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Smart Cities and Measurable Cities - a technological perspective

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Speaker: ROBERTO MINERVA
Internet of Things is promising to be a set of technologies able to have a high impact on how people live, produce, modify and interact with the environment.
Such a transformation is driven by increasing technologies capabilities of sensors/actuators, communications, general purpose hardware, availability of software and programmability of devices.
The integration of so different technologies is a problem in itself and IoT is also trying to solve cogent issues of specific problem domains, such as e-health, transportation, manufacturing, and so on.
Smart cities stand on their own because the smartness requires integration of different technologies, processes and different administrative domains creating the needs to see the city as a large complex system. In addition to technological and problem domain specific challenges, there exist further challenges that fall in business, social and regulation realms. They can greatly impact the deployment and the success of IoT deployment within smart cities.
The speech aims is to provide a view on some major technologies challenges of IoT and to cover a few critical business and social issues that could hamper the large deployment of IoT systems within smart cities by providing some examples related to the creation of a future city that leverages its cultural heritage and specific needs as Venice.

Published in: Technology

Smart Cities and Measurable Cities - a technological perspective

  1. 1. Smart Cities and Measurable Cities – a technological perspective Roberto Minerva IEEE IoT Initiative Chairman, Telecom Italia Lab
  2. 2. Introduction What a (Smart) City is – What a Smart City is – How large a “Smart City” is – Networks of Smart Cities Before Smartness … comes Measurability – The Quest for Data – What, How, When to measure Technological Transformation Examples – Past – ICT technologies impact – Vertical vs Horizontal Applications Need for a Purpose and Integration 12/09/20162
  3. 3. What a City is 3 Cities are defined as a cluster of contiguous grid cells of 1 km² with a population density of at least 1 500 inhabitants per km². a functional urban area: which consists of a city and its commuting zone; the latter is defined in relation to commuting patterns, on the basis of those municipalities with at least 15 % of their employed residents working in a city (see Map 2); a greater city: in some cases, the urban centre stretches far beyond the administrative boundaries and so to better capture the entire centre, a ‘greater city’ has been defined (generally applicable only to capital cities and other relatively large cities); a city: the most basic level, a local administrative unit (LAU), defined by its urban centre that has a minimum population of 50 thousand inhabitants, consisting of a cluster of contiguous grid cells of 1 km² with a population density of at least 1 500 inhabitants per km²; subcity districts: a subdivision of the city according to population criteria (generally between a minimum of 5 thousand and a maximum of 40 thousand inhabitants); they should be defined for all capital cities and for non-capital cities with more than 250 thousand inhabitants. Source: Urban Europe — statistics on cities, towns and suburbs — introduction available at http://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/statistics- explained/index.php/Urban_Europe_%E2%80%94_statistics_on_cities,_towns_and_suburbs_%E2%80%94_introdu ction#Background_information_outlining_key_methodological_concepts_for_EU_statistics_on_territorial_typologies
  4. 4. What a Smart City is For policy purposes, the EU defines a smart city as ‘a place where traditional networks and services are made more efficient with the use of digital and telecommunication technologies, for the benefit of its inhabitants and businesses’. Smart cities are innovative, making traditional networks and services more efficient through the use of digital technologies, creating more inclusive, sustainable and connected cities for the benefit of inhabitants, public administrations and businesses. Smart cities have the potential to improve the quality of life, while ensuring the needs of present and future generations with respect to economic, social and environmental challenges. The concept of smart cities covers a broad range of areas such as: the economy, the environment, mobility, or governance. 4 Source: Urban Europe — statistics on cities, towns and suburbs — smart cities available at http://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/statistics- explained/index.php/Urban_Europe_%E2%80%94_statistics_on_cities,_towns _and_suburbs_%E2%80%94_smart_cities
