treatyp. 170-171 The Republican Oppositionp. 198 Dollars and Shipsp. 206-208 The “Indian Problem” and the Britishp. 209 Battles with the Tribes
  3. 3. p. 200-202 Jefferson and Napoleon and the Louisiana Purchasep. 208 Florida and War Feverp. 226 John Quincy Adams and Floridap. 205 Peaceable Coercionp. 209-213 Battles with the British and the Peace Settlementp. 236-238 The Expanding Electoratep. 245-247 The Five Civilized Tribesp. 248-249 Jackson and the Bank War
  4. 4. I. Leadership A. Federalist Party founder: Alexander Hamilton B. Elitist 1. National C. Planning policy 2. British “Prime Minister” model
  5. 5. A. Bank of the UnitedII. Economic Policy States B. National Debt 1. Customs duties C. Central 2. Internal taxes Government revenue 3. Land sales 1. Favored national D. Government role mercantilism in the economy 2. Except favored trade with Britain
  6. 6. III. Indian Policy A. War – Battle of Fallen Timbers B. Treaty line – Greenville Treaty
  7. 7. IV. Foreign Policy Opened current territory: A. Against expansion Pinckney Treaty 1. Resuming full trade B. Relations with Britain 2. Jay Treaty
  8. 8. I. Leadership A. Republican Party founder: James Madison B. “Gentlemen” style 1. Diversity/states C. Planning policy 2. Congress
  9. 9. 1. State banks A. BankingII. Economic Policy 2. Mixed support of B. of U.S. B. Lowers national debt 1. Customs duties C. Central government 2. Phase out internal revenue taxes 3. Land sales 1. Federal and foreign commerce: capitalism D. Government role in the economy 2. State mercantilism
  10. 10. III. Indian Policy A. Welcoming Indians into the American nation B. Indian “treaties” C. Expansion into Indian territory 1. Tecumseh D. War 2. Creeks
  11. 11. 1. Jefferson: Louisiana PurchaseIV. Foreign Policy A. Favored 2. Madison: West expansion Florida 3. James Monroe: Florida 1. Embargo B. Relations with Britain 2. War of 1812
  12. 12. I. Leadership A. Democratic party founder: Andrew Jackson 1. diversity/states B. Democratic/demagogic C. Planning policy 2. Mostly congress: executive branch free from power limits
  13. 13. 1. State banks A. BankingII. Economic Policy 2. Bank war – ends B. of U.S. B. Lowers and temporarily ends the national debt 1. Customs duties C. Central government 2. No internal taxes revenue 3. Phase out land sales 1. Federal and foreign commerce: capitalism D. Government role in the economy 2. State mercantilism
  14. 14. III. Indian policy removal
  15. 15. IV. Foreign Policy expansion A. Texas B. Polk: Oregon C. Polk: Mexican War and Mexican Cession
  16. 16. Compare theFederalist, Republican, and Democratic Eras
  17. 17. FEDERALIST PARTY OVERVIEW• 1790-1816 (ish) remnants lasting into the 1820’s))• First American political party• Supporters were largely urban bankers, businessmen• Platform: • Fiscally sound and nationalistic government • Creation of a national bank • High tariffs • Good relations with Britain• Presidents: John Adams (George Washington was sympathetic to the Federalist program but remained independent)• Party comes to an end during the Era of Good Feelings 1815-1825 (ish)
  18. 18. ALEXANDER HAMILTONELITIST• Very aristocratic in personal tastes and political philosophy • (ironic…)• Believed a stable and effective government required an enlightened ruling class• Government needed the support of the wealthy and powerful and to get that support the elites needed to be given a stake in its success • Investing…
  19. 19. PLANNING POLICY:NATIONAL• Government needs to buy up/assume the debts of the states and pay them off in full to show the strength of the new government
  20. 20. PLANNING POLICYBRITISH “PRIME MINISTER” MODEL• Thought the government of England was the best in the world• Considered his position of Secretary of Treasury as equal to that of Prime Minister under the British model
  21. 21. BANK OF THE UNITED STATES• A national bank would help fill the void that existed in the United States with only a few principle banks in Boston and Philadelphia and New York• Bank could provide loans and currency to businesses• Bank could provide the government a safe place to deposit federal funds• Bank could help collect taxes and disburse expenditures• Bank could provide stability to a currently weak system• If the U.S. government is to assume the debts of the states it would mean a need for an increase in revenue because the government would not have to pay interest on the loans (bonds) that it was taking on
  22. 22. BANK OF THE UNITED STATES• The government would use these loans to pay on the debts• Those loans (bonds) would then have to be paid back to the individual citizen who loaned the money to the government, plus interest• Hamilton proposed two new taxes for this increase in revenue • 1. an excise tax on whiskey distillers • This would mainly impact back country farmers from PA to VA who used part of their crop (corn and rye) for whiskey • 2. a tariff on imports • This would protect American manufacturing from foreign countries
