GLOBAL WARMING AND GREEN HOUSE EFFECT
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GLOBAL WARMING AND GREEN HOUSE EFFECT

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GLOBAL WARMING AND GREEN HOUSE EFFECT GLOBAL WARMING AND GREEN HOUSE EFFECT Document Transcript

  • GLOBAL WARMING We were part of the problem NOW IT’S TIME FOR A CHANGE. Submitted by:- Gopa Goutami Jadu
  • CONTENT POINT INTRODUCTION CAUSE OF GLOBAL WARMING EFFECT OF GLOBAL WARMING RECENT STUDIES INTERNATIONAL EFFORTS
  • WHAT IS GLOBAL WARMING ??? an average increase in near the Earth’s surface and in the troposphere, which can contribute to changes in global climate patterns Global warming is A rise in temperature of the Earth caused by emissions of carbon dioxide and other heat-trapping gases that are emitted primarily by the burning of fossil fuels and the clearing of forests. These gases remain in our atmosphere for decades or even centuries. The atmosphere around us is made up of gases. Some of these gases function like the panes of a greenhouse: they let some radiation from the sun in but also retain heat in the atmosphere, that is: they don't let all radiation back out. As a result of this natural effect, it is warmer on Earth than it would be without these heat-trapping gases.This is called the greenhouse effect.
  • Causes of global warming • Ozone hole • heat-trapping-gases • aerosol emissions • over population • overuse of energy • economic growth • land use changes • Burning of fossil fuels • Cement manufacture • Deforestation OZONE HOLE Each year for the past few decades during the Southern Hemisphere spring, chemical reactions involving chlorine cause ozone in the southern polar region to be destroyed rapidly and severely. This depletion is known as the “ozone hole”.
  • EFFECT OF GLOBAL WARMING extreme heat drought, rising sea levels, higher-intensity tropical storms risk with our coastal property and resources, questionable livability of our cities in summer, Lower productivity of farms, forests, and fisheries. Changing climate conditions severe stress on forests
  • Changing climate conditions The ranges and abundance of plants and animals could change dramatically under changing climate conditions, and some of them are likely to be unable to adapt or migrate to new locations. Drought Flood severe stress on forests Possible severe stress on forests due to rapid and greater warming
  • serious human health impacts Increasing heat stress, Worsening air pollution, Declining water quality, Spread of infectious diseases Sunburn poor people suffer from sun stroke Sea level rise Sea level could rise by 3.5 to 34.6 inches between 1990 and 2100, making coastal groundwater saltier,endangering wetlands, and inundating valuable land and coastal communities
  • Agricultural shift and decline in crop yeild: AN INCREASE IN SURFACE TEMPERATURE BY 1 DEGREE CENTIGRADE MAY ADVERSELY AFFECT THE WORLD FOOD PRODUCTION BECAUSE OF AGRICULTURAL SHIFT AND LOWER CROP PRODUCTIVITY LOSS IN BIODIVERSITY:TEMPERATURE RANGE.THE PREDICTED WARMING IS MORE LIKELY TO SHIFT THE TEMPERTURE CHANGES.THE PLANTS AND ANIMALS FAILED TO ADJUST WITH MIGRATION AND ADAPTATION STRESSES AND LEADS TO LOSS IN BIODIVERSITY MOST PLANT AND ANIMAL SPECIES THRIVE AND GROW ON A SPECIFIC
  • GREEN HOUSE EFFECT A GREEN HOUSE IS A HOUSE WITH ROOF AND WALLS MADE OF TRANSPARENT GLASS.GREENHOUSE ARE CONSTRUCTED IN COLD REGIONS TO GROW PLANTS,VEGETABLES,AND FLOWERS IN THEM WHICH WOULD OTHERWISE NOT SURVIVE IN THE SEVERE COLD .
  • THE WORKING MECHANISM OF THE GREENHOUSE EFFECT THE EARTHS ATMOSPHERE PERMITS ABOUT 70 -75% OF RADIATION THAT HITS IT TO REACH THE EARTH’S SURFACE THE REST BEING REFLECTED BACK INTO SPACE BY CLOUDS,SNOW,AND ICE,THE RADIATION THAT REACHES THE EARTHS SURFACE HITS BACK AND RISES,THE RADIATION ABSORBED BY GREENHOUSE GASES IS PARTLY REFLECTED TO EARTHS SURFACE WHICH GETS HEATED UP.