  5. 5. What a Smart City is (2) 5 http://www.slideshare.net/srujanirulzzworld/smart-cities-54021321
  6. 6. How to understand a City: First Law of Geography 6 This is also expressed as an inverse Power Law: 1/d2 http://geohealthinnovations.org/wp- content/uploads/2013/01/toblerquote.png
  7. 7. Gravity Model … 7 Take Newton’s second law of motion – force is proportional to mass times acceleration as F12 ~ M 1 M 2 / (d 2)12 – and apply to Cities. What is the Mass of the City?  its population! What we get? The GRAVITATION MODEL Tij = k Pi Pj / (cij)2 Where k is a gravitational costant Cij is a measure of costs for traveling from i to j Excepts from http://www.spatialcomplexity.info/files/2011/10/Spatial-Complexity-Lecture-6.pdf
  8. 8. Rome was by far the largest City of the Empire (and in the world) All the economy was built around it. It was a kind of magnet, attracting business from every part of the empire The city developed huge logistics, transportation and water systems to support itself The City and Its Ecosystem – Ancient Rome 8 Do you want to see more ? http://www.slideshare.net/mfresnillo/roman-architecture-398210 Big City > 1 M inhabitants Good construction technologies A Large Transport System
  9. 9. Il Porto di Ostia Antica e la Citta Ideale 9 10/3/2015 L'autrice dell'opera di ricostruzione del porto antico è Viviana Meucci (Viviana Meucci: www.focemicina.it) La citta ideale
  10. 10. Turin – Milan < 50 min Milan – Rome < 3 hours 1/d2 is substituted by 1/t2 Cities have now comparable «Mass» And are well spread in the territory and are within acceptable parameter of connectedness But what is happening now between Cities ? 10 10/3/2015 Who is actracting whom?
  11. 11. From the Gravity to the Radiation Model 11 Simini, F., González, M. C., Maritan, A., & Barabási, A. L. (2012). A universal model for mobility and migration patterns. Nature, 484(7392), 96-100.Available at https://arxiv.org/ftp/arxiv/papers/1111/1111.0586.pdf
  12. 12. Networks of Smart Cities (and Teritories) 12 Each City has to be a hub for connectedness and services available over a large covered and interconnected territory http://chorally.com/learn-impact-smartcity-using-social-networks-analysis/
  13. 13. Actually a (Smart) City is a Complex System [interacting with other Complex Systems] Michael Batty in “Cities as Complex Systems: Scaling, Interactions, Networks, Dynamics and Urban Morphologies” available at http://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/15183/1/15183.pdf Luis Bettencourt: Cities as Complex Systems available at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JTZ6onbPjWk – Heterogeneity: diversity of people and Organizations – Interconnectivity: Everything is connected in Networks – Scaling: Cities of different sizes have different problems – Circular - Causality: Cause and Effect are mixed – Development: Cities change in open-ended ways 10/3/201513
  14. 14. The impact of technologies on the City: The Freedom Bridge example 14 Every day in Venice almost 200 K people are in the city, even if only less than 60Kof Venice live in here It is more than 140K transits: it is not only tourists, it is commuters: students and workers. A lot of people have left the city for the mainland. And the city has lost not only citizens, but also a part of its identity. How this happened ? Because of a Bridge!!! The Liberty Bridge has introduced a «Semiotic breakdown»: instead of bringing in modernization, it has brought to the «simbolization» of Venice (i.e., it is a postcard) http://www.linkiesta.it/blogs/cultura-rete-il-blog-di-venezia-2019-salone- europeo-della-cultura/l-alba-di-una-nuova-venezia- Ponte della Libertà, i.e., the Freedom Bridge Wikipedia: Ponte della Libertà is a road bridge connecting the historical center of the city of Venice to the mainland. Designed in 1932 by engineer Eugenio Miozzi, and opened by Benito Mussolini in 1933 as Ponte Littorio, the bridge is the only access for road vehicles to the historical center. It is built alongside the Venice Railroad Bridge, which was constructed in 1846 by Austrian, with two tracks each way, and is still in use.
