What is Greenhouse Effect? What is Global Warming ?Green House effect is a naturally Global warming is the result of greenhouse gases trapping heat andoccurring phenomenon that is light from the sun in the earthsresponsible for heating of Earth’s atmosphere, which increases theSurface and atmosphere temperature, heating up the earth.
GreenhouseThis looks like a small glasshouse and is used forgrowing plants especially inwinter season. In agreenhouse the glass panellets the light in but does notallow heat to escape.Therefore the green housewarms up.
Causes : Greenhouse GasesThe primary greenhouse gasesinclude:Carbon dioxideMethaneNitrogen oxides, andFluorinated gasesGreenhouse gases reflectradiation from the Earth and stopit from being lost into space. Thiscauses the Earths temperature tobe higher than its normaltemperature.
A Flow ChartThe sunlight passes through the atmosphere and the earths surface absorbs it.The land heated by the sunlight emit back the heat as infrared rays The Green House Gases absorb this heat.Part of this heat is sent towards the ground, and it heats the earth’s surface and the lower atmosphere again.
Why is Greenhouse Effect Dangerous?Global WarmingEndangered SpeciesClimate Change
Global WarmingThe changes in theglobal temperature,brought about by thegreen house effectwhich is induced byenhanced greenhousegases into the air.Thiscan be termed asglobal warming.
Causes Of Global WarmingDeforestationClimate change is a severe outcome ofexcessive cutting down of trees. It resultsin an increase in the amount of carbon andother greenhouse gases in the environment.Greenhouse GasesGreenhouse gases are the gases which trap the solar radiations and trigger a rise inTemperature levels on the planet.
LandfillLandfills also produce greenhouse gases, both bymethane gas escaping, and by burning the waste tosave space on landfills.PollutionPollution is a serious threat to the environment and aculprit for global warming. It is one of the causes ofthe greenhouse effect, which traps in the suns heatand doesnt let it escape.
Consequences Of Global WarmingClimate changeChanges in wildlifeadaptations and cyclesIncrease in sea levelOn Health
The Consequences of Global Warming On Weather Patterns More Powerful and Dangerous Hurricanes Warmer water in the oceans pumps more energy into tropical storms, making them stronger and potentially more destructive. Drought and Wildfire Warmer temperatures could increase the probability of drought. Greater evaporation, particularly during summer and fall, could exacerbate drought conditions and increase the risk of wildfires. Intense Rainstorms Warmer temperatures increase the energy of the climatic system and can lead to heavier rainfall in some areas. Scientists project that climate change will increase the frequency of heavy rainstorms, putting many communities at risk for devastation from floods
The Consequences of Global Warming On WildlifeEcosystem Shifts and Species Die-OffIncreasing global temperatures are expectedto disrupt ecosystems, pushing to extinctionthose species that cannot adapt.The U. S. Geological Survey has predictedthat two-thirds of the worlds polar bear sub-populations will be extinct by mid-centurydue to melting of the Arctic ice cap.Approximately 20 to 30 percent of plantand animal species assessed so far are likelyto be at increased risk of extinction if globalaverage temperature increases by more than2.7 to 4.5 degrees Fahrenheit.
The Consequences of Global Warming On Glaciers and Sea LevelsMelting Glaciers, Early Ice ThawRising global temperatures will speed themelting of glaciers and ice caps and causeearly ice thaw on rivers and lakes.According to NASA, the polar ice cap is nowmelting at the alarming rate of nine percentper decade. Arctic ice thickness has decreased40 percent since the 1960s.
The Consequences of Global Warming On Health Hotter weather enables deadly mosquitoes to travel greater distances; carbon dioxide in the air aggravates asthma and allergies. Deadly Heat Waves More frequent and severe heat waves will result in a greater number of heat-related deaths. Bad Air, Allergy and Asthma Global warming could increase smog pollution in some areas and intensify pollen allergies and asthma. Infectious Disease and Food and Waterborne Illness Outbreaks Warming temperatures, alternating periods of drought and deluges, and ecosystem disruption have contributed to more widespread outbreaks of infections like malaria, dengue fever, tick-borne encephalitis, and diarrheal illnesses. Dangerous Weather Events A warmer atmosphere can hold -- and dump -- more moisture, contributing to more intense extreme weather events, which in turn put peoples lives at risk.
More ConsequencesSpecies becoming endangered or extinctHeavy draughtSpread of DiseaseRise in TidesChange in Weather patterns
El NinoEl Nino, an abnormal warming ofsurface ocean waters in theeastern tropical Pacific. El Ninohappens when the surfacepressure is high in the easterntropical Pacific it is low in thewestern tropical Pacific, and vice-versa.What Causes El Niño? Thewarming of the Pacific occurs as aresult of the weakening of tradewinds that normally blowwestward from South Americatoward Asia.The major impacts of El Niño aretemperature anomalies, changesin precipitation variability, floodsand droughts throughout theworld.El Niño events happen irregularlyand are hard to predict.
