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Urban and Territorial Geography
 

Urban and Territorial Geography

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    Urban and Territorial Geography Urban and Territorial Geography Presentation Transcript

    • Urban and Territorial Geography ing. Gianfranco Minniti & Milazzo Team contribution Bruxelles – 25/29 Jan 2011
    • Urbanization
      • Urban Rural
      • Why it’s impossible to distinguish
        • a continuum of settlements picture we cannot establish a dividing line between urban and rural
        • changing concept of “urban character ” picture the conditions evolve (example: we pass from fortified walls to satellite settlements born with the industrialization)
        • inadequacy of official definitions
      Bruxelles 25/29 Jan 2011 – Urban and Territorial Geography – ing. Gianfranco Minniti and Milazzo Team
      • How can we measure urbanization?
      • no measurement based on census data can be done without making mistakes
      • referring to population density may help to define the measurement of urbanization but does not solve the problem of separating urban from rural areas
      Urbanization Bruxelles 25/29 Jan 2011 – Urban and Territorial Geography – ing. Gianfranco Minniti and Milazzo Team
    • Urbanization
      • For Pierre George the only possible definition of the term “city” can be obtained from the only characteristic common to all forms of urban civilization.
      • The city is a socio-cultural organism
      • Community (individuals adhere to a mutual pact)
      • Culture (the community feels to belong to a place and gives it a typical environmental feature)
      Bruxelles 25/29 Jan 2011 – Urban and Territorial Geography – ing. Gianfranco Minniti and Milazzo Team
      • Behaviourism related to experience and behavioral patterns
      • Structural related to the activities of the population and the mutation of the economic structure
      • Demographic related to the different concentration of population
      Urbanization Sociological interpretation Economic interpretation Adaptability Lampard has identified three core concepts Bruxelles 25/29 Jan 2011 – Urban and Territorial Geography – ing. Gianfranco Minniti and Milazzo Team
    • Urbanization
      • Variables involved
      • Population
      • Environment
      • Technology
      • Social organization
      • Key stages
      • Primitive collective adaptation to the physical and social environment
      • Final stabilization of the primitive tendencies
      • Classical limitation of growth due to constraints and circumstances
      • Industrial decreased restrictions and increased concentration of population
      Bruxelles 25/29 Jan 2011 – Urban and Territorial Geography – ing. Gianfranco Minniti and Milazzo Team
    • Urbanization
      • Characteristic Urban Functions
      • Central functions in relation to adjacent areas
      • Transport functions carried out in major communication lines
      • Special functions related to noncontiguous areas
      Bruxelles 25/29 Jan 2011 – Urban and Territorial Geography – ing. Gianfranco Minniti and Milazzo Team
    • Urbanization > 80 % 60-80 % 40-60 % 20-40 % < 20 % Urbanization Rate Bruxelles 25/29 Jan 2011 – Urban and Territorial Geography – ing. Gianfranco Minniti and Milazzo Team
    • Counterurbanization and life cycle of the city
      • The counterurbanization should not be construed as an abandonment of the city for a return to a rural area and then as a symptom of a crisis in the city
      • Then it is more correct to speak of periurbanization in which we introduce the concept of urban decentralisation and spread of cities over the surrounding area
      Bruxelles 25/29 Jan 2011 – Urban and Territorial Geography – ing. Gianfranco Minniti and Milazzo Team
    • Counterurbanization and life cycle of the city
      • In the coming decades more than 85% of world population growth will materializes in the urban areas of underdeveloped or developing countries
      • The urban population growth continues being fed both by its natural increase and by the immigration from rural areas
      Bruxelles 25/29 Jan 2011 – Urban and Territorial Geography – ing. Gianfranco Minniti and Milazzo Team
    • Counterurbanization and life cycle of the city
      • Phenomenon of urban gigantism
      • The city ceases to be a territorial nuclear institution to become a more or less extended area:
      • Agglomeration
      • Conurbation
      • Metropolitan area
      • City region
      Bruxelles 25/29 Jan 2011 – Urban and Territorial Geography – ing. Gianfranco Minniti and Milazzo Team
    • Counterurbanization and life cycle of the city
      • Agglomeration
      • (Tokio, New York, Paris , London)
      • indicates an extended city that includes a large central municipality, along with surrounding suburbs and satellite towns
      • is a monocentric urban area
      • reliance connection is related not only to demography but also to facilities
      Bruxelles 25/29 Jan 2011 – Urban and Territorial Geography – ing. Gianfranco Minniti and Milazzo Team
    • Counterurbanization and life cycle of the city
      • Conurbation
      • (Genova, Gallarate-Busto Arsizio-Legnano , Ruhr Region)
      • is an urban area including a number of cities which, due to population growth and urban expansion, have physically merged to form one continuous built up area
      • is a form of polycentric urban area
      • is formed by the expansion of different units of more or less the same importance which gradually merge
      Bruxelles 25/29 Jan 2011 – Urban and Territorial Geography – ing. Gianfranco Minniti and Milazzo Team