  15. 15. The Quest For Data 15 https://datavisualization.ch/wp- content/uploads/2010/05/cph_wheel_04.png
  16. 16. How do we understand and reason about Cities ? 16 https://www.jstor.org/stable/2573850?seq=1# page_scan_tab_contents
  17. 17. How do we get Data ? Open Data 17
  18. 18. On Open Data It’s a first step … but we need other data to really «measure» a city A Measurable City is made out of thousands of information coming from Databases, or generated in Real-Time typically by Sensors that provide millions of data per second Data may be: – Events – Continuous flows of simple data – Update to existing data bases – … 18
  19. 19. How do we get the data then? 19 Sensors Internet of Things + BigData
  20. 20. What Internet of Things is Aggregator/Gateway Internet Service Service Service Events Aggregator/Gateway Events Interworking InterworkingComm. Comm. Usage Vertical Interoperability Sensors Sensors Commands Commands & Actuators & Actuators
  21. 21. Need for data – Seoul Garbage 21
  22. 22. Need for data – Counting people without infringing Privacy in Venice 22 The Future Centre in Venice worked at the monitoring in quasi real-time on the pedestrian flows in the city center. The goal was to measure the pedestrian traffic and keeping the anonymity and privacy of users. The project has been using low-cost sensors and devices (50-100 euros) with a small size (two cigarette packs) in order to acquire video flows of passing-by people and to process it locally without any leak or privacy violation. These devices will provide their Id, the time and the number of people that have been detected Ideally these objects could be scattered in many places of the city and freely transit their data (e.g., through twitter). In such a way, interested developers could crate new applications based on these data.. person-counter: simulation based on real data Is it a person or a shadow ?
  23. 23. Need for Data - SF Parking system 23 Managing in a dynamic ways the tariffs can change the traffic patterns!!! http://sfpark.org/how-it-works/
  24. 24. Some Issues 24 10/3/2015
  25. 25. Open Up Is Dangerous 25 https://www.theguardian.com/technology/2014/jun/27/new-york- taxi-details-anonymised-data-researchers-warn
  26. 26. Source: Beecham Research Smart City: Application Domains and Fragmentation!!! The Vertical vs. Horizontal platform challenge SMART CITY
  27. 27. What Internet of Things really is Service Service ServiceUsage Different Administrative Domains Networking Virtualization Data harmonization Data Distribution Networking Virtualization Data harmonization Data Distribution Interworking Networking Virtualization Data harmonization Data Distribution Networking Virtualization Data harmonization Data Distribution Interworking Horizontal Interoperability
  28. 28. The Open Factory – Immagine a Chemical plant close to a city – Who are the people more keen to check the security of the plant?  Citizen – Why don’t open up some VALUES to people ? Data is power! And nobody wants to share power 28
  29. 29. Social Sensor: but users didn’t want to share! 29 People have more and more the possibility to monitor important parameters of their home or of the surrounding environment. Taking as an example the web site http://bwired.nl/, each user could have a number of sensors monitoring and measuring parameters related to the functioning of the home or its surroundings (e.g., the local outside temperature, the humidity, or even some parameters related to pollution, noise and others). The service is intended for collecting the wealth of user generated data, to anonymize them, and to elaborate them for benefits of an entire community or for describing its own behavior (e.g., to calculate a medium or average value for some parameters and allow each citizen to compare his own set of parameters with the “average set of values” - for instance those that describe virtuous citizen behavior with respect to a proper power consumption footprint). The availability of these data could ignite a sort of game towards particularly good behaviors (power consumption is a good example). Another possible usage is related to the integration of user generated data in such a way to compare data and parameter directly collected by citizen versus official data provided by the public administration. One important case could be the one of control of local pollution vs. the official data monitored in particular area of big cities (http://www.scientificamerican.com/article.cfm?id=air- pollution-monitoring-sensor-asthma-black-carbon).