  23. 23. NATIONAL DEBT• Proposal that the new government take responsibility for the existing public debt• Old bonds and certificates issued by the “old” congress (Articles of Confed.) were now in the hands of the wealthy speculators• Hamilton never really wanted to pay off the debt, rather continue to issue new bonds as old bonds were paid • The money from the new bonds would come from wealthy investors, thus ensuring their stake in the success of the government
  24. 24. CENTRAL GOVERNMENT REVENUE:CUSTOMS DUTIES• Tariffs on imports• Rate increase was lower than Hamilton would have liked
  25. 25. CENTRAL GOVERNMENT REVENUE:INTERNAL TAXES• New proposal from Hamilton: tax on whiskey • Leads to Whiskey Rebellion• Big issue over internal taxes is why should some states (citizens in those states like Virginia) pay equally in taxes even though their state debt was lower than other states (like Massachusetts)• That matter is solved when Hamilton agreed to a new location for the national capitol on the Potomac River • Land donated by George Washington known as “Foggy Bottom”
  26. 26. CENTRAL GOVERNMENT REVENUE:LAND SALES• Primarily the only form of revenue the nation had• Sales of land in the “west” • Actually it was land easy of the Mississippi R. acquired after the Revolutionary War
  27. 27. GOVERNMENT ROLE IN THE ECONOMY:FAVORED NATIONAL MERCANTILISM• The elite wealthy merchants have become more wealthy• Followed the system in England
  28. 28. GOVERNMENT ROLE IN THE ECONOMY:FAVORED TRADE WITH BRITAIN• Believed England should be the biggest trade partner with the United States
  29. 29. BATTLE OF FALLEN TIMBERS• General Anthony “Mad Anthony” Wayne lead a group of 4,000 soldiers into the Ohio Valley and defeated the Miami Indians led by Little Turtle• This victory secured negotiations with the tribe and opened up the western portion of Ohio for white settlement
  30. 30. GREENVILLE TREATY• Miami Indians are permitted to keep their claim to territory• White settlement in the new northwest was opened• Effect was that the United States affirmed that Indian lands could only be ceded by the tribes themselves
  31. 31. PINCKNEY TREATY• Settled any conflict with Spain in North America • Spain thought the U.S. and England might join together to challenge Spanish possessions • 1. Spain recognizes the right of Americans to navigate the Mississippi River to its mouth and deposit goods at New Orleans for reloading and ocean-going ships • 2. fixed the northern boundary of Florida along the 31 st parallel (map) • 3. required Spanish authorities to prevent Native Americans from launching raids across the border
  32. 32. JAY TREATY• John Jay was instructed to:• 1. secure compensation for the British assaults on American shipping• 2. demand withdrawal of British forces from the frontier posts• 3. negotiate new commercial treaty• The “Jay Treaty” failed to meet any of these goals, however it did do the following:• 1. settled conflict with Britain and prevented a likely war• 2. established American sovereignty over the Northwest• 3. produced a satisfactory commercial relationship with Britain• When terms became public in America it was bitterly opposed as it failed to secure concrete promises from England
  33. 33. DEMOCRATIC-REPUBLICAN PARTY OVERVIEW(REPUBLICAN ERA)• Founded in early 1790’s by James Madison and Thomas Jefferson • Formed first in Congress and then in every state to contest elections and oppose programs of Alexander Hamilton• Supporters were strongest in the south• Platform: • Favored states’ rights; farmers/planters over bankers/industrialists • Foreign policy: opposed Jay Treaty, supported good relations with France (until 1799) • Domestic policy: denounced the National Bank, opposed proposals that would give the federal government too much power• Presidents: Thomas Jefferson, James Madison, James Monroe• Party splits in 1824 with supporters of Andrew Jackson forming the “democratic party”; the other faction supported John Quincy Adams formed the “republican party” later becoming the Whig party
  34. 34. JAMES MADISON• Federalist #10: (Madison writes…) “…measures are too often decided, not according to the rules of justice and the rights of the minor party, but by the superior force of an interested and overbearing majority.”• Like George Washington, Madison was against political parties • Thought they would only tear a nation apart• Disagreement on issues was inevitable, but should not lead to the formation of permanent factions • “the public good is disregarded in the conflicts of rival parties”• Because Madison (and Jefferson, et. al.) were convinced that Hamilton and his elites had created an “overbearing majority” there was no other alternative than to create a vigorous opposition to the Federalists • This “Republican” party is NOT the ancestor to the current party • That is the republican party of 1850 and Abraham Lincoln (former northern
