4 new nation, new government


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4 new nation, new government

  1. 1. Unit 2- The Constitution and the New Republic Set 1: The Young Nation New State Constitutions (pg. 125) • In the new U.S. a republic was formed - in a republic power resides with citizens who are entitled to vote and elected leaders must govern according to laws or a constitution
  2. 2. The Revolution Changes Society (pg. 125) • A concern for individual liberty led to a greater separation of church and state where states no longer had an official church and taxes could not be collected to support the church • Voting rights also expanded in the post-war years - many states allowed any white male taxpayer to vote whether he owned property or not can you think of an example of separation of church and state?
  3. 3. A Weak National Government (pg. 126) • In 1781, the U.S. adopted the plan for a central government known as the Articles of Confederation • The states did not want to create a new government that might become tyrannical • One of the Articles greatest achievements was the Northwest Ordinance of 1787 which was a plan for selling and governing new lands
  4. 4. Articles of Confederation Powers of National Government -declare war -negotiate treaties -manage foreign affairs -coin money -establish postal system -establish military Limits of National Government -no power to enforce laws -no power to tax -no national court system to settle disputes between the states -no power to regulate trade or put tariffs on foreign goods Structure of National Government -one branch of government; a one house legislature called Congress -each state had one vote in Congress
  5. 5. • In 1787, Daniel Shays led a rebellion in Massachusetts in protest of new taxes - this rebellion was put down by the state militia but raised fear over the powers of the new government and could they handle problems in the future
  6. 6. Unit 2- The Constitution and the New Republic Set 2: A New Constitution A New Constitution (pg. 126) • In 1787, every state except Rhode Island met to revise the Articles of Confederation - instead of changing the Articles they decided that they should write a brand new framework of government • This meeting was known as the Constitutional Convention
  7. 7. Debate and Compromise (pg. 127) • All the delegates wanted a stronger national government - they also accepted the idea of dividing the government into the executive, legislative, and judicial branches (Montesquieu) • The smaller states proposed the New Jersey Plan where each state would have one vote in a unicameral congress, but the larger states insisted upon the Virginia Plan where representation would be based on population
  8. 8. • The solution was resolved by the Great Compromise or the Connecticut Compromise • The Congress would be divided into two houses: the Senate and the House of Representatives (bicameral) • The Senate would have equal representation and the House would be based on population
  9. 9. • The framers decided upon the 3/5 Compromise where every five enslaved people in a state would count as three free persons for determining both representation and taxation
  10. 10. A Framework for Limited Government (pg. 128) • The new Constitution was based on the principle of popular sovereignty - rule by the people • The new Constitution created a representative government in which elected officials speak for the people How is voting an example of popular sovereignty?
  11. 11. • To strengthen the federal government but still preserve the rights of the states, the Constitution created a system known as federalism - the power is divided between the federal and state governments • The Constitution has three types of powers: delegated (or enumerated), reserved, and concurrent
  12. 12. • The Constitution also provided for a separation of powers among the three branches of the federal government • The two houses of Congress make up the legislative branch and make the laws • The executive branch, headed up by a president, would implement and enforce the laws Congress passed amongst other responsibilities • The judicial branch (a system of national courts) would interpret federal laws and render judgment cases involving those laws
  13. 13. Checks and Balances (pg. 128) • The framers also created a system of checks and balances • For example, the president could veto Congress, and the Congress can override the veto with a 2/3 vote • The president can nominate judges including a chief justice of the Supreme Court but the Senate has to confirm or reject such nominations
  14. 14. Unit 2- The Constitution and the New Republic Set 3: The Fight for Ratification Debating the Constitution (pg. 129) • For the Constitution to go into effect it needed to be ratified by 9 of the 13 states • Supporters of the Constitution were known as Federalists
  15. 15. • Many of the Federalists were large landowners, artisans, and merchants in large coastal cities who believed a strong national government was necessary to regulate the economy • The Antifederalists were concerned about state rights - many Antifederalists believed the Constitution needed a bill of rights to protect individual liberty
  16. 16. • Those in favor of the Constitution wrote The Federalist Papers - a collection of essays written by James Madison, Alexander Hamilton, and John Jay
  17. 17. Ratification in Massachusetts (pg. 130) • To try and win ratification in Massachusetts, the Federalists promised to attach a bill of rights once it was ratified - they also agreed to give the states or the people all powers not specifically granted to the federal government - Massachusetts ratified • In 1791 the promises led to the addition of the Bill of Rights which is the first ten amendments to the Constitution • After Massachusetts, many states ratified the Constitution
  18. 18. Bill of Rights video 22
  19. 19. Amendment 1 Guarantees freedom or religion, speech, petition, assembly, and press Amendment 2 Right to bear arms Amendment 3 Prohibits the quartering of soldiers in private homes in peacetime Amendment 4 No unreasonable search and seizure Amendment 5 Rights of the accused (double jeopardy, due process, prohibiting government from taking private property without just compensation Amendment 6 Right to a fair and speedy trial Amendment 7 Guarantees a jury trial in most civil cases Amendment 8 No cruel and unusual punishment; no excessive bail Amendment 9 Powers reserved to the people Amendment 10 Powers reserved to the states BILL OF RIGHTS