  30. 30. (Social) Cooperation is very important A fundamental aspect of all adaptive systems is cooperation. Natural selection favors cooperation, if the benefit of the altruistic act, b, divided by the cost, c, exceeds the average number of neighbors, k, which means b/c > k. It is necessary enforcing altruistic behaviors in IoT networks (social aspects on it) Hisashi Ohtsuki, “A simple rule for the evolution of cooperation on graphs and social networks”, Nature, Letters, Vol 441|25 May 2006|doi:10.1038/nature04605 The Socialization Challenge of IoT
  31. 31. Communications Technologies for IoT (some) Requirements associated with M2M and IoT: • low cost, • low power, • compact form factors, • rapid connection setup times, • massively scalable deployments See more at: http://www.wi-fi.org/beacon/craig-mathias/wi-fi-and-the-internet- of-things-much-more-than-you-think#sthash.rzxKXMiJ.dpuf M2M WSN http://d3uifzcxlzuvqz.cloudfront.net/images/stories/content/handbooks/iot-handbook/communication-iot1.jpg TSP/MSC Communication Networks and Services (ComNETS) Deploying IoT System is complex and expensive
  32. 32. IoT Data and … Identity of Things Things have Identities (and Owners) People have Identities and use Things Me “My” Smart Thing Identity Relation Functional Relations (events and commands) Personal Profiling Who, Where, When, What, Why, … Sensors Identity Relation Service Provider
  33. 33. Aggregating Data per Identity … “OUR”SmartThings Raw data to be transformed into Info Personal Profiling Functional Profiling Who, Where, When, What, Why, … + Events and commands * = Bigger DATA • Who is the Owner of all these Data ? • Who has the right to extract info ? 50 B Devices * (Average Aggregated Traffic of M2M Devices) ~ 2MB/day = ~ 88.81 petabytes /day
  34. 34. A long value chain opens up opportunities for many Actors Source: Nokia Siemens Networks «New» Markets Traditional Markets The Ecosystem Challenge If money is in the Platform, Many want to have a platform
  35. 35. But IoT is technically Complex API Always Best Connected Comm. Sensors Things T a g Tags Others App Ecosystem Platform Value Ecosystem Value Service/Apps Value Programmability Value Processing Storage Communications Comm Value Communication Engine (e.g., event based) Autonomics and Self Organization Brokering of Virtual Objects Data Management Objects Registry Objects management Extensive Objects Virtualization API Telco Building Blocks MobileDevicePlatform Native Operating System Middleware Functions Terminal to Cloud Relationship Terminal to Capillary Relationship API API
  36. 36. And there is the need to create a City platform … Open Accessible Secure Interoperable Rich of services for all people «involved» with the city With Shared goals and purposes (because a city is a complexsystem that we need to control for the good of everyone) 36
  37. 37. Stuff 37 10/3/2015
  38. 38. Where a Smart City ends ? 38 High Speed Trains have an impact on two far away cities Journey < 2.5 h
  39. 39. Tag the City 39 The service allows a person or a service provider to tag places. Tagging here means a virtual placemarker that describes a particular feature of a place and pinpoint to a description available in the WWW. Tags can be public (i.e., available to all) or private. Private tags are visible to a closed user group and sometimes they can be viewed only if the user is paying for a service or a single tag. Tags can be organized in such a way to define a trail in the city. The preferred device category for dealing with placemarkers are smartphones.
  40. 40. See What I See 40 An Object (being a person, a car, a truck or other mobile objects) is moving in a specific (e.g., an insecure area, a touristic city, or others). The “See what I see service” allows the object to be monitored by means of the cooperation of available objects along its route. Objects enforcing some level of tracking could be simple objects (e.g., proximity objects, RFID tags or sensors that just record that the object has just passed by) or more complex ones (such as cameras that can record the object passing by or even be able to accompany that object for a short period – movable cameras). If the route is known in advance, objects could be ready for the object passing by without the need to guess where the object is moving next. However for particularly casual routes, a more dynamic allocation of resources could be provided based on prediction of possible movements and pre- allocation of resources.

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