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On-Road Heavy Duty Vehicle Overview Clean Transportation  Solutions   SM Advanced Transportation  Technologies Bill Van Amburg Senior Vice President GreenTech Connect Forum Pasadena, CA August 3, 2009
Trends & Drivers of Change ENERGY SECURITY: FUEL SUPPLY AND COSTS  –  Traditional fuel supplies/refining capacity barely meeting current demand The need for biofuels is increasing but  so are questions about their impacts/benefits RFS2 rules at federal level – Biofuels grow as fuel blends; 2nd gen biofuels emerging Rise of non-traditional hydrocarbons possible – but have serious impacts Regional fuel variation and choice becoming more prevalent Alternatives becoming economically competitive with petroleum but have own costs GLOBAL WARMING  –  Push to reduce GHGs intensifying and pushing fuel economy – focus and urgency  increasing  in 2009 EPA now says GHG is a health danger – can regulate under clean air act California CO2 tailpipe rules  approved  by new EPA CAFÉ revised to match CA CO2 rules: CAFÉ for med & heavy trucks under study States/communities remain GHG leaders – Calif AB 32 increases momentum Several climate change bills now in Congress (Summer 2009) – law in 2010? Energy efficiency reduces GHG impact; Fuel switching and blending reduces GHG impact; Modal split (transit and rail) has long term role EMISSIONS REDUCTIONS  –  World population increasingly urban and world emission standards increasingly move to CA/Euro standards EU and US may align in 2012-2015 timeline Fine particulates (nano particles) will be of increasing concern from combustion Diesel fuel still challenged in dirtiest regions (ports, Southern California)
Key Driver – 2010 Emissions New EPA Regulations for on-road diesels take effect in MY2010 Dramatically decrease discharges of particulate matter (soot and ash) and nitrogen oxide (NOx) 0.2 gram per brake horsepower hour (g/bhp-hr) for NOx and 0.01 g/bhp-hr for particulates Requires use of ULSD diesel fuel Requires use of CJ-4 lubricating oils Particulate traps/filters and SCR/EGR systems to reduce conventional diesel engine pollutants Major motivator for alternative technologies
There is no “Silver Bullet” – no single technical or fuel solution that exists today will fit every situation
Find Combination Strategies Air Quality Climate   Change Energy Security We must find solutions that address all three competing needs Integrated Solutions Needed There is no one “Silver Bullet” solution
Mono to Poly-Fuel/Tech Future: Starting to Gain Traction Greenhouse Gas Emissions High Low Low High Air Pollution  Today’s   Diesel Engine Tomorrow’s   Diesel Engine Biodiesel Natural Gas FF Hybrid  H2 from FF Biogas Biofuel Hybrid Gasoline ICE Renewable H2 Battery EV -- Renewable Plug-in Hybrid Land Fill Gas E-85 BTL/GTL/CTL 2020 Gasoline ICE? BUT: feedstock and fuel cycle matters Diesel Hybrid
Hybrid Truck  Users Forum (HTUF) Successful CALSTART program with U.S. Army, DOE, fleet users, truck makers and industry partners  has spurred rapid, early demonstration and production of truck hybrids User driven process involving > 80 fleets with > 1 million trucks Other Public-Private initiatives: California Fuel Cell Partnership California Natural Gas Vehicle Partnership All Major Truck Makers and System Suppliers involved  (partial list)
Hybrid Truck Technology •  Perfect storm for hybrids? Incremental cost in cars dropping as fuel price rises •  First products NOW entering market for medium- and heavy-duty vehicles - Hybrid electric, hybrid hydraulic, PHET •  First focus is urban work trucks: Class 4-8 refuse, utility, delivery •  Class 8 drayage, line-haul and construction equipment are in prototype or near preproduction •  Hybrids can multiply benefits when combined with low carbon fuels (biofuels, NG, electricity, plug-in)
Hybrid Medium Duty Trucks Expand to Both New & Heavier Applications Freightliner – Eaton and Posi Plus (Canada) shows a new tandem axle hybrid utility truck (based on M2 chassis) GVWR range up to 40,000 lbs First use of hybrid systems in tandem axle operation – showcases the expansion of hybrid into additional Class 8 applications Vehicles bound for Canadian and US fleets Opens door for tandem axle tractors