Remedies For Global WarmingAfforestationPlanting more trees and reducing timber cutsworldwide will help restore the imbalance.Follow the 3 R’sWe must follow on environmental policy of‘reduce, reuse, recycle’, i.e. promoting the reuseof anything.Use of fuel-efficient vehiclesFuel-efficient vehicles should be promoted asthese vehicles have lower emissions of harmfulgases.Eco- friendly technologiesPublic awareness campaignReduce the emission of green house gases
OzoneOzone is a gas that is present in the ozonelayer in the stratosphere of the Earth. There, itwill absorb almost all ultraviolet light which isharmful to many organisms.The ”ozone hole”The ”ozone hole” is an extraordinary lowozone concentration caused by the ozonelayer depletion at the South Pole during thearctic winter and spring period. The ”ozonehole” on satellite pictures it looks like a bighole. The ozone layer thickness in the”ozone hole” region is 100 – 150 DU (thestandard ozone layer thickness is 300 DU).[The Dobson unit (DU) is a unit of measurement ofatmospheric ozone columnar density, which isdominated by ozone in the stratospheric ozonelayer.]
Ozone Destruction Caused by Man-made Compounds (e.g. CFCs)
Impacts Of Ozone DepletionImpact on the BiosphereA. Microscopic algae called phytoplankton form the foundation of the undersea food chain. Less phytoplankton means less food for these animals to eat. It is estimated that a 16 % ozone depletion could result in further losses in Phytoplankton, which would lead to a loss of about 7 million tons of fish per year.B. Damage to CropsImpact on HumansA. UV-B damages DNA and Mutation may occur. It causes aging of skin, damage to skin cells and various types of skin cancersB. Cataracts In human eye, cornea absorbs UV-B radiation. "Snow blindness" is the result of overexposure to UVB and causes the inflammation of cornea. A cataract is a clouding that develops in the crystalline lens of the eye or in its envelopeC. Immune System Recent studies shows that some viruses can be activated by increased exposure to UV. This affects our Immune system.
How can we reduce Ozone Depletion? Montrel ProtocolAn International treaty that was signed atMontrel (Canada) in 1987 to control theemission of ozone depleting substancesReduce the emission of CFC’s .
Degradation By Improper Resource Utilisation And MaintenanceSoil erosionIt is a naturally occurring process on allland. The agents of soil erosion are waterand wind, each contributing a significantamount of soil loss each year.Soil erosion may be a slow process thatcontinues relatively unnoticed, or it mayoccur at an alarming rate causing seriousloss of topsoil.DesertificationDesertification is the persistentdegradation of dryland ecosystems byvariations in climate and humanactivities. It can be due to overgrazing,deforestation, agricultural activities, overexploitation of fuel wood andbiochemical activities.
Water logging and Soil SalinityIrrigation without proper drainage leads to water loggingin the soil.Water logging draws salt to the surface of the soil.The saltis then deposited as a thin crust on the land surface. Thisincreased salt content damages agriculture.Both water logging and salinization could be reduced if theefficiency of irrigation systems could be improved.
DeforestationDeforestation is the removal of a forest or standof trees where the land is thereafter converted toa non forested use.E.g. : conversion of forestland to farms, ranches,or urban use.It is done for timber, firewood, cattle ranching andfor several purposes.Slash and Burn agricultureIt is also called Jhum cultivation. The farmers cut down the trees of the forestand burn the plant remains.The ash is used as fertilizer and is used foragriculture and farming purposes.After cultivation the area is left for several yearsfor recovery.But when the land was not given enough time forrecovery, it lead to deforestation.
Consequences Enhanced CO2 concentration.Loss of biodiversityCauses soil erosionCauses desertificationDisturbs hydrologic cycleReforestationIt is the process of restoring a forest that onceexisted but was removed at some point of time inthe past.It can occur naturally.By Afforestation ( planting trees)
Case Study of People’s Participation in Conservation of ForestsAmrita Devi BishnoiShe died by trying to protect a tree from theking’s soldiers.Amrita Devi Bishnoi Wildlife Protection AwardFor those who dedicate their life for protectingwildlife.Chipko Movement (1974) A local women protected trees from axecontractors.Joint Forest Management (JFM) – 1980sGovt. of India introduced For working closelywith local communities for protecting andmanaging forests. In return for the services thecommunities get many benefit of various forestproducts. ( fruits , gum, rubber, medicine etc.)