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Steps for Northern Indiana Plug-In Electric Vehicle Technology


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Presented by Danilo J. Santini with Argonne National Laboratory
July 23, 2012

Published in: Education, Technology, Business
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Steps for Northern Indiana Plug-In Electric Vehicle Technology

  1. 1. The submitted manuscript has been created by Argonne National Laboratory, a U.S. Department of Energy laboratory managed by UChicago Argonne, LLC, under Contract No. DE-AC02-06CH11357. The U.S. Government retains for itself, and others acting on its behalf, a paid-up, nonexclusive, irrevocable worldwide license in said article to reproduce, prepare derivative works, distribute copies to the public, and perform publicly and display publicly, by or on behalf of the Government. Steps for Northern Indiana Plug in Electric Vehicle Technology Danilo J. Santini, Senior Economist Center for Transportation Research Argonne National Laboratory Presented at: South Shore Clean Cities EV Webinar July 23, 2012 Preparation of this presentation was sponsored by Clean Cities and the Vehicle Technologies Program, Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy, U.S. Department of Energy. Views expressed are those of Dr. Santini, not necessarily Argonne National Lab or the Department of Energy
  2. 2. Keep up to date by tracking information on these (and other) web sites. If serious about purchase, check manufacturer, state and local government, and local utility web sites as well. South Shore Clean Cities U.S. Department of Energy Clean Cities Alternative Fuels & Advanced Vehicles Data Center (AFDC) Clean Cities Coordinator Contact Information and Coalition Plug In America 2
  3. 3. DOE Maintains Sites With Information in Detail on Current Technology, Regulations, Incentives, Training, and Strategies. • Clean Cities • • Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center 3 For technical analyses of future technology, see
  4. 4. Hybrid and Plug-In Electric Vehicles Pages Vehicle Technologies Program 4
  5. 5. EVSE Permitting Template and Diagrams Residential EVSE permitting template – Designed for permitting and inspecting jurisdictions – Jurisdictions can modify for specific, unique requirements Code material – NEC Article 625 – Sets safety requirements for EVSE installation Vehicle Technologies Program 5
  6. 6. GeoEVSE Forum Government-industry collaboration committed to establishing a repository of public EVSE location data for consumers and industry. Goals – Avoid duplication of data collection efforts for EVSE locations – Enhance the EVSE data in the AFDC station locator – Ensures that DOE continues to collect and provide the most comprehensive collection of EVSE location data – Strengthen relationships and improve communication with new industry stakeholders Vehicle Technologies Program 6
  7. 7. Vehicle Cost Calculator Vehicle Technologies Program 7
  8. 8. Training & Education Residential Charging Installation Video – Electrical contractors and installers – Permitting officials and inspectors – Collaborative effort between Clean Cities, OEMs, Utilities, EVSE suppliers esidentialChargingInstallation.aspx Community Readiness Workshop – Held in conjunction with the 2011 Clean Cities Stakeholder Summit, Clean Cities hosted training to help Coalitions develop community EV readiness plans – Videos of presentations and materials available for local workshops on Clean Cities TV mit.html Vehicle Technologies Program 8
  9. 9. Publications Hybrid and Plug-In Electric Vehicles Factsheet Plug-In Electric Vehicle Handbooks – – – – Consumers Fleet Managers Public Charging Station Hosts Electrical Contractors Deployment Case Studies Vehicle Technologies Program 9
  10. 10. Recent Introductions of Plug-in Hybrids and a Family Of Prius Models May Have Revived Car Hybrid Sales Growth Cars Both Light Trucks 10
  11. 11. Where are the Opportunities? Ford and GM Have Been Emphasizing Home and Workplace Charging. 11
  12. 12. There are Unique Capabilities and Charging Needs for Each Vehicle Type – Plug in Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV) • Varying electric range – battery 5-10 kWh • Blended mode operation on highways, hard acceleration • Charge power presently 1.4 - 3.3 kW – Extended Range Electric Vehicle (EREV) • Increased electric range – medium battery 10-20 kWh energy • Nearly exclusively electric operation in metro areas • Charge power presently 1.4 to 3.3 kW – Battery Electric Vehicle (BEV) • All electric range – large battery >20kWh energy • Exclusively electric operation • Charge power presently 3.3 kW to 50 kW – “Super” Battery Electric Vehicle (BEV) • All electric range – large battery 85 kWh energy • Charge power 10 or 20kW; DC Fast, 35 kW 12
  13. 13. EARLY SALES: Battery Electric Cars Have Declined While EREVs & PHEV Cars Have Expanded Recently Go to ”Insert (View) | Header and Footer" to add your organization, sponsor, meeting name here; then, click "Apply to All" 13
  14. 14. Significant In-State Wind Resources are Found in Northern Illinois and Indiana 14
  15. 15. Renewable Energy Credits Including Wind Can Already Be Purchased from Some Indiana Utilities 15
  16. 16. There are Possibilities for the Environmentally Oriented Consumer to Commit to Clean Electricity  ~ 40% of California purchasers of Nissan Leafs to date have solar panels on their home.  Renewable Energy Credits (RECs) allow purchase of an equivalent amount of electricity provided by renewable energy. See:  NIPSCO’s first public chargers will purchase RECs equivalent to the electricity that they sell and provide free charging to customers.  In May 2011, Governor Daniels signed SB 251, creating the Clean Energy Portfolio Standard (CPS) with a voluntary goal of 10% clean energy by 2025. Qualifying utilities apply to the Indiana Utility Regulatory Commission (IURC) to seek incentives for projects. 16