  35. 35. DIVERSITY/STATES• Voted against the Alien and Sedition Acts• Refused to convict anyone of violating the Alien and Sedition Acts
  36. 36. CONGRESS• Major cases during the majority controlled Democratic-Republican party: • McCulloch v. Maryland • Missouri Compromise • Spain’s cession of Florida to the U.S. • Strict construction of the Constitution
  37. 37. BANKING:STATE BANKS• Supported state’s rights, especially with money• Considered Hamilton’s, National Bank, plan unconstitutional
  38. 38. BANKING:MIXED SUPPORT OF BANK OF U.S.• Most were against the bank as it was deemed unconstitutional in their “strict” constructionist beliefs • Strict construction: congress (ie gov’t.) can only do what the Constitutional specifically says it can do • Loose construction: congress (ie gov’t.) has specific and implied powers given to it by the Constitution (“necessary and proper”)• 1811, Jefferson and his party let the charter on the National Bank run out, refused to re-new the charter
  39. 39. LOWERS NATIONAL DEBT• Unable to completely disovle the national debt• Jefferson and his administration did cut it in half from $83 million to $45 million
  40. 40. CUSTOMS DUTIES• Source of revenue continues for the government
  41. 41. PHASES OUT INTERNAL TAXES• Congress was persuaded to eliminate all internal taxes in 1802 • Whiskey tax, etc
  42. 42. LAND SALES• Another source of revenue that continued under Jefferson• Western land sales(1802 “western” wasstill east of the Mississippi River)
  43. 43. FEDERAL AND FOREIGN COMMERCE:CAPITALISM• Viewed capitalism and the economy of England as wrong as it constantly sought to make a profit off of members of society • Capitalism is “wrong” because it takes an item, places it on the open market for sale at a price higher than what its actual value was• Favored an agrarian society overall (subsistence farming)• Did support small business but not large scale manufacturing as Hamilton had proposed
  44. 44. STATE MERCANTILISM• Let the state governments decide on limits • (there is really nothing else to be found on Jefferson’s views of mercantilism, so sources “assume” he was opposed; there are some sources that say he favored it) • (you have to look at other decisions he made and other remarks given on the topic of the economy and then eventually decide for yourself…)
  45. 45. WELCOMING INDIANS…• Gave Native Americans two options: • 1. become settled farmers and assimilate into white society • 2. migrate to the west of the Mississippi River• Either option would require that they give up their tribal land claims
  46. 46. INDIAN “TREATIES”• By 1807 the U.S. had treaties with Native Americans in eastern Michigan, southern Indiana and most of Illinois
  47. 47. EXPANSION INTO INDIAN TERRITORY• White settlers began moving into Native American territory in the southwest U.S. • Georgia, Tennessee, Mississippi• Resistance was useless (“resistance is futile”) • Tribes were acting separately from one another rather than one body
  48. 48. TECUMSEH• Attempted to unite the tribes of the Midwest against the U.S. • Claimed that lands taken by the U.S. in individual treaties with individual tribes was not legitimate as the land belonged to all tribes, not just one• Battle of Tippecanoe – resulted in a disarray of Indian confederacy and the destruction of “Prophetstown” (Nov. 7, 1811…New Madrid Earthquake Dec. 11, 1811 anniversary anyone?) • Prophet: Tecumseh’s brother and tribal religious leader• British help the Shawnees with supplies, ammunition, weapons • Tecumseh dies at the Battle of the Thames as a Brigadier General for the British army, War of 1812
  49. 49. CREEKS• Spanish supplying Creeks with weapons, ammunition (so much for the Pinckney treaty!)• Gen. Andrew Jackson and his men slaughter Creek men, women and children at the Battle of Horseshoe Bend as a revenge for Creek attacks on white settlers in Florida
  50. 50. FAVORED EXPANSION (JEFFERSON)• Misleading, because at first he did not • As a strict constructionist (view) of the Constitution, he could only do what the Constitution gave him explicit power to do
  51. 51. LOUISIANA PURCHASE• Was unsure if he, as President, could sign a treaty purchasing the land from France• The “treaty making” provision in the Constitution was used to justify the acquisition• Article I, Section 8, Clause 18: • To make all Laws which shall be necessary and proper for carrying into Execution the foregoing Powers, and all other Powers vested by this Constitution in the Government of the United States, or in any Department or Officer thereof.
  52. 52. MADISON: WEST FLORIDA• Wanted the land for future settlement for white Americans• Rivers ran through the land provided access to the Gulf of Mexico
  53. 53. JAMES MONROE: FLORIDA• Using Andrew Jackson’s raids on Native American in Florida (Seminole War), Monroe sent the message to Spain that the U.S. could take Florida by force if they wanted• Spain signed the Adams-Onis Treaty ceding all of Florida to the U.S. (expansion policy???)