CARB staff worked to craft extremely simple program – incentive targets half the incremental cost of today’s hybrids If successful, plans are for multi-year program but incentive may drop in future years CARB Board approved April 24 Hybrid Truck & Bus Voucher Incentive Program (HVIP)
Bill to Restart Natural Gas R&D at DOE US House passes (HR 1622) to restart NGV research, development program at DOE Five year program of R&D at DOE; work with industry, EPA to streamline NGV conversion systems to federal certification and in-use standards  Other key provisions: Develop, improve safety codes for NGVs and their components Improve reliability, efficiency of NGV fuel station infrastructure, certification to national standards Develop new NG fuel storage materials Certify on-board fuel storage systems to nationally-recognized, industry safety standards Work toward NG engines in hybrid vehicles Photo:  Cummins Westport 5.9L natural gas engine Credit: westport.com
Major OEMs producing NG trucks Freightliner and Mack with standard offerings Will use Cummins Westport ISL G 11 liter engine, will support LNG and CNG variants Will also support LNG and CNG variants Freightliner says will support natural gas across 90% of truck applications by year’s end
Biomethane Overview Generated from biological breakdown of organic matter in the absence of oxygen Considered an renewable source of energy and the advantages of using biomass energy are three fold:  Is a domestic energy resource Can be obtained at little or (in case of waste) no cost  Is considered a carbon-neutral resource (because CO2 released during its utilization is captured from the atmosphere during biomass growth Technology is available and in use by US fleets
Hydrogen / Fuel Cell Vehicles Still very much a longer term technology development effort A few hundred vehicles worldwide for technical assessment to date Original launch dates (2010) no longer on table Will likely see in transit buses before passenger cars Costs still extremely high, though significant technical advancement has occurred Debate within congress on Hydrogen funding
AC Transit Hyroad Support from CALSTART and FTA’s National Fuel Cell Bus Program (NFCBP) Leverages the largest United States investment in fuel cell buses to date and the most comprehensive fuel cell bus program in the country.  Provides accelerated fuel cell, fuel cell system data with buses that are on the road today so as to accelerate the development  Over 180,000 miles of service on the three fuel cell buses, operating seven days a week Fuel cell durability continues to improve
Clean Transportation Solutions   SM www.calstart.org For info contact: Bill Van Amburg (626) 744-5600 [email_address] Advanced Transportation Technologies   SM
Backup Slides
Hydraulic Hybrid Technology Extremely promising technology •  Benefits: possible lower cost than electric technology; excellent at high power, demanding duty cycles; robust component base •  Weight, system integration and control are key issues; farther behind in development curve •  Most focus is on medium and heavy-duty vehicles •  Major US manufacturers are leaders in this technology
Electric Drive Technology The re-emergence of Electric Vehicles! Medium-duty all-electric trucks becoming available in North America from two UK companies: Smith Trucks and Modec; others entering space for light/medium duty trucks •  Improving battery technology partly thanks to hybrids (NiMH, lithium ion) •  Still expensive, range limited: but energy storage costs dropping steadily •  Increased petroleum prices makes an improving business case •  Criteria and GHG emissions very low; varies depending on fuel source of power plants, but very good in California
Smith Electric Vehicles – first to market Ford Transit Connect, Other EVs to be Built in Kansas City •  UK-headquartered Smith will build Ford’s Transit Connect BEV electric vehicle (EV) in Kansas City, Missouri AutoBlogGreen, 03/27/09

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CALSTART GreenTech Connect Forum