  • Solar radiation at the frequencies of visible light largely passes through the atmosphere to warm the planetary surface, which then emits this energy at the lower frequencies of infrared thermal radiation. Infrared radiation is absorbed by greenhouse gases, which in turn re-radiate much of the energy to the surface and lower atmosphere. The mechanism is named after the effect of solar radiation passing through glass and warming a greenhouse, but the way it retains heat is fundamentally different as a greenhouse works by reducing airflow, isolating the warm air inside the structure so that heat is not lost by convection . If an ideal thermally conductive blackbody was the same distance from the Sun as the Earth is, it would have a temperature of about 5.3 °C. However, since the Earth reflects about 30% of the incoming sunlight, this idealized planet's effective temperature (the temperature of a blackbody that would emit the same amount of radiation) would be about −18 °C. The surface temperature of this hypothetical planet is 33 °C below Earth's actual surface temperature of approximately 14 °C. The mechanism that produces this difference between the actual surface temperature and the effective temperature is due to the atmosphere and is known as the greenhouse effect. GREEN HOUSE GASES Carbon dioxide Carbon dioxide (CO2) is one of those heat-trapping (greenhouse) gases that have increased significantly in atmospheric concentration since pre-industrial times and thus has raised the greatest concern. Methane Methane clathrate –compound containing large amounts of methane trapped in crystals of ice Nitrous oxide
  • Chlorofluoro-carbons(CFCs) Tetrafluromethan hexafluroethan Sulphur hexafluoride (SF6) Nitrogen trifluoride(NF3) PREVENTION OF GLOBAL WARMING • Save Electricity Whenever we use electricity, we help put greenhouse gases into the air. By turning off lights, the television, and the computer when you are through with them, you can help a lot. • Bike, Bus, and Walk You can save energy by sometimes taking the bus, riding a bike, or walking. • Talk to Your Family and Friends Talk with your family and friends about climate change. Let them know what you've learned. • Plant Trees Planting trees is fun and a great way to reduce greenhouse gases. Trees absorb carbon dioxide, a greenhouse gas, from the air.
  • • Recycle Recycle cans, bottles, plastic bags, and newspapers. When you recycle, you send less trash to the landfill and you help save natural resources, like trees, oil, and elements such as aluminum. • When You Buy, Buy Cool Stuff There are lots of ways we can improve the environment. One of the ways to reduce the amount of greenhouse gases that we put into the air is to buy products that don't use as much energy. By conserving energy, we help reduce climate change and make the Earth a better place. Some products – like certain cars and stereos – are made specially to save energy. INTERNATIONAL EFFORTS  FEBRUARY 12-23,1979: The first World Climate Conference was held in Geneva, Switzerland which concluded that anthropogenic carbon dioxide could have a long term adverse impact in the global climate.  NOVEMBER 1988: An International Panel On Climate Change(IPCC) was created by the United Nations Environment Programme(UNEP) and the World Meteorological organisation(WMO).  NOVEMBER 1-7,1990: The second World Conference was held in Geneva. 137 participating countries agreed to negotiate a world climate treaty.  MAY 9, 1992: United Nations Framework Convention on climate change(FCCC) was adopted at UN headquarters in New York, USA.
  • Montreal Protocol • Treaty to limit the production and use of CFCs (signed in 1987) • Signs of ozone depletion slowing down since then Kyoto Protocol • Treaty for developed countries to reduce emission of GHG • Note that many countries did not accede due to profits from industries and jobs for people CONCLUSION The world is temporarily affected by hot and cold climate periods. The industrial revolution which started in 1875 changed weather conditions. The world has a tendency to warm up. The industrialisation and the increasing population density are forcing governments to consume more fossil fuels and are affecting the artificial green house gases’ fluctuation. Even if the usage of fossil fuels could be prohibited, greenhouse gases extent in the atmosphere is going to remain for hundred years. The emission of greenhouse gases can’t be stopped, but some precautions must be taken.
  • We can’t avoid all the consequences of global warming, but committing ourselves to action today can help ensure our children and grandchildren inherit a healthy world full of opportunity…