    • Counterurbanization and life cycle of the city
      • Metropolitan area
      • (Roma, Milano , Napoli, Torino, Firenze, Bari)
      • is an area surrounding an urban area or agglomeration which depends on the central city in terms of facilities and is characterized by integration of functions and intensity of inner relations
      • essential elements are the presence of a transport network that links together the various areas of the urban metropolitan area and the presence of strong socio-economic interactions within the metropolitan area itself
      Bruxelles 25/29 Jan 2011 – Urban and Territorial Geography – ing. Gianfranco Minniti and Milazzo Team
    • Counterurbanization and life cycle of the city
      • City region
      • (Roma, Napoli, Milano , Barcelona, Liverpool)
      • indicates the hinterland of a city, an agglomeration, a conurbation, a metropolitan area
      • the majority of population residing in rural areas, suburbs and towns are employees who commute to a specific city
      Bruxelles 25/29 Jan 2011 – Urban and Territorial Geography – ing. Gianfranco Minniti and Milazzo Team
    • Counterurbanization and life cycle of the city a metropolitan area will develop over the urban centers; its growth involves the smaller towns
      • Urbanization
      • Suburbanization (Urban sprawl)
      • Disurbanization
      • Reurbanization
      cities attract population and activities taking them away from the surrounding areas   there is a large-scale decentralization with loss of population and development of activities beneficial to the outer areas the metropolitan areas recover population and activities Bruxelles 25/29 Jan 2011 – Urban and Territorial Geography – ing. Gianfranco Minniti and Milazzo Team
    • Counterurbanization and life cycle of the city  Urbanization Suburbanization (Urban sprawl) Disurbanization Reurbanization Bruxelles 25/29 Jan 2011 – Urban and Territorial Geography – ing. Gianfranco Minniti and Milazzo Team
    • Counterurbanization and life cycle of the city
      • Closing the loop does not involve a return to origins
      • The development of the city is irreversible
      • The next cycle will create something new that will not repeat in any way what happened earlier
      Bruxelles 25/29 Jan 2011 – Urban and Territorial Geography – ing. Gianfranco Minniti and Milazzo Team
    • Counterurbanization and life cycle of the city
      • These transformations naturally leads to consider the city as a continuous built-up environment, and realize the pattern of Spread out or reticular city or better Urban Territorial System
      • Several contiguous urban territorial systems, linked by functional preferential relations on an area of macro-regional dimension, generate the megalopolis
      • When stable relationships exist between these systems a network of cities develops
      • The network can be hierarchical (tree, star) or interconnected (networked)
      Bruxelles 25/29 Jan 2011 – Urban and Territorial Geography – ing. Gianfranco Minniti and Milazzo Team
    •   The contemporary city  
      • The urban sprawl cancels the social and morphological differences between cities and their environs
      • However, the city maintains its centrality for the presence of decision-making places for accessibility to higher level consumption, for the provision of rare services, as well as the presence of a historic, artistic and monumental centre
      Bruxelles 25/29 Jan 2011 – Urban and Territorial Geography – ing. Gianfranco Minniti and Milazzo Team
    • The contemporary city
      • The city rises to the role of service center
      • The places of residence are decentralized
      • Formation of the city (trade and business)
      • The sense of city as a community is distorted
      Increase in technical services
      • Increased barriers to communication
      • Traffic congestion
      • Reduced quality of life
      • Crime
      Bruxelles 25/29 Jan 2011 – Urban and Territorial Geography – ing. Gianfranco Minniti and Milazzo Team Mental Derangement
    • The contemporary city
      • The population density generally exceeds 100 residents per hectare of urbanized area
      • The population is engaged in activities of the secondary but especially of the tertiary and quaternary sectors
      • Large endowment of technological infrastructure and diversification of services
      • Presence of districts of historical origin or resulting from a spontaneous zoning or determined by the urban planning regulations
      Bruxelles 25/29 Jan 2011 – Urban and Territorial Geography – ing. Gianfranco Minniti and Milazzo Team
    • The contemporary city
      • In most developed countries a regression of secondary functions has occurred to the benefit of the tertiary sector
      • The advanced tertiary (business services) and quaternary sectors are typical of metropolises and reach the top levels in some world cities (New York, Tokjo, Londra, Parigi)
      • Metropolises are affected by social polarization around two types of population:
      • – The cosmopolitan one is very rich and bases its income on advanced tertiary and quaternary activities
      • – The low-income one , largely formed by immigrants from less developed countries, committed to low-paid or temporary jobs, in the less important service sector or even in the black economy 
      Bruxelles 25/29 Jan 2011 – Urban and Territorial Geography – ing. Gianfranco Minniti and Milazzo Team
    • The End Bruxelles 25/29 Jan 2011 – Urban and Territorial Geography – ing. Gianfranco Minniti and Milazzo Team
    • Parma
    • Lucca
    • Paris
    • Gallarate-Busto Arsizio-Legnano
    • Milano – Metropolitan Area
    • Milano – city-region
    • Milano – city-region