  • 1. On-Road Heavy Duty Vehicle Overview Clean Transportation Solutions SM Advanced Transportation Technologies Bill Van Amburg Senior Vice President GreenTech Connect Forum Pasadena, CA August 3, 2009
  • 2. Trends & Drivers of Change ENERGY SECURITY: FUEL SUPPLY AND COSTS – Traditional fuel supplies/refining capacity barely meeting current demand The need for biofuels is increasing but so are questions about their impacts/benefits RFS2 rules at federal level – Biofuels grow as fuel blends; 2nd gen biofuels emerging Rise of non-traditional hydrocarbons possible – but have serious impacts Regional fuel variation and choice becoming more prevalent Alternatives becoming economically competitive with petroleum but have own costs GLOBAL WARMING – Push to reduce GHGs intensifying and pushing fuel economy – focus and urgency increasing in 2009 EPA now says GHG is a health danger – can regulate under clean air act California CO2 tailpipe rules approved by new EPA CAFÉ revised to match CA CO2 rules: CAFÉ for med & heavy trucks under study States/communities remain GHG leaders – Calif AB 32 increases momentum Several climate change bills now in Congress (Summer 2009) – law in 2010? Energy efficiency reduces GHG impact; Fuel switching and blending reduces GHG impact; Modal split (transit and rail) has long term role EMISSIONS REDUCTIONS – World population increasingly urban and world emission standards increasingly move to CA/Euro standards EU and US may align in 2012-2015 timeline Fine particulates (nano particles) will be of increasing concern from combustion Diesel fuel still challenged in dirtiest regions (ports, Southern California)
  • 3. Key Driver – 2010 Emissions New EPA Regulations for on-road diesels take effect in MY2010 Dramatically decrease discharges of particulate matter (soot and ash) and nitrogen oxide (NOx) 0.2 gram per brake horsepower hour (g/bhp-hr) for NOx and 0.01 g/bhp-hr for particulates Requires use of ULSD diesel fuel Requires use of CJ-4 lubricating oils Particulate traps/filters and SCR/EGR systems to reduce conventional diesel engine pollutants Major motivator for alternative technologies
  • 4. There is no “Silver Bullet” – no single technical or fuel solution that exists today will fit every situation
  • 5. Find Combination Strategies Air Quality Climate Change Energy Security We must find solutions that address all three competing needs Integrated Solutions Needed There is no one “Silver Bullet” solution
  • 6. Mono to Poly-Fuel/Tech Future: Starting to Gain Traction Greenhouse Gas Emissions High Low Low High Air Pollution Today’s Diesel Engine Tomorrow’s Diesel Engine Biodiesel Natural Gas FF Hybrid H2 from FF Biogas Biofuel Hybrid Gasoline ICE Renewable H2 Battery EV -- Renewable Plug-in Hybrid Land Fill Gas E-85 BTL/GTL/CTL 2020 Gasoline ICE? BUT: feedstock and fuel cycle matters Diesel Hybrid
  • 7. Hybrid Truck Users Forum (HTUF) Successful CALSTART program with U.S. Army, DOE, fleet users, truck makers and industry partners has spurred rapid, early demonstration and production of truck hybrids User driven process involving > 80 fleets with > 1 million trucks Other Public-Private initiatives: California Fuel Cell Partnership California Natural Gas Vehicle Partnership All Major Truck Makers and System Suppliers involved (partial list)
  • 8. Hybrid Truck Technology • Perfect storm for hybrids? Incremental cost in cars dropping as fuel price rises • First products NOW entering market for medium- and heavy-duty vehicles - Hybrid electric, hybrid hydraulic, PHET • First focus is urban work trucks: Class 4-8 refuse, utility, delivery • Class 8 drayage, line-haul and construction equipment are in prototype or near preproduction • Hybrids can multiply benefits when combined with low carbon fuels (biofuels, NG, electricity, plug-in)
  • 9. Hybrid Medium Duty Trucks Expand to Both New & Heavier Applications Freightliner – Eaton and Posi Plus (Canada) shows a new tandem axle hybrid utility truck (based on M2 chassis) GVWR range up to 40,000 lbs First use of hybrid systems in tandem axle operation – showcases the expansion of hybrid into additional Class 8 applications Vehicles bound for Canadian and US fleets Opens door for tandem axle tractors