  17. 17. Grid Electricity Miles by Plug-in Vehicles Greatly Reduce Oil Use and Lower GHGs Past HEVs With Wind Credits Smart charging is often dirtier in terms of GHG Same size gasoline Baseline Gasoline Vehicle 1 Smart charge Smart Charging Unconstrained Charging Charge immediately PHEVs and E-REVs GHG Emissions (fraction(relative to GV) vehicle) GHG Emissions of gasoline 1.2 0.8 0.6 Same size HEV Regular HEV Western U.S. (much CCNG) (dominated by NGCC) NY New York (much CCNG) Illinois (Coal) IL (coal intensive mix) Zero GHG emissions Renewable WECC 0.4 0.2 Increase in PHEV kWh 0 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 Petroleum Use (relative to GV) Petroleum Use (fraction of gasoline vehicle) 1.2 17
  18. 18. For Average U.S. Driving, Annual Fuel Cost Can Be More Than $1000 Less For EVs vs. Conventional Gasoline Nissan Leaf EV Ford Focus EV Mitsubishi MiEV Chevrolet Volt EREV Toyota Prius Electricity Gasoline Nissan Versa Ford Focus Chevrolet Cruze Toyota Corrola $- $1,000 $2,000 $3,000 Fuel Annual Fuel Cost Estimate 18
  19. 19. HEVs Have Proven to Require Less Maintenance than Conventional Vehicles. Plug-in Vehicles are Also Anticipated to Require Less Maintenance. • HEVs and PHEVs require slightly less maintenance than conventional vehicles • Battery warranties are for 8 years or more • EVs should also require less maintenance than conventional vehicles • Battery, motor, and associated electronics require no regular maintenance, or very long intervals • No fluids to change, except brake fluid (one battery flush for Focus BEV however) • Regenerative braking reduces break wear • Fewer moving parts than a conventional vehicle 19
  20. 20. Electric Drive Energy Consumption Penalties in Extreme Temperatures are Greater Than For Gasoline Cars Advanced Powertrain Research Facility 2012 Electric Vehicle +25% +101% +92% +2% +42% +27% +21% +5% Note: Energy consumption does not include charger efficiency 20
  21. 21. With Your Cell Phone, You Can Use Electricity from the Grid to Heat or Cool Your Vehicle Before Leaving. But if Parked in a Lot With No Charger Mid Afternoon … Leaf Volt 21
  22. 22. Houses in Indiana Should Have the kW Capacity to Handle PHEV and Current EV Overnight Charging Average Peak Summer Demand Per Household (KW) Tesla (240V80A) 19.2 PEV (240V@32A) 7.7 Feeders PEV (240V@15A) PEV (120V@12A) SanFrancisco, CA Hartford, CT Dulles, VA South Bend, IN Springdale, AR 3.6 1.4 3.0 4.3 4.6 6.0 7.7 Source: A. Maitra (Electric Power Research Institute). Plug-In Vehicle Drive Impacts to the Grid TRB Environment and Energy Research Conference June 7-9, 2010 22
  23. 23. Automakers Rollout Emphases May Not Prioritize Indiana •Driven by incentives and deployment initiatives the majority of the EV market growth will be in the West Coast in the near term – and also in highly incentivized markets •In the medium to long term EV deployment will likely gain more momentum in the States that have adopted California emission regulations ZEV Mandates (Section 177 States) WA ME OR VT MA CT NY RI PA NJ CA MD AZ NM Hawaii Section 177 States Requiring PHEVs and EVs FL State tax credit incentives for purchase of either PHEVs or EVs (Federal is $2500 [Prius] up to $7500 [Leaf, Volt]) Note: Nissan’s site lists more states with at least EV credits 23
  24. 24. L1 Charge Equipment Goes With the Vehicle; L2 Is Placed at Usual Parking Spots; and L2 and DC at “Stations” Level 1 (L1) with Vehicle Level 1 or 2 in Parking Lot Level 2 (L2) on House Wall L2 & DC Fast in “Stations” 24
  25. 25. Due to Costs of Trenching and Rewiring, Costs Behind the Plug Can Vary Significantly. New Construction Can Be Far Less Expensive, But Most Will Involve Retrofits.  Most owners will charge vehicles at home, making Level 1 and Level 2 the primary options. Workplace seems to be the next highest priority.  Level 2 charging equipment now costs $1,500 to $2,500 when owners choose to install.  Old dwellings with limited kW capacity could require rewiring, or investment in much more efficient appliances and/or lighting to create capacity for the PEV  Level 2 at work is generally more expensive, with longer runs to parking spots, needing trenching and paving replacement.  Each of these installations requires permitting and licensed contractors. 25
  26. 26. The Financial Desirability of PEVs Depends on Intensity of Use, Incentives, the “Other” Vehicles Considered, and Possibly Owner Payback Patience $54,000 Total Cost of Ownership >>>> $98,000 BMW 128i Buick Verano Volt Leaf Years of Ownership >>>> $10,000 5 10 Assumptions: 1/2 $7500 Federal Credit for Volt & Leaf 55 miles per day Volt & Leaf 2 charges/day 30% Everyday Highway Driving $3.37/gallon gasoline 11 cents/kWh electricity 19766 miles/year 15 Calculated using Vehicle Cost Calculator at: 26
  27. 27. How Do We Make Plug-in Electric Vehicles Work for the Economy and the Environment? Subsidize early vehicles until net operating costs come down via – – – – Production volume Production experience Learning by finding flaws and fixing them (vehicle use experience) Learning the best market niches for business cases Develop skills – – – – – – – Standards for autos and charging equipment Auto dealers Charge equipment installers First responders to accidents Fleet owners and charge equipment owners – and consumers! Utility regulators and systems operators Recyclers and scrap yards 27