  54. 54. EMBARGO• Prohibited trade with England 1811, as long as England enforced its blockade of Europe, mainly Spain• The embargo worked!• England removed the blockade but it came too late as war was imminent with England
  55. 55. WAR OF 1812• Early in the war England was focused on defeating Napoleon (France) and Spain and did not send vast amounts of men to the U.S. • Once Napoleon was defeated England turned its full attention to America • British troops burn many important buildings in the capitol including the White House in retaliation for the burning of the Candadian capital at York (Dolly Madison is given credit for saving many portraits, including that of George Washington)• Fort McHenry was blockaded against the British with several old ships sunk in the Harbor • It was on a British ship – used as a prison – that Francis Scott Key wrote the poem, “The Star Spangled Banner” the morning following the battle• British are turned back at the large Battle of Plattsburg
  56. 56. WAR OF 1812• In New Orleans, Andrew Jackson and 1000 men stand against several waves of British attacks • The British finally leave with American casualties of only 8 dead and 13 wounded• Treaty of Ghent (Belgium) ends the war • Several treaties follow which allow for continued trade with England
  57. 57. DEMOCRAT PARTY OVERVIEW(DEMOCRAT ERA)• Originally part of the Anti-Federalist group that formed the Democrat-Republican party under James Madison and Thomas Jefferson• After the War of 1812 the party split – those who favored the Jeffersonian style (Andrew Jackson, Martin VanBuren) created the Democrat party • Their main opponent was the Whig party, which faded into almost non-existence over the slavery issue after the Mexican-American War. • Anti-Slavery Democrats split from the Democrat party and joined the Whigs, forming the Republican party• Democrats split again, but not one that divided the party – merely a split over ideological issues (slavery, civil war, successor to Pres. James Buchanon) • Northern Democrats split even further (War Dem.’s vs. Peace Dem.’s) • The Confederate States of America saw political parties as evil and did not have any in their “government”
  58. 58. DEMOCRATIC/DEMAGOGIC• (Formed from the split in the Democrat-Republican party) • (Republican arm becomes the “Whigs”)• Andrew Jackson promises to make the government a government of all the people not just the aristocracy• More voters than ever before • Land owning/tax paying requirements dropped to allow more white men the right to vote • Equal protection and equal benefits to all white make citizens
  59. 59. DIVERSITY/STATES• Reduce the power of the federal government, but also believed in forceful presidential leadership• Believed in state’s rights but vetoed the right of states to nullify federal laws (Nullification Crisis)
  60. 60. STATE BANKS• Under retraining effect of the National Bank• Wanted more money in circulation
  61. 61. BANK WAR• Completely opposed to any institution that gave credence to the aristocracy – the bank was a symbol of power of the elite• Jackson favors “soft money” supporters – more in circulation and declares he will not renew the charter in 1836 • Soft money: paper money which hold little or not value but represents some sort of accepted value • Hard money: gold or silver
  62. 62. NATIONAL DEBT• Paid off the entire national debt• First and only time in history this has been done• Short lived due to the economic depression of 1837
  63. 63. CUSTOMS DUTIES• Lowered tariffs, but not enough for some southern states• The states nullified the tariff and demanded an even lower tariff policy• Jackson threatened them with treason• Tariffs helped pay off the national debt
  64. 64. NO INTERNAL TAXES• Kept taxes low• Believed it was the government’s way of keeping the people bound under the need for a National Bank
  65. 65. PHASES OUT LAND SALES• Land sales helped pay off the national debt• Many speculators and businessmen were buying government land with paper money which did not have the same value as coin money
  66. 66. CAPITALISM• Like Jefferson, sided with agrarian over manufacturing
  67. 67. STATE MERCANTILISM• Part of closing the national bank was to get the states more power in controlling their economies
  68. 68. REMOVAL• Removal Act of 1830: forced evacuation of several tribes in the south (west) U.S. to west of the Mississippi River • Trail of Tears (The Trail Where they Cried) • Five “civilized” tribes: Choctaw, Chickasaw, Creek, Cherokee, Seminole • Seminole resisted more than the others and was more successful as they hid in the everglades of southern Florida
  69. 69. TEXAS• Jackson refused Texas’s request for annexation as it would split the democratic party over the issue of slavery• The issue came to light in the 1844 presidential election• James K. Polk used the annexation of the Oregon Territory as a compromise and excuse to annex the Texas territory
  70. 70. OREGON (POLK)• Keep the northern, anti-slave voters happy by allowing them to occupy the territory, free from slavery
  71. 71. MEXICAN WAR, MEXICAN CESSION• Successes in battle during the Mexican-American War allowed for the suggestion an annexation of “All Mexico”, the entire country, to avoid future conflict• This would mean giving citizenship and rights to a group of people who did not necessarily want to become American• The Mexican Cession ended the “All Mexico” talks by annexing southern California and New Mexico