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Economic Growth Takes Energy Source: UN and DOE EIA PPP = Purchasing Power Parity - A rate of exchange that accounts for price differences across countries allowing international comparisons of real output and incomes. US Australia Russia Brazil China India S. Korea Mexico Ireland Greece France UK Japan Malaysia Energy demand and GDP per capita (1980-2002)
Hydrogen and fuel cells have the potential to solve several major challenges:
Benefits of H 2
Sources of Energy Gasification Steam Reforming Coal Biomass Natural Gas Oil H 2 H 2 is an energy carrier, it stores and delivers energy in a usable form. An energy source or energy carrier?
Sources of Energy Wind Solar Hydro Nuclear Water Electrolysis
Hydrogen Production Present Near Future Future
Hydrogen Fuel Cell An electrochemical cell in which the energy of the reaction between hydrogen and oxygen, is converted directly and continuously into electrical energy. Byproducts of the reaction are water and heat. www.microsec.net www.fuelcelltoday.com Fuel Cell Stack Schematic of a Fuel Cell
Fuel Cells Compared with Batteries Inside a Fuel Cell Inside a Battery
Battelle Report identifies key early PEM fuel cell markets:
Battery vs Fuel Cell Forklifts Fuel Cell Forklift & Refilling Station Battery Forklift & Charging Station Battery Forklift & Changing Battery Difficulty to Steer During Voltage Fade 5-10 min ~ 8 hr ~ 6 hr ~ 6 hr (no fade) ~ 2 hr (fade) 15-20 min ~ 6 hr (no fade) ~ 2 hr (fade) Run Time Voltage 8 hr Run Time Voltage 6 hr 2 hr