  • 10. CARB staff worked to craft extremely simple program – incentive targets half the incremental cost of today’s hybrids If successful, plans are for multi-year program but incentive may drop in future years CARB Board approved April 24 Hybrid Truck & Bus Voucher Incentive Program (HVIP)
  • 11. Bill to Restart Natural Gas R&D at DOE US House passes (HR 1622) to restart NGV research, development program at DOE Five year program of R&D at DOE; work with industry, EPA to streamline NGV conversion systems to federal certification and in-use standards Other key provisions: Develop, improve safety codes for NGVs and their components Improve reliability, efficiency of NGV fuel station infrastructure, certification to national standards Develop new NG fuel storage materials Certify on-board fuel storage systems to nationally-recognized, industry safety standards Work toward NG engines in hybrid vehicles Photo: Cummins Westport 5.9L natural gas engine Credit: westport.com
  • 12. Major OEMs producing NG trucks Freightliner and Mack with standard offerings Will use Cummins Westport ISL G 11 liter engine, will support LNG and CNG variants Will also support LNG and CNG variants Freightliner says will support natural gas across 90% of truck applications by year’s end
  • 13. Biomethane Overview Generated from biological breakdown of organic matter in the absence of oxygen Considered an renewable source of energy and the advantages of using biomass energy are three fold: Is a domestic energy resource Can be obtained at little or (in case of waste) no cost Is considered a carbon-neutral resource (because CO2 released during its utilization is captured from the atmosphere during biomass growth Technology is available and in use by US fleets
  • 14. Hydrogen / Fuel Cell Vehicles Still very much a longer term technology development effort A few hundred vehicles worldwide for technical assessment to date Original launch dates (2010) no longer on table Will likely see in transit buses before passenger cars Costs still extremely high, though significant technical advancement has occurred Debate within congress on Hydrogen funding
  • 15. AC Transit Hyroad Support from CALSTART and FTA’s National Fuel Cell Bus Program (NFCBP) Leverages the largest United States investment in fuel cell buses to date and the most comprehensive fuel cell bus program in the country. Provides accelerated fuel cell, fuel cell system data with buses that are on the road today so as to accelerate the development Over 180,000 miles of service on the three fuel cell buses, operating seven days a week Fuel cell durability continues to improve
  • 16. Clean Transportation Solutions SM www.calstart.org For info contact: Bill Van Amburg (626) 744-5600 [email_address] Advanced Transportation Technologies SM
  • 18. Hydraulic Hybrid Technology Extremely promising technology • Benefits: possible lower cost than electric technology; excellent at high power, demanding duty cycles; robust component base • Weight, system integration and control are key issues; farther behind in development curve • Most focus is on medium and heavy-duty vehicles • Major US manufacturers are leaders in this technology
  • 19. Electric Drive Technology The re-emergence of Electric Vehicles! Medium-duty all-electric trucks becoming available in North America from two UK companies: Smith Trucks and Modec; others entering space for light/medium duty trucks • Improving battery technology partly thanks to hybrids (NiMH, lithium ion) • Still expensive, range limited: but energy storage costs dropping steadily • Increased petroleum prices makes an improving business case • Criteria and GHG emissions very low; varies depending on fuel source of power plants, but very good in California
  • 20. Smith Electric Vehicles – first to market Ford Transit Connect, Other EVs to be Built in Kansas City • UK-headquartered Smith will build Ford’s Transit Connect BEV electric vehicle (EV) in Kansas City, Missouri AutoBlogGreen, 03/27/09